Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of the Islamic World

Thematic Essays

By Category

By Geographical Region & Time Period
By Department
Dynasty

Ruler

Muslim
dates A.H.

Christian
dates A.D.

Caliphs and Wazirs

Rashidun   11–40 632–61
  Abu Bakr 11–13 632–34
  cUmar ibn al-Khattab 13–23 634–44
  cUthman ibn cAffan 23–35 644–56
  cAli ibn Abi-Talib 35–40 656–61
Umayyad   41–132 661–750
  Mucawiya I 41–60 661–80
  Yazid I 60–64 680–83
  Mucawiya II 64 683–84
  Marwan I 64–65 684–85
  cAbd al-Malik 65–86 685–705
  al-Walid I 86–96 705–15
  Sulayman 96–99 715–17
  cUmar II 99–101 717–20
  Yazid II 101–5 720–24
  Hisham 105–25 724–43
  al-Walid II 125–26 743–44
  Yazid III 126 744
  Ibrahim 126 744
  Marwan II 127–32 744–50
cAbbasid—Iraq   132–656 750–1258
  al-Saffah 132–36 749–54
  al-Mansur 136–58 754–75
  al-Mahdi 158–69 775–85
  al-Hadi 169–70 785–86
  Harun al-Rashid 170–93 786–809
  al-Amin 193–98 809–13
  al-Ma'mun 198–218 813–33
  al-Muctasim 218–27 833–42
  al-Wathiq 227–32 842–47
  al-Mutawakkil 232–47 847–61
  al-Muntasir 247–48 861–62
  al-Mustacin 248–52 862–66
  al-Muctazz 252–55 866–69
  al-Muhtadi 255–56 869–70
  al-Muctamid 256–79 870–92
  al-Muctadid 279–89 892–902
  al-Muktafi 289–95 902–8
  al-Muqtadir 295–320 908–32
  al-Qahir 320–22 932–34
  al-Radi 322–29 934–40
  al-Muttaqi 329–333 940–44
  al-Mustakfi 333–34 944–46
  al-Mutic 334–63 946–74
  al-Ta'ic 363–81 974–91
  al-Qadir 381–422 991–1031
  al-Qa'im 422–67 1031–75
  al-Muqtadi 467–87 1075–94
  al-Mustazhir 487–512 1094–1118
  al-Mustarshid 512–29 1118–35
  al-Rashid 529–30 1135–36
  al-Muqtafi 530–55 1136–60
  al-Mustanjid 555–66 1160–70
  al-Mustadi' 566–75 1170–80
  al-Nasir 575–622 1180–1225
  al-Zahir 622–23 1225–26
  al-Mustansir 623–40 1226–42
  al-Mustacsim 640–56 1242–58
Barmakid ca. 165–221 ca. 781–835
  Barmak    
  Khalid d. 165 d. 781
  Yahya d. 190 d. 805
  Jacfar d. 187 d. 803
  al-Fadl d. 193 d. 808
  Musa d. 221 d. 835
  cImran ? ?
cAbbasid—Egypt   659–923 1261–1517
  al-Mustansir 659 1261
  al-Hakim I 660–701 1261–1302
  al-Mustakfi I 701–40 1302–40
  al-Wathiq I 740–41 1340–41
  al-Hakim II 741–53 1341–52
  al-Muctadid I 753–63 1352–62
  al-Mutawakkil I (1st reign) 763–79 1362–77
  al-Muctasim (1st reign) 779 1377
  al-Mutawakkil I (2nd reign) 779–85 1377–83
  al-Wathiq II 785–88 1383–85
  al-Muctasim (2nd reign) 788–91 1385–89
  al-Mutawakkil I (3rd reign) 791–808 1389–1406
  al-Mustacin 808–16 1406–14
  al-Muctadid II 816–45 1414–41
  al-Mustakfi II 845–55 1441–51
  al-Qa'im 855–59 1451–55
  al-Mustanjid 859–84 1455–79
  al-Mutawakkil II 884–903 1479–97
  al-Mustamsik (1st reign) 903–14 1497–1508
  al-Mutawakkil III (1st reign) 914–22 1508–16
  al-Mustamsik (2nd reign) 922–23 1516–17
  al-Mutawakkil III (3rd reign) 923 1517
Selected early Shici   35–ca. 264 656–ca. 878
  cAli d. 40 d. 661
  Hasan d. ca. 49 d. ca. 669
  Husayn d. 61 d. 680
  cAli Zayn al-cAbidin d. 94 d. 712
  Muhammad al-Baqir d. 113 d. 731
  Jacfar al-Sadiq d. 148 d. 765
  Musa al-Kazim d. 183 d. 799
  cAli al-Rida d. 203 d. 818
  Muhammad al-Jawad d. 220 d. 835
  cAli al-Hadi d. 254 d. 868
  Hasan al-cAskari d. 260 d. 874
  Muhammad al-Mantazar d. ca. 264 d. ca. 878

