Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of China

Thematic Essays

By Category

By Geographical Region & Time Period
By Department
1068–85

Xia Dynasty (unconfirmed)

(ca. 2100–1600 B.C.)

Shang Dynasty

(ca. 1600–ca. 1050 B.C.)

Zhou Dynasty

(ca. 1050–256 B.C.)

Western Zhou (ca. 1050–771 B.C.)
Eastern Zhou (ca. 771–256 B.C.)
Spring and Autumn Period (770–ca. 475 B.C.)
Warring States Period (ca. 475–221 B.C.)

Qin Dynasty

(221–206 B.C.)

Qin Shihuangdi 221–210 B.C.
Er Shi 210–207 B.C.

Han Dynasty

(206 B.C.–220 A.D.)

Western (Former) Han (206 B.C.–9 A.D.)
Gaodi 206–195 B.C.
Huidi 195–188 B.C.
(Lu Hou) (Regent 188–180 B.C.)
Wendi 180–157 B.C.
Jingdi 157–141 B.C.
Wudi 141–87 B.C.
Zhaodi 87–74 B.C.
Xuandi 74–49 B.C.
Yuandi 49–33 B.C.
Chengdi 33–7 B.C.
Aidi 7–1 B.C.
Pingdi 1 B.C.–6 A.D.
Ruzi 7–9
Wang Mang 9–23
Eastern (Later) Han (25–220)
Guang Wudi 25–57
Mingdi 57–75
Zhangdi 75–88
Hedi 88–106
Shangdi 106
Andi 106–125
Shundi 125–144
Chongdi 144–145
Zhidi 145–146
Huandi 146–168
Lingdi 168–189
Xiandi 189–220

Six Dynasties

(220–589)

Three Kingdoms (220–265)
WEI
Wendi 220–226
Mingdi 227–239
Shaodi 240–253
Gao Gui Xiang Gong 254–260
Yuandi 260–264
WU
Wudi 222–252
Feidi 252–258
Jingdi 258–264
Modi 264–280
SHU HAN
Xuande 221–223
Hou Zhu 23–263
Western Jin Dynasty (265–317)
Wudi 265–289
Huidi 290–306
Huaidi 307–312
Mindi 313–316
Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties 386–589

Sui Dynasty

(581–618)

Wendi 581–604
Yangdi 604–617
Gongdi 617–618

Tang Dynasty

(618–906)

Gaozu 618–626
Taizong 626–650
Gaozong 649–683
Zhongzong 684, 705–710
Ruizong 684–690
Wu Zetian 690–705
Xuanzong 712–756
Suzong 756–762
Daizong 762–779
Dezong 779–805
Shunzong 805
Xianzong 805–820
Muzong 820–824
Jingzong 824–827
Wenzong 826–840
Wuzong 840–846
Xuanzong 846–859
Yizong 859–873
Xizong 873–888
Zhaozong 888–904
Aidi (Zhaoxuan) 904–906

Five Dynasties

(907–960)

Later Liang
Taizu 907–910
Modi 911–923
Later Tang
Zhuangzong 923–926
Mingzong 926–934
Feidi 934–935
Later Jin
Gaozu 936–944
Chudi 944–947
Later Han
Gaozu 947–948
Yindi 948–951
Later Zhou
Taizu 951–954
Shizong 954–960

Liao Dynasty

(907–1125)

Song Dynasty

(960–1279)

Northern Song (960–1127)
Taizu 960–76
Taizong 976–97
Zhenzong 998–1022
Renzong 1023–63
Yingzong 1064–67
Shenzong
Zhezong 1086–1100
Huizong 1101–25
Qinzong 1126–27
Southern Song (1127–1279)
Gaozong 1127–62
Xiaozong 1163–89
Guangzong 1190–94
Ningzong 1195–1224
Lizong 1225–64
Duzong 1265–74
Gongti 1275–76
Duanzong 1276–78
(Di Bing) 1278–79

Yuan Dynasty

(1279–1368)

Shizu 1260–94
Chengzong 1295–1307
Wuzong 1308–11
Renzong 1312–20
Yingzong 1321–23
(Taidingdi) 1324–28
Wenzong 1328–32
Mingzong 1329
Ningzong 1332–33
(Shundi) 1333–68

Ming Dynasty

(1368–1644)

  Reign Title Reign Dates
Taizu Hongwu 1368–98
(Huidi) Jianwen 1399–1402
Chengzu Yongle 1403–24
Renzong Hongxi 1425
Xuanzong Xuande 1426–35
Yingzong Zhengtong 1436–49
Daizong Jingtai 1450–56
Yingzong * Dienshun 1457–64
Xianzong Chenghua 1465–87
Xiaozong Hongzhi 1488–1505
Wuzong Zhengde 1506–21
Shizong Jiajing 1522–66
Muzong Longqing 1567–72
Shenzong Wanli 1573–1620
Guangzong Taichang 1620
Hsizong Dianqi 1621–27
(Ssuzong) Chongzheng 1628–44
*Restored to throne

Qing Dynasty

(1644–1911)

  Reign Title Reign Dates
Shizu Shunzhi 1644–61
Shengzu Kangxi 1662–1722
Shizong Yungzheng 1723–35
Gaozong Qianlong 1736–95
Renzong Jiaqing 1796–1820
Xuanzong Daoguang 1821–50
Wenzong Xianfeng 1851–61
Muzong Dongzhi 1862–74
Tezong Guangxu 1875–1908
(Pui) Xuantong 1909–11
Department of Asian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art