Under Alexander the Great (336–323 B.C.), the Greeks put an end to Achaemenid power, and an era of strong Greek influence in the ancient Near East began. Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis fell to the armies of Alexander in 331 B.C., and his power extended as far as India. But in 323 B.C., while still a young man, Alexander became ill and died in Babylon. Deprived of his leadership, the empire was split by a struggle for power among his successors, the Seleucid kings.
The Parthian dynasty, originally from the north and east of Iran, established supremacy in the Near East in the second century B.C., after the disintegration of Alexander's empire and collapse of his successors. Ctesiphon, the capital, was situated on the bank of the Tigris River opposite the earlier Greek settlement of Seleucia. The border between the western empire of Rome and the Parthian lands in the east ran between the central and northern Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Hatra in northern Iraq, southwest of modern Mosul, was a major trading city heavily fortified against Roman attack and populated by a mixture of peoples, Parthians as well as Arabs and the inhabitants of Syria.
Once part of a decorated doorway in the north hall of the so-called Main Palace at Hatra, this lintel stone was originally positioned so that the carved surface faced the floor. The two fantastic creatures have feline bodies, long ears, wings, and crest feathers—a combination of animal and bird elements typical of Near Eastern lion-griffins. Between the two figures is a vase containing a stylized lotus leaf and two tendrils. The naturalistic modeling of the creatures' bodies and the form of the central vase reflect Roman influence. However, the absolute symmetry of the composition, the pronounced simplification of the plant forms, and the lion-griffin motif are all characteristic of the Near East.
#7028. Door lintel with lion-griffins and vase with lotus
After 1911, art market, Baghdad (Dimand 1933, p. 79) and London; acquired by the Museum in 1932, purchased from Sydney Burney, London.
Andrae, Walter. 1912. Hatra nach Aufnahmen von Mitgliedern der Assur Expedition der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft. Vol. II. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, p. 149, fig. 251, pl. XII.
Dimand, Maurice S. 1933. "Parthian and Sasanian Art." Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 28 (4), p. 79, fig. 1.
Dimand, Maurice S. 1944. A Handbook of Muhammadan Art, New York : The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 13.
Homès-Fredericq, Denyse. 1963. Hatra et ses sculptures parthes: étude stylistique et iconographique. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologische Instituut in het Nabije Oosten, p. 58, no. 46.
Crawford, V. et al. 1966. Guide to the Ancient Near East Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 34, fig. 53.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1972. Guide to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 53, fig. 22.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1983. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, edited by Kathleen Howard. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 56, fig. 28.
Metzger, Francesca Dorna and Monica Girardi. 2013. "Griffins in the Architectural Decoration at Hatra," in: A. Peruzzetto, F.D. Metzger, and L. Dirven (eds.). Animals, Gods and Men from East to West: Papers on archaeology and history in honour of Roberta Venco Ricciardi (BAR International Series 2516), pp. 169-179, fig. 1.
Ravilious Ella. 2015. "Gertrude Bell and Hatra, Iraq." www.vam.ac.uk/blog/factory-presents/gertrude-bell-and-hatra-iraq (blog published on June 25, 2015).
Newcastle University. 2015. "Gertrude Bell Archive." www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk/photo_details.php?photo_id=5550 (last updated 21 May 2015).
Newcastle University. 2015. "Gertrude Bell Archive." www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk/photo_details.php?photo_id=5551 (last updated 21 May 2015).