Egypt

Tulunid   254–92 868–905
  Ahmad ibn Tulun 254–70 868–84
  Khumarawayh 270–82 884–96
  Jaysh 282–83 896
  Harun 283–92 896–905
  Shayban 292 905
Ikhshidid   323–58 935–69
  Muhammad ibn Tughj 323–34 935–46
  Unujur 334–49 946–60
  cAli 349–55 960–66
  Kafur 355–57 966–68
  Ahmad 357–58 968–69
Fatimid   297–567 909–1171
  cUbaydullah al-Mahdi 297–322 909–34
  al-Qa'im 322–34 934–46
  al-Mansur 334–41 946–53
  al-Mucizz 341–65 953–75
  al-cAziz 365–86 975–96
  al-Hakim 386–411 996–1021
  al-Zahir 411–27 1021–36
  al-Mustansir 427–87 1036–94
  al-Mustacli 487–95 1094–1101
  al-Amir 495–524 1101–30
  Interregnum 524–25 1130–31
  al-Hafiz 525–44 1131–49
  al-Zafir 544–49 1149–54
  al-Fa'iz 549–55 1154–60
  al-cAdid 555–67 1160–71
Ayyubid—Egypt   564–650 1169–1252
  Salah al-Din (Saladin) 564–89 1169–93
  al-cAziz 589–95 1193–98
  al-Mansur 595–96 1198–1200
  al-cAdil I 596–615 1200–1218
  al-Kamil 615–35 1218–38
  al-cAdil II 635–37 1238–40
  al-Salih Ayyub 637–47 1240–49
  Turan Shah 647–48 1249–50
  al-Ashraf II 648–50 1250–52
Ayyubid—Damascus   582–658 1186–1260
  al-Afdal 582–92 1186–96
  al-cAdil I 592–615 1196–1218
  al-Mucazzam 615–24 1218–27
  al-Nasir Salah al-Din Da'ud 624–26 1227–29
  al-Ashraf 626–34 1229–37
  al-Salih Ismacil (1st reign) 634–35 1237–38
  al-Kamil 635 1238
  al-cAdil II 635–36 1238–39
  al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1st reign) 636–37 1239
  al-Salih Ismacil (2nd reign) 637–43 1239–45
  al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (2nd reign) 643–47 1245–49
  al-Mucazzam Turan Shah 647–48 1249–50
  al-Nasir Salah al-Din II 648–58 1250–60
Ayyubid—Aleppo   579–658 1183–1260
  al-cAdil I 579–82 1183–86
  al-Zahir Ghiyath al-Din 582–613 1186–1216
  al-cAziz Ghiyath al-Din 613–34 1216–37
  al-Nasir Salah al-Din II 634–58 1237–60
Ayyubid—Mayyafariqin, Sinjar   581–658 1185–1260
Ayyubid—Baclbakk   568–658 1172–1260
Ayyubid—Hama   574–732 1178–1332
Ayyubid—Hims   574–661 1178–1272
Ayyubid—Yemen   569–626 1174–1229
  al-Mucazzam Shams al-Din Turan Shah 569–77 1174–1181
  al-cAziz Zahir al-Din Tughtigin 577–93 1181–97
  Mucizz al-Din Ismacil 593–98 1197–1202
  al-Nasir Ayyub 598–611 1202–14
  al-Muzaffar Sulayman 611–12 1214–15
  al-Mascud Salah al-Din 612–26 1215–29
