Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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Index Classification: Material and Technique

Gold from Europe

Metalwork, Gold, Europe

Works of Art (150)

The Adoration of the Magi, Giovanni di Paolo (Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia) (Italian, Sienese), Tempera and gold on wood (1982.60.4)
Aeneas Erects a Tomb to His Nurse Caieta and Flees the Country of Circe, ca. 1530–35, Master of the Aeneid (French, Limoges), Enamel, painted and partly gilded, on copper (88.3.85)
The Annunciation from a Book of Hours, ca. 1485–90, France (Tours), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (2004.564)
Appliqués, first half of 5th century, Eastern Germanic; Ukraine, Kerch, Gold sheet (98.11.71)
Armband with a Herakles knot, Hellenistic, 3rd–2nd century B.C., Greek, Gold, garnet, emerald, enamel (1999.209)
Armor of heavy cavalry, ca. 1610–20, Italian (Milan or Brescia), Steel, gold, leather, and textile (2002.130a–p)
Aureus of Septimius Severus, with a portrait of Julia Domna, ca. 193–96 A.D.; Severan, Roman, Gold (99.35.218)
Automaton in the form of a chariot pushed by a Chinese attendant and set with a clock, 1766, Signed by James Cox (English), Case: gold, with diamonds and paste jewels set in silver; pearls; dial: white enamel; movement: brass, partly gilded, and steel; the balance wheel and cock of silver set with paste jewels (1982.60.137)
Avar Treasure, Belt Fittings, 700s, Avar; Found in Vrap, eastern Albania, Gold (17.190.1673-1701)

Vessels, 700s, Avar or Byzantine; Found in Vrap, eastern Albania, Silver and gold (17.190.1704-1706; 1708-1712)

Bucket, 600s, Byzantine; Found in Vrap, eastern Albania, Silver (17.190.1707)
Baule earring, 6th century B.C., Etruscan, Gold and enamel (1994.374)
Belt Buckle, buckle ca. 500, tongue ca. 500–600, Eastern Germanic (buckle) and Byzantine (tongue), Rock crystal, gold foil (1995.54)
Bona Sforza, Queen of Poland, ca. 1530–40, Giovanni (Gian) Jacopo (Giacomo) Caraglio (Italian), Kraków, Sardonyx with inlaid gold and silver details; mounted as a pendant in gold with enamel, pearl, and ruby (17.190.869)
Bowl Base with Old and New Testament Scenes, ca. 350–400, Byzantine, said to have been found in 1715 in the Roman catacomb of Saint Callisto, Glass, gold leaf (16.174.2)
Bowl Base with Saints Peter and Paul Flanking a Column with the Christogram of Christ, made late 300s, Gold, glass leaf, Byzantine, from Rome (16.174.3)
Bowl Fragments with Menorah, Shofar, and Torah Ark, 4th century, Roman or Byzantine, Glass, gold leaf (18.145.1 ab)
Box, ca. 1875, French, Gold and enamel (2002.258)
Bracelet with central medallion, Hellenistic, 2nd century B.C., Greek, Gold, glass (2001.230)
Bracteate, 5th–6th century, Scandinavian, Gold (2001.583)
Brooch, 970–1030, Ottonian (probably northern Italy), Gold with pearls, glass, and cloisonné enamel (17.191.7)
Brooch, ca. 1900, Manufacturer: Georges Fouquet (French); Designer: Alphonse Mucha (Czech), Gold, enamel, mother-of-pearl, opal, emerald, colored stones, gold paint (2003.560)
Brooch, ca. 1912–13, Ferdinand Hauser (Austrian), Gold, enamel, moonstones (1998.356)
Buckle, 5th century, Eastern Germanic, Gold garnets (1986.341)
Candlesticks, 1735–50, French (Paris), Gilt bronze (1999.370.1a,b,.2a,b)
