Personifications, like this one of Rome, were creations of the classical world that remained popular in Byzantium.
This work was part of a hoard found at the base of the Capitoline Hill, the center of commercial activity in Rome even after the transfer of the imperial capital to Constantinople. The jewelry was probably hidden during the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410 or the Vandals in 455.
[ Arthur Sambon, Paris (sold 1911 or 1912)]; J. Pierpont Morgan, London and New York (1911/12–1913); Estate of J. Pierpont Morgan(1913–1917)
Romans & Barbarians. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1976. no. 205, pp. 182–83.
Weitzmann, Kurt, ed. Age of Spirituality: Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979. no. 282, pp. 308-309.
Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Coins and Costume in Late Antiquity. Washington, DC, 1993. pp. 20, 58, footnote 68.
Brown, Katharine R. Migration Art, A.D. 300-800. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995. no. 19, pp. 24-25.
Brown, Katharine R., Dafydd Kidd, and Charles T. Little, ed. From Attila to Charlemagne: Arts of the Early Medieval Period in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. p. 63, 343, fig. 7.5, 7.6.
McClanan, Anne. Representations of Early Byzantine Empresses: Image and Empire. The New Middle Ages. New York, 2002. pp. 52, 57, fig. 2.18.
Kalavrezou, Ioli. Byzantine Women and their World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Art Museums, 2003. pp. 251-252, ill. p. 251.