List of Rulers of China

  • Emperor Xuanzongs Flight to Shu
    41.138
  • Yamantaka Mandala with imperial portraits
    1992.54
  • The Kangxi Emperors Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Three: Jinan to Mount Tai
    1979.5
  • The Qianlong Emperors Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Suzhou
    1988.350
Xia Dynasty (unconfirmed)
(ca. 2100–1600 B.C.)
(ca. 1600–ca. 1050 B.C.)
(ca. 1050–256 B.C.)
Western Zhou
(ca. 1050–771 B.C.)
Eastern Zhou
(ca. 771–256 B.C.)
Spring and Autumn Period
(770–ca. 475 B.C.)
Warring States Period
(ca. 475–221 B.C.)
Qin Dynasty
(221–206 B.C.)
Qin Shihuangdi
221–210 B.C.
Er Shi
210–207 B.C.
(206 B.C.–220 A.D.)
Western (former) Han
(206 B.C.–9 A.D.)
Gaodi
206–195 B.C.
Huidi
195–188 B.C.
(Lu Hou)
(regent 188–180 B.C.)
Wendi
180–157 B.C.
Jingdi
157–141 B.C.
Wudi
141–87 B.C.
Zhaodi
87–74 B.C.
Xuandi
74–49 B.C.
Yuandi
49–33 B.C.
Chengdi
33–7 B.C.
Aidi
7–1 B.C.
Pingdi
1 B.C.–6 A.D.
Ruzi
7–9 A.D.
Wang Mang
9–23 A.D.
Eastern (later) Han
(25–220) A.D.
Guang Wudi
25–57 A.D.
Mingdi
57–75 A.D.
Zhangdi
75–88 A.D.
Hedi
88–106 A.D.
Shangdi
106 A.D.
Andi
106–125 A.D.
Shundi
125–144 A.D.
Chongdi
144–145 A.D.
Zhidi
145–146 A.D.
Huandi
146–168 A.D.
Lingdi
168–189 A.D.
Xiandi
189–220 A.D.
Six Dynasties
(220–589) A.D.
Three Kingdoms
(220–265) A.D.
Wei
Wendi
220–226 A.D.
Mingdi
227–239 A.D.
Shaodi
240–253 A.D.
Gao Gui Xiang Gong
254–260 A.D.
Yuandi
260–264 A.D.
Wu
Wudi
222–252 A.D.
Feidi
252–258 A.D.
Jingdi
258–264 A.D.
Modi
264–280 A.D.
Shu Han
Xuande
221–223 A.D.
Hou Zhu
223–263 A.D.
Western Jin Dynasty
(265–317) A.D.
Wudi
265–289 A.D.
Huidi
290–306 A.D.
Huaidi
307–312 A.D.
Mindi
313–316 A.D.
Sui Dynasty
(581–618)
Wendi
581–604
Yangdi
604–617
Gongdi
617–618
(618–906)
Gaozu
618–626
Taizong
626–650
Gaozong
649–683
Zhongzong
684, 705–710
Ruizong
684–690
Wu Zetian
690–705
Xuanzong (41.138)
712–756
Suzong
756–762
Daizong
762–779
Dezong
779–805
Shunzong
805
Xianzong
805–820
Muzong
820–824
Jingzong
824–827
Wenzong
826–840
Wuzong
840–846
Xuanzong
846–859
Yizong
859–873
Xizong
873–888
Zhaozong
888–904
Aidi (Zhaoxuan)
904–906
Five Dynasties
(907–960)
Later Liang
Taizu
907–910
Modi
911–923
Later Tang
Zhuangzong
923–926
Mingzong
926–934
Feidi
934–935
Later Jin
Gaozu
936–944
Chudi
944–947
Later Han
Gaozu
947–948
Yindi
948–951
Later Zhou
Taizu
951–954
Shizong
954–960
Liao Dynasty
(907–1125)
Song Dynasty
(960–1279)
(960–1127)
Taizu
960–976
Taizong
976–997
Zhenzong
998–1022
Renzong
1023–1063
Yingzong
1064–1067
Shenzong
Zhezong
1086–1100
Huizong
1101–1125
Qinzong
1126–1127
(1127–1279)
Gaozong
1127–1162
Xiaozong
1163–1189
Guangzong
1190–1194
Ningzong
1195–1224
Lizong
1225–1264
Duzong
1265–1274
Gongti
1275–1276
Duanzong
1276–1278
(Di Bing)
1278–1279
(1279–1368)
Shizu
1260–1294
Chengzong
1295–1307
Wuzong
1308–1311
Renzong
1312–1320
Yingzong
1321–1323
(Taidingdi)
1324–1328
Wenzong
1328–1332
Mingzong (1992.54)
1329
Ningzong
1332–1333
(Shundi)
1333–1368
(1368–1644)
Taizu [reign title: Hongwu]
r. 1368–1398
(Huidi [reign title: Jianwen])
r. 1399–1402
Chengzu [reign title: Yongle]
r. 1403–1424
Renzong [reign title: Hongxi]
r. 1425
Xuanzong [reign title: Xuande]
r. 1426–1435
Yingzong [reign title: Zhengtong]
r. 1436–1449
Daizong [reign title: Jingtai]
r. 1450–1456
Yingzong [reign title: Dienshun] (restored to throne)
r. 1457–1464
Xianzong [reign title: Chenghua]
r. 1465–1487
Xiaozong [reign title: Hongzhi]
r. 1488–1505
Wuzong [reign title: Zhengde]
r. 1506–1521
Shizong [reign title: Jiajing]
r. 1522–1566
Muzong [reign title: Longqing]
r. 1567–1572
Shenzong [reign title: Wanli]
r. 1573–1620
Guangzong [reign title: Taichang]
r. 1620
Hsizong [reign title: Dianqi]
r. 1621–1627
(Ssuzong [reign title: Chongzheng])
r. 1628–1644
(r. 1644–1911)
Shizu [reign title: Shunzhi]
r. 1644–1661
Shengzu [reign title: Kangxi] (1979.5)
r. 1662–1722
Shizong [reign title: Yungzheng]
r. 1723–1735
Gaozong [reign title: Qianlong] (1988.350)
r. 1736–1795
Renzong [reign title: Jiaqing]
r. 1796–1820
Xuanzong [reign title: Daoguang]
r. 1821–1850
Wenzong [reign title: Xianfeng]
r. 1851–1861
Muzong [reign title: Dongzhi]
r. 1862–1874
Tezong [reign title: Guangxu]
r. 1875–1908
(Pui [reign title: Xuantong])
r. 1909–1911

Department of Asian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2004

Citation

Department of Asian Art. “List of Rulers of China.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/chem/hd_chem.htm (October 2004)

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