Ayyubid—Hisn Kayfa and Amid   629–9th century 1232–15th century
Mamluk—Bahri   648–792 1250–1390
  Shajar al-Durr 648 1250
  Aybak 648–55 1250–57
  cAli 655–57 1257–59
  Qutuz 657–58 1259–60
  Baybars I 658–76 1260–77
  Baraka Khan 676–78 1277–80
  Salamish 678 1280
  Qala'un 678–89 1280–90
  Khalil 689–93 1290–94
  al-Nasir Muhammad (1st reign) 693–94 1294–95
  Kitbugha 694–96 1295–97
  Lajin 696–98 1297–99
  al-Nasir Muhammad (2nd reign) 698–708 1299–1309
  Baybars II 708–9 1309
  al-Nasir Muhammad (3rd reign) 709–41 1309–40
  Abu Bakr 741–42 1340–41
  Kujuk 742–43 1341–42
  Ahmad 743 1342
  Ismacil 743–46 1342–45
  Shacban I 746–47 1345–46
  Hajji I 747–48 1346–47
  al-Nasir al-Hasan (1st reign) 748–52 1347–51
  Salih 752–55 1351–54
  al-Nasir al-Hasan (2nd reign) 755–62 1354–61
  al-Mansur Muhammad 762–64 1361–63
  Shacban II 764–78 1363–76
  al-Mansur cAli 778–83 1376–82
  al-Salih Hajji II 783–84 1382
  [Barquq 784–91 1382–89]
  Hajji II (2nd reign) 791 1389
Mamluk—Circassian (Burji)   784–922 1382–1517
  Barquq (1st reign) 784–91 1382–89
  [Hajji I 791–92 1389–90]
  Barquq (2nd reign) 792–801 1390–99
  Faraj (1st reign) 801–8 1399–1405
  al-Mansur cAbd al-cAziz 808 1405
  Faraj (2nd reign) 808–15 1405–12
  al-cAdil al-Mustacin 815 1412
  al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh 815–24 1412–21
  al-Muzaffar Ahmad 824 1421
  Tatar 824 1421
  al-Salih Muhammad 824–25 1421–22
  Barsbay 825–41 1422–37
  Yusuf 841–42 1437–38
  al-Zahir Jaqmaq 842–57 1438–53
  cUthman 857 1453
  Inal 857–65 1453–61
  al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad 865 1461
  Khushqadam 865–72 1461–67
  Bilbay 872 1467–68
  Timurbugha 872 1468
  al-Ashraf Qayitbay 872–901 1468–96
  al-Nasir Muhammad 901–3 1496–98
  Qansuh 903–5 1498–1500
  Janbalat 905–6 1500–1501
  al-cAdil Tuman Bay 906 1501
  Qansuh al-Ghawri 906–22 1501–17
  al-Ashraf Tuman Bay 922 1517
Muhammad cAli   1220–1372 1805–1953
  Muhammad cAli 1220–64 1805–48
  Ibrahim 1264 1848
  cAbbas I 1264–70 1848–54
  Sacid 1270–80 1854–63
  Ismacil 1280–96 1863–79
  Tawfiq 1296–1390 1879–92
  cAbbas II Hilmi 1309–33 1892–1914
  Husayn Kamil 1333–35 1914–17
  Ahmad Fu'ad I 1335–55 1917–36
  Faruq 1355–71 1936–52
  Fu'ad II 1371–72 1952–53

