List of Rulers of the Roman Empire

  • Portrait head of the Emperor Augustus
    07.286.115
  • Ring with intaglio portrait of Emperor Tiberius
    1994.230.7
  • Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula
    14.37
  • Bronze sestertius of Trajan
    08.170.120
  • Gold aureus of Hadrian
    99.35.177
  • Marble portrait of the emperor Antoninus Pius
    33.11.3
  • Relief Portrait of the emperor Lucius Verus
    13.227.1
  • Aureus of Septimius Severus, with a portrait of Julia Domna
    99.35.218
  • Portrait head of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (called Caracalla)
    40.11.1a
  • Bust of Emperor Severus Alexander
    2011.87
  • Bronze statue of the emperor Trebonianus Gallus
    05.30
  • Portrait head of Emperor Constantine
    26.229
  • Head of Emperor Constans (r. 337-350)
    67.107
  • Solidus of Constantius II (Sole Emperor, 350-361)
    04.35.18
27 B.C.–68 A.D.
Augustus (07.286.115)
27 B.C.–14 A.D.
Tiberius (1994.230.7)
14–37 A.D.
Gaius Germanicus (Caligula) (14.37)
37–41 A.D.
Claudius
41–54 A.D.
Nero
54–68 A.D.
Galba
68–69 A.D.
Otho
69 A.D.
Vitellius
69 A.D.
69–96 A.D.
Vespasian
69–79 A.D.
Titus
79–81 A.D.
Domitian
81–96 A.D.
The Five Good Emperors
96–180 A.D.
Nerva
96–98 A.D.
Trajan (08.170.120)
98–117 A.D.
Hadrian (99.35.177)
117–138 A.D.
Antoninus Pius (33.11.3)
138–161 A.D.
Marcus Aurelius
161–180 A.D.
138–193 A.D.
Antoninus Pius (33.11.3)
138–161 A.D.
Marcus Aurelius
161–180 A.D.
with Lucius Verus (13.227.1)
161–169 A.D.
Commodus
177–192 A.D.
with Marcus Aurelius
177–180 A.D.
Pertinax
193 A.D.
Didius Julianus
193 A.D.
Pescennius Niger
194 A.D.
193–235 A.D.
Septimius (99.35.218)
193–211 A.D.
Caracalla (40.11.1a)
211–217 A.D.
with Geta
211–212 A.D.
Macrinus
217–218 A.D.
Diadumenianus
218 A.D.
Elagabalus
218–222 A.D.
Alexander Severus (2011.87)
222–235 A.D.
The Soldier Emperors
235–284 A.D.
Maximinus I
235–238 A.D.
Gordian I and II (in Africa)
238 A.D.
Balbinus and Pupienus (in Italy)
238 A.D.
Gordian III
238–244 A.D.
Philip the Arab
244–249 A.D.
Trajan Decius
249–251 A.D.
Trebonianus Gallus (with Volusian) (05.30)
251–253 A.D.
Aemilianus
253 A.D.
Gallienus
253–268 A.D.
with Valerian
253–260 A.D.
Gallic Empire (West)
following the death of Valerian
Postumus
260–269 A.D.
Laelian
268 A.D.
Marius
268 A.D.
Victorinus
268–270 A.D.
Domitianus
271 A.D.
Tetricus I and II
270–274 A.D.
Odenathus
c. 250–267 A.D.
Vaballathus (with Zenobia)
267–272 A.D.
The Soldier Emperors (continued)
Claudius II Gothicus
268–270 A.D.
Quintillus
270 A.D.
Aurelian
270–275 A.D.
Tacitus
275–276 A.D.
Florianus
276 A.D.
Probus
276–282 A.D.
Carus
282–283 A.D.
Carinus
283–284 A.D.
Numerianus
283–284 A.D.
Diocletian (and Tetrarchy)
284–305 A.D.
Western Roman Empire
Maximianus
287–305 A.D.
Constantius I
305–306 A.D.
Severus II
306–307 A.D.
Constantine I (26.229)
307–337 A.D.
Eastern Roman Empire
Diocletian
284–305 A.D.
Galerius
305–311 A.D.
Maxentius (Italy)
306–312 A.D.
Maximinus Daia
309–313 A.D.
Licinius
308–324 A.D.
Constantine Dynasty
337–363 A.D.
empire reunited by Constantine's defeat of Licinius
Constantine II
337–340 A.D.
Constans (67.107)
337–350 A.D.
Constantius II (04.35.18)
337–361 A.D.
Magnentius
350–353 A.D.
Julian
361–363 A.D.
Jovian
363–364 A.D.
Western Roman Empire (after death of Jovian)
Valentinian
364–375 A.D.
Gratian
375–383 A.D.
Valentinian II
375–392 A.D.
Eugenius
392–394 A.D.
Honorius
395–423 A.D.
Constantinius III
421 A.D.
John
423–425 A.D.
Valentinian III
425–455 A.D.
Petronius Maximus
455 A.D.
Avitus
455–456 A.D.
Majorian
457–461 A.D.
Severus III
461–465 A.D.
Anthemius
467–472 A.D.
Olybrius
472 A.D.
Glycerius
473–474 A.D.
Julius Nepos
474–475 A.D.
Romulus Augustulus
475–476 A.D.
Eastern Roman Empire (after death of Jovian)
Valens
364–378 A.D.
Theodosius I
379–395 A.D.
Arcadius
395–408 A.D.
Theodosius II
408–450 A.D.
Marcian
450–457 A.D.
Leo
457–474 A.D.
Zeno
474–491 A.D.
Anastasius
491–518 A.D.

Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2004

Citation

Department of Greek and Roman Art. “List of Rulers of the Roman Empire.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roru/hd_roru.htm (October 2004)

Related