List of Rulers of Ancient Egypt and Nubia

See works of art
  • Fragmentary face of King Khafre
    26.7.1392
  • Seated statue of King Menkaure
    37.6.1
  • King Sahure and a nome god
    18.2.4
  • Stela of King Intef II Wahankh
    13.182.3
  • Relief of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II and the Goddess Hathor
    07.230.2
  • Lintel of Amenemhat I and Deities
    08.200.5
  • Guardian Figure
    14.3.17
  • Face of Senwosret III
    26.7.1394
  • Head of Amenemhat III
    24.7.1
  • Head of Ahmose I
    2006.270
  • Head from a Statue of King Amenhotep I
    26.3.30a
  • Thutmose I and His Mother Seniseneb
    30.4.137
  • Ritual Statuette of Thutmose III
    1995.21
  • Seated Statue of Hatshepsut
    29.3.2
  • Head of Amenhotep II
    66.99.20
  • Arm Panel From a Ceremonial Chair of Thutmose IV
    30.8.45a-c
  • Amenhotep III in the Blue Crown
    56.138
  • Trial Piece with Relief of Head of Akhenaten
    66.99.40
  • Head of Tutankhamun
    50.6
  • Haremhab as a Scribe of the King
    23.10.1
  • Relief on the North Wall of a Chapel of Ramesses I
    11.155.3a
  • Statue of Seti I
    22.2.21
  • Shabti of Merneptah
    26.7.1451
  • Head of King Amenmesse Wearing the Blue Crown
    34.2.2
  • Shabti of Siptah
    14.6.179
  • Ramesses III and Prince Amenherkhepeshef before Hathor
    33.8.7
  • Artists sketch of Ramesses IV
    30.8.234
  • Gold stater
    52.127.4

Our knowledge of the succession of Egyptian kings is based on kinglists kept by the ancient Egyptians themselves. The most famous are the Palermo Stone, which covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the middle of Dynasty 5; the Abydos Kinglist, which Seti I had carved on his temple at Abydos; and the Turin Canon, a papyrus that covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the reign of Ramesses II. All are incomplete or fragmentary. We also rely on the History of Egypt written by Manetho in the third century B.C. A priest in the temple at Heliopolis, Manetho had access to many original sources and it was he who divided the kings into the thirty dynasties we use today.

It is to this structure of dynasties and listed kings that we now attempt to link an absolute chronology of dates in terms of our own calendrical system. The process is made difficult by the fragmentary condition of the kinglists and by differences in the calendrical years used at various times. Some astronomical observations from the ancient Egyptians have survived, allowing us to calculate absolute dates within a margin of error. Synchronisms with the other civilizations of the ancient world are also of limited use.