Arabian Peninsula

Ziyadid   204–409 819–1018
Yacfurid   247–387 861–997
Qaramita   281–5th century 894–11th century
Zuray'id   476–569 1083–1173
Najahid   412–551 1021–1156
Mahdid   554–569 1159–1173
Sulayhid (Yemen)   439–532 1047–1138
  cAli ibn Muhammad 439–59 1047–67
  al-Mukarram Ahmad 459–77 1067–84
  al-Mukarram cAli 477–84 1084–91
  al-Mansur Saba' 484–92 1091–99
  al-Sayyida Arwa 492–532 1099–1138
Hamdanid (Sanca')   492–569 1098–1173
Ayyubid: see above under Egypt, Ayyubid—Yemen    
Rasulid (Yemen)   626–858 1229–1454
  al-Mansur cUmar I 626–47 1229–50
  al-Muzaffar Yusuf I 647–94 1250–95
  al-Ashraf cUmar II 694–96 1295–96
  al-Mu'ayyad Da'ud 696–721 1296–1322
  al-Mujahid cAli 721–64 1322–63
  al-Afdal al-cAbbas 764–78 1363–77
  al-Ashraf Ismacil I 778–803 1377–1400
  al-Nasir Ahmad 803–27 1400–1424
  al-Mansur cAbdullah 827–30 1424–27
  al-Ashraf Ismacil II 830–31 1427–28
  al-Zahir Yahya 831–42 1428–39
  al-Ashraf Ismacil III 842–45 1439–42
  al-Muzaffar Yusuf II 845 1442
Tahirid (Yemen)   850–923 1446–1517
Rassid Zaydi Imams   246–680 860–1281
Qasimid Zaydi Imams   1000–1382 1592–1962
  al-Qasim al-Mansur 1000–1029 1592–1620
  Muhammad al-Mu'ayyad I 1029–54 1620–44
  Ismacil al-Mutawakkil 1054–87 1644–76
  Muhammad al-Mu'ayyad II 1087–92 1676–81
  Muhammad al-Hadi 1092–97 1681–86
  Muhammad al-Mahdi 1097–1128 1686–1716
  al-Qasim al-Mutawakkil 1128–39 1716–26
  al-Husayn al-Mansur (1st reign) 1139 1726
  Muhammad al-Hadi al-Majid 1139–40 1726–28
  al-Husayn al-Mansur (2nd reign) 1140–60 1728–47
  al-cAbbas al-Mahdi 1160–90 1747–76
  cAli al-Mansur (1st reign) 1190–1221 1776–1806
  Ahmad al-Mahdi 1221 1806
  cAli al-Mansur (2nd reign)    
  al-Qasim al-Mahdi 1257–61 1841–45
  Muhammad Yahya 1261–89 1845–72
  [Ottoman occupation 1289–1308 1872–90]
  Hamid al-Din Yahya 1308–22 1890–1904
  Yahya Mahmud al-Mutawakkil 1322–67 1904–48
  Sayf al-Islam Ahmad 1367–82 1948–62
  Muhammad Badr 1382 1962
al-Bu-Sacid   1154– 1741–
Rashidid   1248–1342 1832–1923
al-Sacud   1159– 1746–
  Muhammad ibn Sacud 1159–79 1746–65
  cAbd al-cAziz I 1179–1218 1765–1803
  Sacud ibn cAbd al-cAziz 1218–29 1803–14
  cAbdullah I ibn Sacud 1229–33 1814–18
  [Ottoman occupation 1233–38 1818–22]
  Turki 1238–49 1823–34
  Faysal I (1st reign) 1249–53 1834–37
  Khalid ibn Sacud 1253–57 1837–41
  cAbdullah II ibn Thunayyan 1257–59 1841–43
  Faysal I (2nd reign) 1259–82 1843–65
  cAbdullah III ibn Faysal (1st reign) 1282–87 1865–71
  Sacud ibn Faysal 1287–91 1871–74
  cAbdullah III ibn Faysal (2nd reign) 1291–1305 1874–87
  cAbd al-Rahman ibn Faysal (Rashid gov) 1305–8 1887–91
  Rashidi occupation of Riyadh 1308–19 1891–1902
  cAbd al-cAziz II 1319–73 1902–53
  Sacud 1373–84 1953–64
  Faysal II 1384–95 1964–75
  Khalid 1395–1402 1975–1982
  Fahd 1402– 1982–

Iraq and Syria (before the Seljuqs)

Hamdanid—Mosul   317–391 927–1000
  Nasir al-Dawla al-Hasan 317–58 929–69
  cUddat al-Dawla Abu Taghlib 358–79 969–89
  Ibrahim / al-Husayn (joint rule) 379–91 989–1000
Hamdanid—Aleppo 333–394 945–1004
  Sayf al-Dawla cAli I 333–56 945–67
  Sacd al-Dawla Sharif I 356–81 967–91
  Sacid al-Dawla Sacid 381–92 991–1002
  cAli II 392–94 1002–4
  Sharif II 394 1004
Mirdasid   414–472 1023–1079
cUqaylid   380–489 990–1096
Marwanid   372–478 983–1085
Mazyadid   350–545 961–1150
Inalid   490–579 1096–1183

Caucasus (before the Seljuqs)

Sajid   266–318 879–930
Musafirid (or Sallarid or Kangarid)   304–483 916–1090
Rawwadid   4th century–463 10th century–1071
Sharwan Shahs—First Dynasty   183–381 799–991
Sharwan Shahs—Second Dynasty   418–455 1027–1063
Sharwan Shahs—Fourth Dynasty   1180–1236 1766–1821
Shaddadid   340–571 951–1174
Dabuyid   40–142 660–760
Bawandid—Ka'usiya line   45–466 665–1074
Bawandid—Ispahbadiya line   466–606 1074–1210
Bawandid—Kinkhwariya line   635–750 1238–1349
Baduspanid   40–1006 665–1599
Zaydi cAlid (Tabaristan)   250–316 864–928

