The Development and Spread of Calligraphic Scripts

The first calligraphic script to gain prominence in Qur'ans and on architecture and portable works of art was kufic, which features angular letters, horizontal format, and thick extended strokes. Eventually, variations of kufic emerged. Examples range from letters intertwined with floral ornament (floriated kufic) to letters that appear to be woven into knots (knotted/plaited kufic) (fig. 11).

Kufic script variations

Fig. 11. Kufic script variations, all reading bismillah

Lamp stand with chevron pattern

The lesson plan related to Arabic Script and the Art of Calligraphy features a sixteenth-century lamp stand from Iran.