Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



  • Prayer manuscript, 19th century
    Possibly Morocco
    Blackish brown ink, and red, yellow, and blue color on paper; written area per page approx. 9.5 x 5.9 cm
    Bequest of Adrienne Minassian, 1994 (1997.301a,b)

    The production of these folios from a prayer manuscript can be dated and located by the form of calligraphy, ornament, and palette. The script, maghribi, is a variation of the classical script used in North Africa (specifically Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) and known for its angular and swirling characters. The text is a series of prayers containing invocations to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad and to Ibrahim (Abraham). The names Allah and Muhammad are highlighted in red or yellow, and rectangular bands and cartouches in blue and other colors mark separations in the text. The size of the book and its worn corners suggest constant use. The paper appears to be European; this is not unusual, since European paper was used extensively throughout North and sub-Saharan Africa during this period. The style of maghribi calligraphy, the distinct ornament and palette, and the presence of borders on each page point to nineteenth-century Morocco as the place of production.

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  • Prayer manuscript, 19th century
    Possibly Morocco
    Blackish brown ink, and red, yellow, and blue color on paper; written area per page approx. 9.5 x 5.9 cm
    Bequest of Adrienne Minassian, 1994 (1997.301a,b)

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