Mrs. Manigault Heyward (Susan Hayne Simmons)

Artist: Robert Fulton (American, Little Britain, Pennsylvania 1765–1815 New York)

Date: ca. 1813

Medium: Watercolor on ivory

Dimensions: 3 21/32 x 2 13/16 in. (9.3 x 7.1 cm)

Classification: Paintings

Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1914

Accession Number: 14.135


An artist and engineer, who began his career as a multi-talented silversmith's apprentice and carriage designer, Robert Fulton probably learned the art of miniature painting from Charles Willson Peale and his brother James Peale in Philadelphia. During the winter of 1786, he was in Petersburg, Virginia, where he advertised his talents not only for painting tiny portraits, but also for the attendant hairwork and jewelry settings. His miniatures are delicate and comely, characterized by his sitters' pursed lips and narrow shoulders. Fulton studied with Benjamin West beginning in 1786 and remained in England for twenty years, learning from West, exhibiting at the Royal Academy, and honing his skills as a painter in oils and watercolor. Upon his return to Philadelphia in 1806, he mounted an exhibition of pictures by West and others, a collection he had assembled while abroad, at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. After this his interest turned almost entirely to experimentation in steam travel. Fulton studied canal boats, submarines, and torpedoes and in 1807 his steamboat, The Clermont, made its first commercial voyage, from New York to Albany.