Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



  • Nushirvan Receives Mihras, Envoy of Caesar: Folio from the Shahnama (Book of Kings), Ilkhanid period (1206–1353), ca. 1300–1330
    Iran or Iraq
    Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper; text block: 6 1/8 x 4 15/16 in. (15.6 x 12.5 cm), painting: 2 3/16 x 4 7/8 in. (5.5 x 12.4 cm)
    Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1934 (34.24.3)

    The Byzantine emperor, concerned about the possibility of an invasion by the mighty Iranian forces, sent an embassy under his general Mihras carrying a letter of conciliation and lavish gifts, and a peaceful agreement was eventually concluded. In the miniature, the letter—which assumes a special significance in this context, since the Ilkhanid rulers and the Catholic pope exchanged similar missives—and the gifts in the form of gold cups are shown at the foot of the shah's throne. Mihras is represented as a type of Crusader, something between a warrior and a priest, wearing a helmet and holding a cross.

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  • Nushirvan Receives Mihras, Envoy of Caesar: Folio from the Shahnama (Book of Kings), Ilkhanid period (1206–1353), ca. 1300–1330
    Iran or Iraq
    Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper; text block: 6 1/8 x 4 15/16 in. (15.6 x 12.5 cm), painting: 2 3/16 x 4 7/8 in. (5.5 x 12.4 cm)
    Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1934 (34.24.3)

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