Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

Arabian Peninsula, 1000–1400 A.D.

Arabian Peninsula, including the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina
Fatimid or cAbbasid rule, 969–1171
Ayyubid rule, 1171–1250
Mamluk rule, 1260–1517
Qarmatian dynasty, ca. 900–1200
Ziyadid dynasty, 819–1018
Najahid dynasty, 1022–1158
Sulayhid dynasty, 1047–1138
Zaydi Imams, 1137–1171
Ayyubid rule, 1173–1229
Rasulid sultanate, 1228–1454


Encompasses present-day Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen

From 1000 to 1400, the Arabian Peninsula is under fragmented rule, with Sunni and Shici dynasties competing for control, especially of Mecca and Medina, until the Sunni gain the upper hand in the second half of the period. The east-west trade and annual pilgrimage continue to be important. Art and architecture are influenced by examples set in Baghdad and Cairo.

    • 969–1171 The Shici Fatimid caliphate based in Cairo challenges the Sunni cAbbasid caliphate (750–1258) in Baghdad for control of the Arabian Peninsula and of the two Holy Cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina. The rivalry among the caliphates is played out among local dynasties that recognize their suzerainty. The Shici Ismacili movement, from which the Fatimids had emerged, is particularly active during this period.

    • ca. 1171–1250 Salah al-Din (Saladin), the Zengid general who founds the Ayyubid sultanate in Egypt and who later recovers Jerusalem from the Crusaders (1187), gains control over the Hejaz and Yemen (1173). As orthodox Sunnis, the Ayyubids resist Shici tendencies in the region and introduce higher institutions of learning (madrasas) for this purpose.

    • 1228–1454 The Rasulid sultanate rules in Yemen independently of the Ayyubids and their successors, the Mamluks (1250–1517). The period is a brilliant era of Islamic history in Yemen. Major architectural commissions embellish the Rasulid capital, Tacizz.

    • 1250/60–1517 Former slave soldiers under the Ayyubids, the Mamluks replace their overlords, rule Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, and control the two Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina in the Arabian Peninsula. Although fully autonomous, the Rasulids in Yemen acknowledge the Mamluks as potential overlords and regularly send emissaries bearing gifts to Cairo. In turn, the Mamluks, seeking to maintain a peaceful political and economic status quo, send emissaries carrying gifts to Yemen. The best Mamluk craftsmen—metalworkers and glassmakers, in particular—receive commissions for works specifically intended for the Rasulid sultans, whose emblem is the five-petalled rosette.

    • 1256 The Mosque of Medina is largely destroyed by a catastrophic fire.

    • 1258 The Mongols sack Baghdad and kill the last cAbbasid caliph to rule from this city, al-Muctasim (r. 1242–58). In the aftermath, the pilgrim caravan from Iraq loses its importance. The Hejaz and the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina come more and more under the control of Egypt.