Chandelier, ca. 1710–15, Attributed to John Gumley (English), Gilt gesso on wood; gilt metal mounts and candlesockets (1995.141)
Childbirth tray (desco da parto) with the Triumph of Fame (recto) and Medici and Tornabuoni arms and devices (verso), 1448–49, Giovanni di Ser Giovanni Guidi, called Lo Scheggia (Italian, Florentine), Tempera, silver, and gold on panel (1995.7)
Christ among the Doctors, early 15th century, Spanish (Catalan), Tempera and gold on wood (32.100.123)
Collar Pendant, late 5th–early 6th century; Ostrogothic, Domagnano, Republic of San Marino, Gold, garnet, glass (17.190.698)
Commesso, 1550–55, Reverse after design of Étienne Delaune (French), probably a 19th-century addition, Gold, enamel, jewels, and chalcedony (17.190.907)
Cross-hilt sword, 1600–1625, England (London) and Germany (Solingen), Iron, silver, wood, copper alloy, steel, and gold (2010.165)
Crossbow Fibula, ca. 430, Byzantine; Made in Rome/Constantinople, Gold (1995.97)
The Crucifixion, 1340s, Pietro Lorenzetti (Italian, Sienese), Tempera on wood, gold ground, with original engaged frame (2002.436)
Diadem, 400–450, Ostrogothic, Sheet gold worked in repoussé (98.11.67)
Diptych with Crucifixion and Madonna and Child Enthroned, ca. 1315, Segna di Buonaventura (Italian, Sienese), Tempera and gold on panel (1975.1.1)
Disk Brooch and Two Pendants, early 600s, Anglo-Saxon; Probably made in Faversham, southeastern England; Found at Teynam, southeastern England, Gold, cells inset with garnets and glass, border inlaid with niello (1987.90.1,2,3)
Disk Brooch with Cameo and Cabochons, brooch ca. 600, cameo 100–300, Langobardic (mount), Roman (cameo), Gold sheet; settings of onyx, cameo, glass (red and green cabochons); wire (95.15.101)
Disk Brooch, 650–725, Frankish; Found in Férebrianges or Petit-Troussy, northern France, Gold sheet with filigree and inlays of garnet, stone, glass, and pearl (17.191.134)
Disk Brooch, 675–700, Frankish; Found in Niederbreisig, western Germany, Gold sheet with filigree and inlays of garnet, glass, and mother-of-pearl (17.193.83)
Double Cup, ca. 1590–1600, Caspar Beutmüller the Elder, Made in Germany (Nuremberg), Gilded silver (17.190.609a,b)
Earrings, mid-1st century A.D., Sarmatian; Said to be from Olbia (modern Ukraine), Gold, sardonyx (22.50.5, 6)
Education of the Infant Bacchus, first half of 19th century, Niccolò Amastini (Italian), Rome, Onyx; framed in gold with four perforations for attachment (40.20.30)
Emperor Augustus above a Double Capricorn, late 1st century B.C.–early 1st century A.D., Roman, Sardonyx; later mounted in gold for suspension (29.175.4)
Escutcheon plate from a shaffron, ca. 1530–40, German (probably Augsburg), Steel and gold (1985.259.2)
Fancy dress costume, ca. 1870, Charles Frederick Worth (French, born England), Cream and blue silk taffeta, gold metallic, white silk tulle (2009.300.1363a,b)
Female bust, second quarter of 18th century, French, Gilt bronze (07.225.510.118)
Finger ring engraved with a seated woman and flying Eros, second half of 5th century B.C., Greek, Gold (1994.230.1)
Finger ring engraved with an image of Hermes, late 4th century B.C., Greek, South Italian, Tarentine, Gold (1994.230.3)
Finger Ring with a Cross, 450–525, Frankish, Gold sheet with filigree and granulation, cloisonné cells inset with garnet and mother-of-pearl (17.192.229)
Five Appliqués in the Shape of a Cross, ca. 600, Langobardic; From Castel Trosino, central Italy, Gold (95.15.79.–83)