Iran (before the Seljuqs)

Tahirid   205–259 821–873
  Tahir I ibn al-Husayn 205–7 821–22
  Talha 207–13 822–28
  cAbdullah 213–30 828–45
  Tahir II 230–48 845–62
  Muhammad 248–59 862–73
Samanid   204–395 819–1005
  Ahmad I ibn Asad ibn Saman 204–50 819–64
  Nasr I ibn Ahmad 250–79 864–92
  Ismacil I ibn Ahmad 279–95 892–907
  Ahmad II ibn Ismacil 295–301 907–14
  al-Amir al-Sacid Nasr II 301–31 914–43
  al-Amir al-Hamid Nuh I 331–43 943–54
  al-Amir al-Mu'ayyad cAbd al-Malik I 343–50 954–61
  al-Amir al-Sadid Mansur I 350–65 961–76
  al-Amir al-Rida Nuh II 365–87 976–97
  Mansur II 387–89 997–99
  cAbd al-Malik II 389–90 999–1000
  Ismacil II al-Muntasir 390–95 1000–1005
Saffarid   253–ca. 900 867–ca. 1495
  Yacqub ibn Layth al-Saffar 253–65 867–79
  cAmr ibn Layth 265–88 879–901
  Tahir ibn Muhammad ibn cAmr 288–96 901–8
  Layth ibn cAli 296–98 908–10
  Muhammad ibn cAli 298 910
Buyid—Iraq   334–447 945–1055
  Mucizz al-Dawla Ahmad 334–56 945–67
  cIzz al-Dawla Bakhtiyar 356–67 967–78
  cAdud al-Dawla Fana-Khusraw 367–72 978–82
  Samsam al-Dawla Marzuban 372–76 983–87
  Sharaf al-Dawla Shirzil 376–79 987–89
  Baha' al-Dawla Firuz 379–403 989–1012
  Sultan al-Dawla 403–12 1012–21
  Musharrif al-Dawla 412–16 1021–25
  Jalal al-Dawla Shirzil 416–35 1025–44
  cImad al-Din al-Marzuban 435–40 1044–48
  al-Malik al-Rahim Khusraw-Firuz 440–47 1048–55
Buyid—Fars and Khuzistan   322–454 934–1062
  cImad al-Dawla cAli 322–38 934–49
  cAdud al-Dawla Fana-Khusraw 338–72 949–83
  Sharaf al-Dawla Shirzil 372–80 983–90
  Samsam al-Dawla Marzuban 380–88 990–98
  Baha' al-Dawla Firuz 388–403 998–1012
  Sultan al-Dawla 403–12 1012–21
  Musharrif al-Dawla Hasan 412–15 1021–24
  cImad al-Din Marzuban 415–40 1024–48
  al-Malik al-Rahim Khusraw-Firuz 440–47 1048–55
  Fulad-Sutun (Fars only) 447–54 1055–62
Buyid—Kirman   324–440 936–1048
  Mucizz al-Dawla Ahmad 324–38 936–49
  cAdud al-Dawla Fana-Khusraw 338–72 949–83
  Samsam al-Dawla Marzuban 372–88 983–98
  Baha' al-Dawla Firuz 388–403 998–1012
  Qawam al-Dawla 403–19 1012–28
  cImad al-Din Marzuban 419–40 1028–48
Buyid—Jibal   320–366 932–977
  cImad al-Dawla cAli 320–35 932–47
  Rukn al-Dawla Hasan 335–66 947–77
Buyid—Hamadan and Isfahan   366–419 977–1028
  Mu'ayyid al-Dawla Buya 366–73 977–83
  Fakhr al-Dawla cAli 373–87 983–97
  Shams al-Dawla 387–412 997–1021
  Sama' al-Dawla 412–ca. 419 1021–ca. 1028
Buyid—Rayy   366–420 977–1029
  Fakhr al-Dawla cAli 366–87 977–97
  Majd al-Dawla Rustam 387–420 997–1029
Buyid—cUman   363–388 974–998
Dulafid   210–284 825–898
Banijurid   233–237 848–948
Qarakhanid   382–607 992–1222
Khwarazmshah—Afrighid   ?–385 ?–995
Khwarazmshah—Ma'munids/td>   385–408 995–1017
Khwarazmshah—Governors   408–425 1017–1034
Khwarazmshah—Anushtigin line   470–624 1077–1231
  Anushtigin Gharcha'i ca. 470–90 ca. 1077–97
  [Turkish governor 490 1097]
  Qutb al-Din Muhammad 490–521 1097–1127
  cAla' al-Din Atsiz 521–51 1127–56
  Il-Arslan 551–67 1156–72
  cAla' al-Din Tekish 567 1172
  [Rival ruler 567–89 1172–93]
  cAla' al-Din Muhammad 596–617 1200–1220
  Jalal al-Din 617–28 1220–31
Ziyarid   315–483 927–1090
Hasanwayhid   348–405 959–1014
Ilyasid   320–357 932–968
Kakuyid   398–443 1008–1051

