Arabia had been under Ottoman rule since the sixteenth century. The seeds of the modern Saudi state in central Arabia are sown in 1744. The local ruler, Muhammad ibn Sacud (16891765), joins forces with Islamic reformer and purist Muhammad ibn cAbd al-Wahhab (17031792) to create a new political entity. Throughout the nineteenth century, the fortunes of the Sacud family rise and fall several times as the Saudi rulers contend with Egypt, the Ottoman empire, and other Arabian families for control over the peninsula. cAbdul cAziz al-Sacud (ca. 18801953) founds the modern Saudi state; in 1926, he becomes king of the Hejaz and Najd and in 1932 these regions are unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile, Britain takes incremental control over many coastal areas in order to guarantee the safety of its boats carrying goods to India.
The Arabian Peninsula in the nineteenth century, however, remains an isolated and peripheral domain of the Ottoman empireone virtually untouched by the cultural and artistic developments at Istanbul. Ottoman influence is seen only in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, with the Ottoman restoration and enlargement of the Mosque of the Prophet and Haram Mosque. In the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf countries, Western aesthetics and modern art training do not appear until the second half of the twentieth century.
During the nineteenth century, Iraq, Palestine (renamed the state of Israel in 1948), Jordan, Syria, and Cyprus are all part of the Ottoman empire. European powers, primarily the British and French, move into the region as the Ottoman grip loosens. As a result, Arab culture yields increasingly to Western art forms and styles. Lebanon is among the first Arab countries to adopt Western art, which infiltrates the country through European missionaries, who open convents and schools and introduce lithography and printing. The missionaries in Lebanon are responsible for establishing the basis for a cultural, social, and political life centered on Christianity, which leads to a flowering of art and culture and the evolution of the Gothic school of religious painting. In the 1860s, artists such as Nicmatullah Allah al-Macadi and Daoud al-Corm (18521930) are dispatched to Europe to study. The first Arab reaction against the Ottoman government is witnessed in this region at the end of the nineteenth century. It is initiated as a literary movement by the American Presbyterian Mission, which produces new school textbooks in Arabic rather than Turkish.
In Syria, the art of wall painting, modeled on those found in Anatolia, continues well into the nineteenth century, and the art of Christian church icons, painting on glass and on textiles flourishes. Syria experiences the first European influences through Ottoman art. European-inspired Ottoman decorative styles in wall painting begin to appear in the houses of Aleppo and Damascus. Meanwhile, local artists look to Western art and attempt to fuse it with native forms. By the late nineteenth century, Syrian notables and statesmen commission Western-style portraits and landscapes for display in their private residences.
Jordan, on the other hand, assimilates Ottoman artistic influence only in architecture. Hardly any other traces of Western art exist in the country in the nineteenth century. The beginnings of a modern art movement are not seen in Jordan until the 1920s and '30s. In Iraq, modern Western art develops only at the end of the nineteenth century, after the reforms of the Ottoman wali (governor) Midhat Pasha (r. 186972). These include the creation of new cities, construction of new buildings, the opening of modern schools, printing presses, newspapers, hospitals, and the railway. The traditional arts of mural painting and painting on glass are practiced until the end of the nineteenth century. Oil painting is introduced into Iraq at the turn of the twentieth century by a group of officers who had received training at the military schools in Istanbul. They are responsible for launching a modern art movement in Iraq and paint much in the same manner as the Turkish soldier painters, paying close attention to naturalism, use of light and shade, and modeling. They also encourage students to paint from nature instead of copying from photographs.
Palestinian art remains impervious to the influences of Western art until 1948. During the nineteenth century, the traditional arts of embroidery, pottery, weaving, calligraphy, icon painting, wood engraving, stone carving, and mosaic represent the chief arts of Palestine. Meanwhile, throughout the region, the traditional arts persist alongside Western-inspired art during much of the nineteenth century.
18056The Wahhabis occupy the Hejaz, taking Mecca and Medina. To counter their growing power, the Ottomans dispatch their Egyptian governor, Muhammad cAli (17691849), to topple them. In a series of campaigns, he regains Mecca and Medina. By 1818, the Saudi state is crushed, and Egypt gains control of the Hejaz.
1812Shaikh Jabir I al-Sabah begins his rule in Kuwait in consultation with local merchants.
181920Raids on British ships carrying goods from India launched by pirates based along the Persian Gulf coast provoke retaliation. The British attack a number of ports in 1819, and the shaikhs capitulate the following year.
1822The publication of Johann Ludwig Burckhardt's description of the 2,000-year-old city of Petra in Jordan attracts many European sightseers. Archaeologists interested in verifying aspects of the Bible also flock to the region
183140Egyptian governor Muhammad cAli moves into Syria and Palestine, but is forced to retreat by the British army. The Russians and Austrians force him to withdraw and Palestine reverts back to the Ottoman empire. In Iraq, Mamluk rule ends in 1831.
1839The British occupy Aden as attacks on their trade ships have not abated. Raids continue until 1853, when another treaty between the Gulf coast shaikhs and the British is signed. The coastal states, now referred to as the Trucial Kingdoms, come under British protection and agree to a "perpetual maritime truce." Over the next several years, Britain expands its control to South Yemen and Qatar, and also signs treaties with Bahrain. Northern Yemen remains under the rule of the Zaydi imams.
1856At the death of Sultan Sacid al-Bu-Sacid of Oman, there is a struggle for succession and the British intervene. Zanzibar, on the East African coast, is made a separate principality in 1861, but is still under the control of Muscat and Oman until its independence is granted in 1964. The al-Bu-Sacid dynasty continues to rule in Muscat and Oman, but is under British protection.
186061Violent conflict between Druzes and Maronites provokes a massacre of Christians in Lebanon (then part of the Ottoman province of Syria); the French intervene militarily and demand that Lebanon be made an autonomous province with a Christian governor.
1861Bahrain becomes a British protectorate, and Britain assumes control over all foreign affairs and trade. Bahrain signs the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship with Britain.
1866Protestant missionaries in Beirut found the Syrian Protestant College (later named the American University), which fosters an Arabic literary revival among Syrian Christians there, including authors Butrus Bustani (18191883) and Nasif al-Yaziji (18001871).
1868At the request of Qatari nobles, the British negotiate the termination of the al-Khalifa claim to Qatar.
1870The first wave of Arab emigration to the United States begins, largely Christians from the Levant.
186972Reform-minded Midhat Pasha (18221883) is appointed governor of Baghdad and introduces military, administrative, and educational reforms.
1872The Ottomans reoccupy Qatar, ending the British Protectorate.
1880sThe linguistic and cultural societies established by the students of the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut become centers of Arab nationalism. The first revolutionary society is founded in 1880. These societies demand the adoption of Arabic as the official language, freedom of the press, and self-government for Syria and Lebanon.
1881French Jesuits open the Université Saint-Joseph in Beirut.
1882The earliest Zionist settlements are established by Russian Jews.
1896Theodor Herzl (18601904) publishes Der Judenstaat, which calls for an independent Jewish state, preferably in Palestine. The first Zionist Congress is held the following year.
1899Seeking protection from Ottoman encroachment, the al-Sabah dynasty of Kuwait agrees to the same treaty of protection that the Trucial Kingdoms have signed with Britain.