Flintlock gun, dated 1735, Louis Jaley (steel chiseler; French); Nicolas Carteron (barrelsmith; French); Joseph Blachon (stockmaker; French), France (Saint-Étienne), Steel, gold, silver, wood (1987.274)
Flintlock Sporting Gun of Empress Margarita Teresa, ca. 1670–73, Jacques Lamarre (French), Steel, wood, silver, copper alloy, gold (2011.354)
Ganymede Jewelry, Hellenistic, 330–300 B.C., Gold, rock crystal, emerald (37.11.8–.17)
Gold Box Ring Surmounted by a Scarab, ca. 330–310 B.C., Greek, Classical, Gold (2010.226)
Gold Disk from a Spool, 900–600 B.C.; Late Bronze Age, Irish, Gold (47.100.14)
Gold kantharos (drinking cup with two high vertical handles), ca. 1550–1500 B.C.; Late Helladic I, Mycenaean, Gold (07.286.126)
Hairpins or hatpins, late 16th century (?), Probably Venice or Innsbruck, Glass, copper, wire, and gilding (1975.1.1525–27)
Half-shaffron, ca. 1570–80, Italian (probably Milan), Steel, gold, brass, leather, hemp (14.25.1666)
Handle of a large dish, Mid-Imperial, Antonine or Severan, 2nd–early 3rd century A.D., Roman, Silver, gold (06.1106)
Hinged ring, 2nd–1st century B.C.; Hellenistic, Greek, Gold with garnet (2005.278)
Holy Face, ca. 1485, Gerard David (Netherlandish), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment, trimmed and laid down on wood (1975.1.2486)
Hoop earrings with Egyptianizing crown, 3rd–2nd century B.C., Greek, Gold with stone and glass (1995.539.11a,b)
Hunting sword, ca. 1825, Emanuel Pioté (Austrian); Jacob H. Köchert (Austrian), Steel, gold, enamel, agate, wood, leather (48.26)
Initial C with the Last Judgment, ca. 1406–7, From an antiphonary created for the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence, Lorenzo Monaco (Piero di Giovanni) (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1975.1.2485)
Intaglio, mid 2nd–early 3rd century A.D.; Antonine or Severan, Roman, Jasper, gold mount set with pearls and glass (1994.230.2)
Jewel with gold letters spelling amor, mid-15th century, French, Gold, pearls, diamond, emerald paste (57.26.1)
Jewish betrothal ring, ca. 17th–19th century, Venice or Eastern Europe, Gold, enamel (17.190.996)
Julius Caesar, ca. 1541, Couly II Nouailher (French, Limoges), Enamel, painted and partly gilded, on copper (28.217.2)
Madonna and Child with Angels, 1420, Pietro di Domenico da Montepulciano (Italian, Marchigian), Tempera on wood, gold ground (07.201)
Madonna and Child with Two Angels and a Donor, ca. 1445
Giovanni di Paolo (Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia) (Italian), Tempera on wood, gold ground (partly checkered with modern red glazes) (41.190.16)
Madonna and Child, ca. 1300, Duccio di Buoninsegna (Italian, Sienese), Tempera and gold on wood, with original engaged frame (2004.442)
The Madytos Jewelry, ca. 330–300 B.C.; Hellenistic, Greek; Said to be from Madytos, Gold (06.1217.1-.13)
The Man of Sorrows, ca. 1420–30, Michele Giambono (Michele Giovanni Bono) (Italian, Venetian), Tempera and gold on wood (06.180)
Mantel Clock (Telleruhr), ca. 1710, Movement by Franz Xaver Gegenreiner (German); Repoussé silver by Johann Andreas Thelot (German), Case: tortoiseshell veneer and silver, partly gilt; Dial: champlevé silver with black numerals; Movement: brass and steel (46.162)