Seljuqs and Atabegs

Great Seljuq   429–552 1037–1157
  Rukn al-Dunya wa-l-Din Toghril I (Tughril) 429–55 1038–63
  cAdud al-Dawla Alp-Arslan 455–65 1063–72
  Jalal al-Dawla Malik Shah I 465–85 1072–92
  Nasir al-Din Mahmud I 485–87 1092–94
  Rukn al-Din Berk-yaruq (Barkiyaruq) 487–98 1094–1105
  Mucizz al-Din Malik Shah II 498 1105
  Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad I 498–511 1105–18
  Mucizz al-Din Sanjar 511–52 1118–57
Seljuq—Iraq   511–590 1117–1194
Seljuq—Syria   471–511 1078–1117
Seljuq—Kirman   433–583 1041–1187
Seljuq—Rum: see below under Asia Minor      
Burid   497–549 1104–1154
Zangid—Mosul   521–619 1127–1222
  cImad al-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur 521–41 1127–46
  Sayf al-Din Ghazi I 541–44 1146–49
  Qutb al-Din Mawdud 544–64 1149–69
  Sayf al-Din Ghazi II 564–72 1169–76
  cIzz al-Din Mascud I 572–89 1176–93
  Nur al-Din Arslan Shah I 589–607 1193–1211
  cIzz al-Din Mascud II 607–15 1211–18
  Nur al-Din Arslan Shah II 615–16 1218–19
  Nasir al-Din Mahmud 616–19 1219–22
Zangid—Aleppo   541–577 1146–1181
  Nur al-Din Mahmud ibn Zangi 541–69 1146–74
  Nur al-Din Ismacil 569–77 1174–81
Zangid—Sinjar   566–617 1170–1220
Zangid—Jazira   576–648 1180–1250
Begteginid   539–630 1145–1233
Artugid—Hisn Kayfa line   491–629 1098–1232
Artugid—Mardin line   497–811 1104–1408
Suqman Shahs   493–604 1100–1207
Eldeguzid   531–622 1136–1225
Salghurid   543–668 1148–1270
Fadlawayhid   448–718 1056–1318
Hazaraspid   550–827 1155–1424
Qutlugh Khans   619–706 1222–1306