ca. 2649–2150 B.C.
Dynasty 3
ca. 2649–2575 B.C.
Zanakht
ca. 2649–2630 B.C.
Djoser
ca. 2630–2611 B.C.
Sekhemkhet
ca. 2611–2605 B.C.
Khaba
ca. 2605–2599 B.C.
Huni
ca. 2599–2575 B.C.
Dynasty 4
ca. 2575–2465 B.C.
Snefru
ca. 2575–2551 B.C.
Khufu
ca. 2551–2528 B.C.
Djedefre
ca. 2528–2520 B.C.
Khafre (26.7.1392)
ca. 2520–2494 B.C.
Nebka II
ca. 2494–2490 B.C.
Menkaure (37.6.1)
ca. 2490–2472 B.C.
Shepseskaf
ca. 2472–2467 B.C.
Thamphthis
ca. 2467–2465 B.C.
Dynasty 5
ca. 2465–2323 B.C.
Userkaf
ca. 2465–2458 B.C.
Sahure (18.2.4)
ca. 2458–2446 B.C.
Neferirkare
ca. 2446–2438 B.C.
Shepseskare
ca. 2438–2431 B.C.
Neferefre
ca. 2431–2420 B.C.
Niuserre
ca. 2420–2389 B.C.
Menkauhor
ca. 2389–2381 B.C.
Isesi
ca. 2381–2353 B.C.
Unis
ca. 2353–2323 B.C.
Dynasty 6
ca. 2323–2150 B.C.
Teti
ca. 2323–2291 B.C.
Userkare
ca. 2291–2289 B.C.
Pepi I
ca. 2289–2255 B.C.
Merenre I
ca. 2255–2246 B.C.
Pepi II
ca. 2246–2152 B.C.
Merenre II
ca. 2152–2152 B.C.
Netjerkare Siptah
ca. 2152–2150 B.C.
First Intermediate Period
ca. 2150–2030 B.C.
Dynasty 8–Dynasty 10
ca. 2150–2030 B.C.
Dynasty 11 (first half)
ca. 2124–2030 B.C.
Mentuhotep I
ca. 2124–2120 B.C.
Intef I
ca. 2120–2108 B.C.
Intef II (13.182.3)
ca. 2108–2059 B.C.
Intef III
ca. 2059–2051 B.C.
Mentuhotep II (07.230.2)
ca. 2051–2030 B.C.
ca. 2030–1640 B.C.
Dynasty 11 (second half)
ca. 2030–1981 B.C.
Mentuhotep II (cont.) (07.230.2)
ca. 2030–2000 B.C.
Mentuhotep III
ca. 2000–1988 B.C.
Qakare Intef
ca. 1985 B.C.
Sekhentibre
ca. 1985 B.C.
Menekhkare
ca. 1985 B.C.
Mentuhotep IV
ca. 1988–1981 B.C.
Dynasty 12
ca. 1981–1802 B.C.
Amenemhat I (08.200.5)
ca. 1981–1952 B.C.
Senwosret I
ca. 1961–1917 B.C.
Amenemhat II (14.3.17)
ca. 1919–1885 B.C.
Senwosret II
ca. 1887–1878 B.C.
Senwosret III (26.7.1394)
ca. 1878–1840 B.C.
Amenemhat III (24.7.1)
ca. 1859–1813 B.C.
Amenemhat IV
ca. 1814–1805 B.C.
Dynasty 13
ca. 1802–1640 B.C.
Second Intermediate Period
ca. 1640–1540 B.C.
Dynasty 14–Dynasty 16
ca. 1640–1635 B.C.
Dynasty 17
ca. 1635–1550 B.C.
Tao I
ca. 1560 B.C.
Tao II
ca. 1560 B.C.
Kamose
ca. 1552–1550 B.C.
ca. 1550–1070 B.C.
Dynasty 18
ca. 1550–1295 B.C.
Ahmose (2006.270)
ca. 1550–1525 B.C.
Amenhotep I (26.3.30a)
ca. 1525–1504 B.C.
Thutmose I (30.4.137)
ca. 1504–1492 B.C.
Thutmose II
ca. 1492–1479 B.C.
Thutmose III (1995.21)
ca. 1479–1425 B.C.
Hatshepsut (as regent)
ca. 1479–1473 B.C.
Hatshepsut (29.3.2)
ca. 1473–1458 B.C.
Amenhotep II (66.99.20)
ca. 1427–1400 B.C.
Thutmose IV (30.8.45a–c)
ca. 1400–1390 B.C.
Amenhotep III (56.138)
ca. 1390–1352 B.C.
Amenhotep IV
ca. 1353–1349 B.C.
Akhenaten (66.99.40)
ca. 1349–1336 B.C.
Neferneferuaton
ca. 1338–1336 B.C.
Smenkhkare
ca. 1336 B.C.
Tutankhamun (50.6)
ca. 1336–1327 B.C.
Aya
ca. 1327–1323 B.C.
Haremhab (23.10.1)
ca. 1323–1295 B.C.
Dynasty 19
ca. 1295–1186 B.C.
Ramesses I (11.155.3a)
ca. 1295–1294 B.C.
Seti I (22.2.21)
ca. 1294–1279 B.C.
Ramesses II
ca. 1279–1213 B.C.
Merneptah (26.7.1451)
ca. 1213–1203 B.C.
Amenmesse (34.2.2)
ca. 1203–1200 B.C.
Seti II
ca. 1200–1194 B.C.
Siptah (14.6.179)
ca. 1194–1188 B.C.
Tawosret
ca. 1188–1186 B.C.
Dynasty 20
ca. 1186–1070 B.C.
Sethnakht
ca. 1186–1184 B.C.
Ramesses III (33.8.7)
ca. 1184–1153 B.C.
Ramesses IV (30.8.234)
ca. 1153–1147 B.C.
Ramesses V
ca. 1147–1143 B.C.
Ramesses VI
ca. 1143–1136 B.C.
Ramesses VII
ca. 1136–1129 B.C.
Ramesses VIII
ca. 1129–1126 B.C.
Ramesses IX
ca. 1126–1108 B.C.
Ramesses X
ca. 1108–1099 B.C.
Ramesses XI
ca. 1099–1070 B.C.
Hight Priests (HP) of Amun
ca. 1080–1070 B.C.
HP Herihor
ca. 1080–1074 B.C.
HP Paiankh
ca. 1074–1070 B.C.
ca. 1070–713 B.C.
Dynasty 21
ca. 1070–945 B.C.
Smendes
ca. 1070–1044 B.C.
HP Painedjem I
ca. 1070–1032 B.C.
HP Masaharta
ca. 1054–1046 B.C.
HP Djedkhonsefankh
ca. 1046–1045 B.C.
HP Menkheperre
ca. 1045–992 B.C.
Amenemnisu
ca. 1044–1040 B.C.
