Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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Index Classification: Material and Technique

Miniature Painting from Europe

Painting, Miniature, Europe

Works of Art (48)

Adoration of the Magi, ca. 1520, Attributed to Master of James IV of Scotland, Ink and tempera on vellum (48.149.15)
Assumption of the Virgin in an Initial V, ca. 1340, Leaf from an antiphonary, Niccolò di ser Sozzo (Italian), Italian (Siena), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (96.32.12)
Belles Heures of Jean of France, Duke of Berry, 1405–1408/9, Herman, Paul, and Jean Limbourg (Franco-Netherlandish), French; Made in Paris, Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum (54.1.1)

Bible, ca. 1250–1275, French; Paris, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment; leather binding (1997.320)
Bifolium, from a Manuscript of the Decretals of Gratian, ca. 1290, French; Paris, Tempera and gold leaf with brown ink on parchment (1990.217)
Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, ca. 1580, Italy, Oil on copper, frame of gilded copper (2009.224)
Head of Christ, ca. 1445, Petrus Christus (Netherlandish), Oil on parchment, laid down on wood (60.71.1)
Holy Virgins Greeted by Christ as They Enter the Gates of Paradise: Leaf from the Breviary of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York, ca. 1467–70, Simon Marmion (French), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2477)
Hours of Francis I, 1539–40, Master of François de Rohan (French), Illuminated manuscript on parchment, bound in leather with gilt (2011.353)
The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, ca. 1324–28, Jean Pucelle (French, active in Paris), Made in Paris, Grisaille and tempera on vellum (54.1.2)

Initial A with Saint Dominic Saving the Church of Saint John Lateran, mid-15th century, From a Dominican gradual, Italian (Lombardy, possibly Cremona), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (31.134.5)
Initial A with Scenes of Easter, ca. 1320, From an Augustinian antiphonary, Nerius (Italian), Italian (Bologna), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (12.56.1)
Initial B with King David in Prayer, ca. 1450, From a Benedictine psalter, Zanobi Strozzi (Italian), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1975.1.2470)
Initial C with the Last Judgment, ca. 1406–7, From an antiphonary created for the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence, Lorenzo Monaco (Piero di Giovanni) (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1975.1.2485)
Initial G with the Birth of the Virgin, ca. 1375, From a gradual created for the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence, Don Silvestro de' Gherarducci (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (21.168)
Initial M with David in Prayer, 1501–2, From a psalter created for the Olivetan monastery of Santa Maria in Organo, Verona, Girolamo dai Libri (Italian Veronese), Italian (Verona), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (12.56.3)
Initial P with the Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr, second half of 13th century, From a Dominican antiphonary, Italian (Bologna), Tempera and ink on parchment (23.21.2)
Initial R, with the Annunciation, from a Gradual, ca. 1300, German; Probably made at the convent of Sankt Katharinenthal, Lake Constance, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1982.175)
Leaf from a Manuscript of Valerius Maximus, ca. 1380, French, Made in Paris,, Parchment, tempera, ink, gold leaf (31.134.8)
Leaf from a Missal, ca. 1270–1290, French; Made in Paris, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1981.322)
Leaf from a Psalter: Initial D with Monks Singing, ca. 1495, Girolamo dai Libri (Italian Veronese), Italian; from the Olivetan monastery of Santa Maria in Organa, Verona, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (12.56.4)
Leaf from a Royal Manuscript, with Scenes from the Life of Saint Francis, ca. 1320–1342, Italian; Made in Bologna, for Hungarian use, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1994.516)
Leaf from the Epistle to the Hebrews, 12th century (1101), Byzantine; Found in Meteora, Greece (before 1898), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1991.232.15)
Leaf from the Hours of Étienne Chevalier: The Right Hand of God Protecting the Faithful against Demons, ca. 1452–60, Jean Fouquet (French), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2490)
Leaves from a Beatus Manuscript, ca. 1180, Spanish (Burgos, Castile-León), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, metal leaf (1991.232.1–.14)
Manuscript Illumination with the Evangelist Luke, late 13th–early 14th century, Byzantine, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (2001.633)
Manuscript Leaf from a Choir Book, second half of 15th century, Mariano del Buono (Italian, Florentine(?)), Parchment, tempera, ink, gold leaf (96.32.15)
Manuscript Leaf from a Psalter: Agony in the Garden and Betrayal of Christ, ca. 1270, English, Vellum, tempera, ink, metal leaf (22.24.4)
Manuscript of the Apocalypse, 1320s, Normandy, Paint, gold, silver, and brown ink on vellum (68.174)
Margaret More (1505–1544), Wife of William Roper, 1535–36, Hans Holbein the Younger (German), Vellum laid on playing card (50.69.2)
The Middleton Cousins, early 1750s, Mary Roberts (English, active United States), Watercolor on ivory (2007.61–.65)
Portable Mosaic Icon with the Virgin Eleousa, early 14th century, Byzantine, probably Constantinople, Miniature mosaic set in wax on wood panel with gold, multicolored stones, and gilded copper tesserae; some portions restored (2008.352)
Portrait of a Woman, 1597, Nicholas Hilliard (British), Vellum (35.89.2)
Portrait of a Woman, ca. 1590, Nicholas Hilliard (British), Vellum laid on card (32.100.311)
Portrait of a Young Man, Probably Robert Devereux (1566–1601), Second Earl of Essex, 1588, Nicholas Hilliard (British), Vellum laid on card (35.89.4)
Psalter and Hours of Bonne de Luxembourg, Duchess of Normandy, before 1349, Probably Jean Le Noir, his daughter Bourgot, and his workshop, French (Paris), Tempera, grisaille, ink, and gold leaf on vellum (69.86)
Psalter, late 12th century, Byzantine, Tempera, black ink, gold leaf on parchment with paper endpapers (2001.730)
Saint John the Baptist, Master of James IV of Scotland, Ink and tempera on vellum (48.149.16)
Self-Portrait, 1558, Simon Bening (Netherlandish), Tempera on parchment (1975.1.2487)
Snuffbox, ca. 1815, Maker: Gabriel-Raoul Morel (French); School of Jean-Baptiste Isabey (French) and possibly Madame Aimée-Zoë Lizinka de Mirbel (French), Gold, ivory (17.190.1114)
Still Life with Flowers, a Snail, and Insects, 1589, Joris Hoefnagel (Netherlandish), Watercolor, gouache, and shell gold on vellum (2008.110)
Two Leaves from a Book of Hours, Representing the Annunciation, 1465, Master of Charles of France, French (Bourges), Tempera and gold leaf on vellum (58.71a,b)
Watch, ca. 1645–50, Movement by Jacques Goullons (French), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1557)
Watch, ca. 1675–80, Movement by Johannes Van Ceulen the Elder (Dutch); case and dial probably by Josias Belle (French), Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver; Case and dial: enameled gold and painted enamel on gold (17.190.1417)
Watch, ca. 1680, Movement probably by Nicolas Gribelin (French), Case: painted enamel on gold; Dial: painted enamel with champlevé gold chapter ring; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1559)
Watchcase, ca. 1645, movement ca. 1750, Movement by Lambertus Vrijthoff (Dutch), French (probably Paris), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1413)
Watchcase, ca. 1686–88, Case by Jean-Pierre Huaud (Swiss); movement by Johann G. Racine (Swiss, active Berlin), Case: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1522)
Watchcase, ca. 1700, Case and dial by Jean-Pierre Huaud (Swiss) and Amy Huaud (Swiss); movement by Pieter Klock (Dutch), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1436)