Asia Minor and Turkey

Seljuq—Rum   470–707 1077–1307
  Sulayman ibn Qutlumush 470–79 1077–86
  [Interregnum 479–85 1086–92]
  Qilich Arslan I 485–500 1092–1107
  Malik Shah 500–510 1107–16
  Rukn al-Din Mascud I 510–51 1116–56
  cIzz al-Din Qilich Arslan II 551–88 1156–92
  Ghiyath al-Din Kay Khusraw I (1st reign) 588–92 1192–96
  Rukn al-Din Sulayman II 592–600 1196–1204
  cIzz al-Din Qilich Arslan III 600–601 1204
  Ghiyath al-Din Kay Khusraw I (2nd reign) 601–7 1204–10
  cIzz al-Din Kay Ka'us I 607–16 1210–19
  cAla' al-Din Kay Qubadh I 616–34 1219–37
  Ghiyath al-Din Kay Khusraw II 634–44 1237–46
  cIzz al-Din Kay Ka'us II 644–46 1246–48
  Kay Ka'us II / Rukn al-Din Qilich Arslan IV (joint rule) 646–47 1248–49
  Kay Ka'us II / Qilich Arslan IV / cAla' al-Din Kay Qubadh II (joint rule) 647–55 1249–57
  Qilich Arslan IV 655–63 1257–65
  Ghiyath al-Din Kay Khusraw III 663–81 1265–82
  Ghiyath al-Din Mascud II (1st reign) 681–83 1282–84
  cAla' al-Din Kay Qubadh III (1st reign) 683 1284
  Ghiyath al-Din Mascud II (2nd reign) 683–92 1284–93
  cAla' al-Din Kay Qubadh III (2nd reign) 692–93 1293–94
  Ghiyath al-Din Mascud II (3rd reign) 693–700 1294–1301
  cAla' al-Din Kay Qubadh III (3rd reign) 700–702 1301–3
  Ghiyath al-Din Mascud II (4th reign) 702–4 1303–5
  cAla' al-Din Kay Qubadh III (4th reign) 704–7 1305–7
  Ghiyath al-Din Mascud III 707 1307
Menqüchekid   464–ca. 650 1071–1252
Danishmandid   464–573 1071–1177
Isfendiyarid   690–866 1291–1461
Saru Khanid   700–813 1300–1410
Aydinid   708–829 1308–1425
Germiyandid   699–832 1300–1429
Hamidid   700–826 1239–1423
Menteshadid   700–829 1300–1426
Eretnaid   736–782 1335–1380
Ramadanid   780–819 1378–1416
Dhu-l-Qadrid   738–928 1337–1552
Karamanid   654–888 1256–1483
Ottoman   680–1342 1281–1924
  Ertugrul ca. 679–80 ca. 1280–81
  Osman 680–724 1281–1324
  Orhan 724–61 1324–60
  Murad I 761–91 1360–89
  Bayezid I 791–805 1389–1403
  [Interregnum 805–16 1403–13]
  Mehmet I Chelebi 816–24 1413–21
  Murad II (1st reign) 824–48 1421–44
  Mehmet II Fatih (1st reign) 848–50 1444–46
  Murad II (2nd reign) 850–55 1446–51
  Mehmet II Fatih (2nd reign) 855–86 1451–81
  Bayezid II 886–918 1481–1512
  Selim I Yavuz 918–26 1512–20
  Süleyman I Kanuni 926–74 1520–66
  Selim II 974–82 1566–74
  Murad III 982–1003 1575–95
  Mehmet III 1003–12 1595–1603
  Ahmed I 1012–26 1603–17
  Mustafa I (1st reign) 1026–27 1617–18
  Osman II 1027–31 1618–22
  Mustafa I (2nd reign) 1031–32 1622–23
  Murad IV 1032–49 1623–40
  Ibrahim 1049–58 1640–48
  Mehmet IV 1058–99 1648–87
  Süleyman II 1099–1102 1687–91
  Ahmed II 1102–6 1691–95
  Mustafa II 1106–15 1695–1703
  Ahmed III 1115–43 1703–30
  Mahmud I 1143–68 1730–54
  Osman III 1168–71 1754–57
  Mustafa III 1171–87 1757–74
  cAbdülhamid I 1187–1203 1774–89
  Selim III 1203–22 1789–1807
  Mustafa IV 1222–23 1807–8
  Mahmud II 1223–55 1808–39
  cAbdülmecid I 1255–77 1839–61
  cAbdüleziz 1277–93 1861–76
  Murad V 1293 1876
  cAbdülhamid II 1293–1327 1876–1909
  Mehmet V Reshad 1327–36 1909–18
  Mehmet VI 1336–41 1918–22
  cAbdülmecid II (caliph only) 1341–42 1922–24
Kšprülü Wazirs   1066–1122 1656–1710
  Mehmet Pasha 1066–72 1656–61
  Fazil Ahmed Pasha 1072–87 1661–76
  Kara Mustafa Pasha (by marriage) 1087–95 1676–83
  Fazil Mustafa Pasha 1101–2 1689–91
  Hüseyin Pasha 1109–14 1697–1702
  Nucman Pasha 1122 1710

