The first millennium B.C. is a dynamic period in the development of South Asian culture and artistic traditions. In North India, imperial power is centered in the Magadha region, later the core of the Mauryan empire, which in the third century B.C. controls all but the southern tip of India. Two heterodox religions, Buddhism and Jainism, arise in critical response to the Sanskrit-based Brahmanic religious tradition. Great forms of art—rock-cut architecture and stupas—are constructed and dedicated to the Buddha, and often illustrate scenes from his life.