Between 1810 and 1825, all the Spanish territories on the American mainland gain their sovereignty from Spain. Simultaneously, the power of the Catholic Church diminishes, including its patronage of the visual arts. During these war-torn years, cultural production declines.
These years witness political reform and the beginnings of self-fashioned societies. Caudillos or military dictators initially fill the vacuum left by the break-up of colonial rule, including Juan Manuel de Rosas (17931877) in Argentina, Francisco Solano López (18271870) in Paraguay, and Juan José Flores (18001864) in Ecuador. Economically, there is a slow adaptation to the world economy.
A growing awareness of the continent's enormous natural riches and economic potential lead technological development and an intense nationalism. Native artists take a more active role in delineating their own lands and peoples, in both popular and fine art. Even when adopting European models, however, Latin Americans inflect their work in unique ways that lay the foundation for what will eventually evolve into individual national schools.
Commercial and industrial development exacerbates class division. Immigration is also on the rise, especially in the Southern Cone. This is the era of railroad construction that accompanies the modernization of mining and plantations, and represents an alliance between foreign investors and local powers. Upper-class Latin Americans look to Europe for cultural values; artists study abroad in Italy and France, which results in the importation of academic painting and, by the turn of the century, Impressionism. As cities undergo expansion, a similar mix of French and Italian styles can be seen in the new buildings of Buenos Aires, Lima, and Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil is a colony of Portugal until 1822. The long reign (184089) of Emperor Dom Pedro II is marked by a commitment to education and the arts. The transition to a republic, when it comes, is peaceful. The large numbers of Africans, the heritage of a long history of slavery, mixed with Europeans and natives, creates a population distinct from Brazil's neighboring countries.
17991803German explorer Alexander von Humboldt (17691859) travels across present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, where access had been previously forbidden to any non-Spaniard. His accounts inspire many followers, including artists Johann Mauritz Rugendas (18021858) from Germany and Frederic Church (18261900) from the U.S.
18001805Aleijadinho, or the Little Cripple (pseudonym of Antonio Francisco Lisboa, ca. 17381814), sculpts the Prophet statues for the Sanctuary of the Bom Jesus de Matosinhos in Brazil: a native masterpiece.
1808In an inversion of political and cultural hierarchies, the Portuguese court establishes itself in Brazil from 1808 to 1821. Portuguese Prince Regent Jõao VI (17691826) and some 10,000 functionaries move to Rio de Janeiro, which becomes the capital of the Portuguese empire for the next thirteen years.
1816The French Artistic Mission arrives in Rio de Janeiro, led by Joachim Lebreton (17601819) and architect A.-H.-V. Grandjean de Montigny (17761850), initiating the strong and enduring influence of French styles.
1818The Spanish are defeated by the Army of the Andes at the Battle of Maipú and Chilean independence is achieved.
1819Called the father of Latin American independence, Simón Bolívar (17831830) leads armies to liberate Venezuela and Colombia.
1821Bolívar is ratified as president of the new country of Gran Colombia. José de San Martín (17781850) declares the independence of Peru. Myriad portraits of the heroes of the Revolution displace sacred imagery of the colonial period.
1822Bolívar's general Antonio José de Sucre (17951830) defeats the Spanish in Ecuador. In Brazil, Dom Pedro I is declared emperor.
1823The U.S. proclaims the Monroe Doctrine, stating that all the territories of the Americas are off limits to further European expansion.
1824The defeat of the Spanish at Ayacucho, Peru, signals the end of Spanish rule in Central and South America.
1825Bolivia achieves Independence.
1826The Academia Imperial das Belas Artes (Imperial Academy of Fine Arts) is founded in Rio de Janeiro.
1831Dom Pedro I of Brazil abdicates.
ca. 1835The Academia de Dibujo y Pintura (Academy of Painting and Sculpture) is founded in Caracas.
1840Once he comes of age, Dom Pedro II is crowned emperor of Brazil. He fosters the arts and especially photography, of which he is an avid practitioner.
1845Facundo: civilización y barbarie is published by Domingo Sarmiento (18111888), a key literary and historical figure of the century.
185059The Comisión Corográfica conducts a pioneering survey of Colombia, and establishes the precedent for native artists and geographers recording their own lands and peoples.
1852Dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas (17931877) is driven from Buenos Aires; the Argentine Federalist constitution is established the following year.
1860sA boom in export developmentagricultural goods in Argentina, copper in Chile, and coffee in Brazilcontinues into the twentieth century.
186570The War of the Triple Alliance pits Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay against Paraguay.
1870sThe beginning of mass European emigration to Latin America is accompanied by increased foreign investment, major railway building, industrialization, organized labor, and the rise of positivist philosophy.
1871In Brazil, the Free Womb Law (Lei do Ventre Livre) frees all children born to slaves.
1872Argentine José Hernández (18341886) publishes the gauchoesque poem Martín Fierro, a popular epic that represents one of the greatest achievements of Romantic poetry in Spanish.
187984Bolivia and Peru engage in the War of the Pacific with Chile, with the result that Bolivia is landlocked.
1886Slavery is abolished in Cuba.
1888Slavery is abolished in Brazil.
1889Dom Pedro II abdicates and Brazil is proclaimed a republic.
1896Teatro Amazonas opens in Manaus, Brazil, an attempt to foster culture in the Amazon region, away from the established centers.
1898The Spanish-American War is fought. Cuba and Puerto Rico are ceded to the United States.
1900Uruguayan philosopher and literary critic José Enrique Rodó (18711917) publishes Ariel, calling upon Latin America to resist the materialism represented by the U.S., whose influence has been increasing since the 1890s.
1903Panama is separated from Colombia, a prelude to the creation of an independent nation and the construction of the Panama Canal.