Mongols

Great Mongols   603–1043 1206–1634
Ilkhanid   654–754 1256–1353
  Hülegü 654–63 1256–65
  Abaqa 663–80 1265–82
  Ahmad Tegüder 680–83 1282–84
  Arghun 683–90 1284–91
  Gaykhatu 690–94 1291–95
  Baydu 694 1295
  Mahmud Ghazan 694–703 1295–1304
  Muhammad Khudabanda Öljeytü (Uljaytu) 703–16 1304–17
  Abu Sacid 716–36 1317–35
  Arpa 736–37 1335–36
  Musa 737 1336
  Rival khans 736–54 1336–53
Golden Horde   621–760 1224–1359
White Horde   623–831 1226–1428
Chaghatayid/td>   624–771 1227–1370
Khans of Kazan   841–959 1438–1552
Khans of Kasimof   854–1089 1450–1678
Khans of Crimea   823–1197 1420–1783

Iran (after the Mongols)

Jalayirid   736–835 1336–1432
Muzaffarid   713–795 1314–1393
Injuid   703–758 1303–1357
Sarbadarid   758–781 1357–1379
Karts   643–791 1245–1389
Qara Quyunlu   782–873 1380–1468
Aq Quyunlu   780–914 1378–1508
Safavid   907–1145 1501–1732
  Ismacil I 907–30 1501–24
  Tahmasp I 930–84 1524–76
  Ismacil II 984–85 1576–78
  Muhammad Khudabanda 985–96 1578–88
  cAbbas I 996–1038 1587–1629
  Safi I 1038–52 1629–42
  cAbbas II 1052–77 1642–66
  Sulayman I (Safi II) 1077–1105 1666–94
  Husayn I 1105–35 1694–1722
  Tahmasp II 1135–45 1722–32
  cAbbas III 1145–63 1732–49
  Sulayman II 1163 1749–50
  Ismacil III 1163–66 1750–53
  Husayn II 1166–1200 1753–86
  Muhammad 1200 1786
Afsharid   1148–1210 1736–1795
  Nadir Shah (Tahmasp Quli Khan) 1148–60 1736–47
  cAdil Shah (cAli Quli Khan) 1160–61 1747–48
  Ibrahim 1161 1748
  Shah Rukh (in Khorasan) 1161–1210 1748–95
Zand   1163–1209 1750–1794
  Muhammad Karim Khan 1163–93 1750–79
  Abu-l-Fath / Muhammad cAli (joint rulers) 1193 1779
  Sadiq (in Shiraz) 1193–95 1779–81
  cAli Murad (in Isfahan) 1193–99 1779–85
  Jacfar 1199–1203 1785–89
  Lutf cAli 1203–9 1789–94
Qajar   1193–1342 1779–1924
  Agha Muhammad 1193–1212 1779–97
  Fath cAli Shah 1212–50 1797–1834
  Muhammad 1250–64 1834–48
  Nasir al-Din 1264–1313 1848–96
  Muzaffar al-Din 1313–24 1896–1907
  Muhammad cAli 1324–27 1907–9
  Ahmad 1327–42 1909–24

Transoxiana and Afghanistan

Timurid 771–912 1370–1507
  Timur 771–807 1370–1405
  Khalil 807–12 1405–9
  Shah Rukh 807–50 1405–47
  Ulugh Beg 850–53 1447–49
  cAbd al-Latif 853–54 1449–50
  cAbdullah 854–55 1450–51
  Abu Sacid 855–73 1451–69
  Ahmad 873–99 1469–94
  Mahmud ibn Abi Sacid 899–906 1494–1500
Shaybanid   905–1007 1500–1598
Janid   1009–1199 1559–1785
Mangit   1170–1339 1757–1920
Khans of Khiva   921–1290 1515–1872
Ghaznavid   366–582 977–1186
  Nasir al-Dawla Sebüktigin 366–87 977–97
  Ismacil 387–88 997–98
  Mahmud 388–421 998–1030
  Muhammad (1st reign) 421 1030–31
  Mascud I 421–32 1031–41
  Muhammad (2nd reign) 432 1041
  Shihab al-Dawla Mawdud 432–41 1041–50
  Mascud II 441 1050
  cAli 441 1050
  cAbd al-Rashid 441–44 1050–53
  Qawam al-Dawla Toghril (usurper) 444 1053
  Farrukhzad 444–51 1053–59
  Ibrahim 451–92 1059–99
  Mascud III 492–508 1099–1114
  Shirzad 508–9 1114–15
  Arslan Shah 509–12 1115–18
  Bahram Shah 512–47 1118–52
  Khusraw Shah 547–55 1152–60
  Khusraw Malik 555–82 1160–86
Ghurid   390–612 1000–1215

Department of Islamic Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art