Psusennes I
ca. 1040–992 B.C.
Amenemope
ca. 993–984 B.C.
HP Smendes
ca. 992–990 B.C.
HP Painedjem II
ca. 990–969 B.C.
Osochor
ca. 984–978 B.C.
Siamun
ca. 978–959 B.C.
HP Psusennes
ca. 969–959 B.C.
Psusennes II
ca. 959–945 B.C.
Dynasty 22 (Libyan)
ca. 945–712 B.C.
Sheshonq I
ca. 945–924 B.C.
Osorkon I
ca. 924–889 B.C.
Sheshonq II
ca. 890 B.C.
Takelot I
ca. 889–874 B.C.
Osorkon II
ca. 874–850 B.C.
Harsiese
ca. 865 B.C.
Takelot II
ca. 850–825 B.C.
Sheshonq III
ca. 825–773 B.C.
Pami
ca. 773–767 B.C.
Sheshonq V
ca. 767–730 B.C.
Osorkon IV
ca. 730–712 B.C.
Dynasty 23
ca. 818–713 B.C.
Pedubaste I
ca. 818–793 B.C.
Iuput I
ca. 800 B.C.
Sheshonq IV
ca. 793–787 B.C.
Osorkon III
ca. 787–759 B.C.
Takelot III
ca. 764–757 B.C.
Rudamun
ca. 757–754 B.C.
Iuput II
ca. 754–712 B.C.
Peftjaubast
ca. 740–725 B.C.
Namlot
ca. 740 B.C.
Thutemhat
ca. 720 B.C.
Dynasty 24
ca. 724–712 B.C.
Tefnakht
ca. 724–717 B.C.
Bakenrenef
ca. 717–712 B.C.
ca. 712–332 B.C.
Dynasty 25 (Nubian)
ca. 712–664 B.C.
Piye (establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt)
ca. 743–712 B.C.
Shabaqo (55.144.6)
ca. 712–698 B.C.
Shebitqo (65.45)
ca. 698–690 B.C.
Taharqo (loses control of Lower Egypt) (41.160.104)
ca. 690–664 B.C.
Tanutamani (loses control of Upper Egypt)
ca. 664–653 B.C.
Dynasty 26 (Saite)
688–252 B.C.
Nikauba
688–672 B.C.
Necho I
672–664 B.C.
Psamtik I (X.358)
664–610 B.C.
Necho II
610–595 B.C.
Psamtik II
595–589 B.C.
Apries (09.183.1a)
589–570 B.C.
Amasis (35.9.3)
570–526 B.C.
Psamtik III
526–525 B.C.
525–404 B.C.
Cambyses
525–522 B.C.
Darius I
521–486 B.C.
Xerxes I
486–466 B.C.
Artaxerxes I
465–424 B.C.
Darius II
424–404 B.C.
Dynasty 28
522–399 B.C.
Pedubaste III
522–520 B.C.
Psamtik IV
ca. 470 B.C.
Inaros
ca. 460 B.C.
Amyrtaios I
ca. 460 B.C.
Thannyros
ca. 445 B.C.
Pausiris
ca. 445 B.C.
Psamtik V
ca. 445 B.C.
Psamtik VI
ca. 400 B.C.
Amyrtaios II
404–399 B.C.
Dynasty 29
399–380 B.C.
Nepherites I
399–393 B.C.
Psammuthis
393 B.C.
Achoris
393–380 B.C.
Nepherites II
380 B.C.
Dynasty 30
380–343 B.C.
Nectanebo I
380–362 B.C.
Teos
365–360 B.C.
Nectanebo II (34.2.1)
360–343 B.C.
Persians
343–332 B.C.
Khabebesh
343–332 B.C.
Artaxerxes III Ochus
343–338 B.C.
Arses
338–336 B.C.
Darius III Codoman
335–332 B.C.
Macedonian Period
332–304 B.C.
332–323 B.C.
Philip Arrhidaeus
323–316 B.C.
Alexander IV
316–304 B.C.
Ptolemaic Period
304–30 B.C.
Ptolemy I Soter I
304–284 B.C.
Ptolemy II Philadelphos (12.187.31)
285–246 B.C.
Arsinoe II (20.2.21)
278–270 B.C.
Ptolemy III Euergetes I (66.99.134)
246–221 B.C.
Berenike II
246–221 B.C.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (66.99.166)
222–205 B.C.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
205–180 B.C.
Harwennefer
205–199 B.C.
Ankhwennefer
199–186 B.C.
Cleopatra I
194–176 B.C.
Ptolemy VI Philometor
180–145 B.C.
Cleopatra II
175–115 B.C.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
170–116 B.C.
Harsiese
ca. 130 B.C.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
145–144 B.C.
Cleopatra III
142–101 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Soter II
116–80 B.C.
Ptolemy X Alexander I
107–88 B.C.
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
80 B.C.
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
80–51 B.C.
Cleopatra IV Berenike III
ca. 79 B.C.
Berenike IV
58–55 B.C.
Ptolemy XIII
51–47 B.C.
Cleopatra VII
51–30 B.C.
Ptolemy XIV
47–44 B.C.
Ptolemy XV
44–30 B.C.
30 B.C.–364 A.D.
Augustus (26.7.1428)
30–14 B.C.
364–476 A.D.

Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2002

Citation

Department of Egyptian Art. “List of Rulers of Ancient Egypt and Nubia.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/phar/hd_phar.htm (October 2002)

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