Mantel clock, ca. 1750, ST Germain for Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain (French); Gosselin à Paris, possibly Jean-Philippe (French) or Jean-Baptiste Gosselin (French, active Paris), Bronze, originally gilded or silvered, enameled dial (37.160.9)
Mantel clock, ca. 1780–90, French (Paris), Gilt bronze, enamel, and marble (17.190.2126)
Manuscript Leaf from a Choir Book, second half of 15th century, Mariano del Buono (Italian, Florentine(?)), Parchment, tempera, ink, gold leaf (96.32.15)
Medallion with Portrait of Gennadios, 250–300, Roman, probably Alexandria, Gold glass; Diam. 1 5/8 in. (4.1 cm) (26.258)
Miniature secretary incorporating a watch, ca. 1766–72, Signed by James Cox (English), Case: agate, with gold mounts, gilded brass, pearls, and paste jewels set in silver; dial: white enamel (46.184a–c)
Nécessaire incorporating an automaton watch, ca. 1770–72, Signed by James Cox (English), Case: moss agate, mounted in gold and set with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds; silver; and mirror glass; dial: white enamel, with frame pavé set with paste jewels (57.128a–o)
Neck Ring, 400–500, Eastern Germanic, Gold (27.122.16)
Necklace and earrings, Late Hellenistic, 1st century B.C., Greek, Gold, garnet, agate (1994.230.4–.6)
Necklace elements, Nasrid period (1232–1492), probably 15th century, Spain, Gold, cloisonné enamel, filigree, granulation (17.190.161a-j)
Necklace with coin pendants, Late Imperial, 3rd century A.D., Roman, Gold (17.190.1655)
Necklace, ca. 1870, Eugène Fontenay (French), Gold, enamel, diamonds (1987.252)
Nessus Abducting Deianira, ca. 1815–25, Giuseppe Girometti (Italian), after Bertel Thorvaldsen (Danish), Rome, Sardonyx; mounted in gold for display (2004.164)
Openwork hairnet with medallion, Hellenistic, 200–150 B.C., Greek, Ptolemaic, Gold (1987.220)
Pair of armbands, Hellenistic, ca. 200 B.C., Greek, Gold (56.11.5–.6)
Pair of Earrings with Polyhedral Beads, 400–500, Ostrogothic(?), found in Kerch (Ukraine), Decorated with granulation (98.11.94-95)
Pair of earrings with snap-on covers, ca. 1882–85, New York, Gold, diamond, enamel (2001.234a–d)
Pair of mounted vases, ca. 1740–50, Chinese porcelain with French mounts, Hard-paste porcelain with gilt-bronze mounts (1984.471.3,.4)
Pair of mounted vases, ca. 1750, Chinese porcelain with French mounts, Hard-paste porcelain with gilt-bronze mounts (1977.102.1,.2)
Pair-case automaton watch, ca. 1770–75, Signed by James Cox (English), Outer case: gold, partly enameled and set with gemstones and paste jewels; inner case: gold with casemaker's mark of Peter Mounier (English); dial: white enamel, with frame set with paste jewels; movement: brass, steel, and silver (1977.436.4)
Pair-case watch, 1682–83, Movement by Thomas Tompion (English); inner case and dial by Nathaniel Delander (English), Outer case: leather with gold studs monogrammed RWR surmounted by a coronet (unidentified); Inner case and champlevé dial: gold, with blued steel hands; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1489ab)
Parure: Tiara, Brooch, and Necklace, mid-19th century, Luigi Saulini (Italian), Rome, Onyx; all mounted in gold (40.20.55a–c)
Pectoral Cross, 1200–1400, Byzantine, Gold, pearls (2005.38)
Pectoral Cross, 6th–7th century, Byzantine (Constantinople?), Gold (2006.569)
Pendant Brooch with Cameo of Enthroned Virgin and Child, cameo 11th–12th century; Rus' mount 12th–14th century, Byzantine (Constantinople), Chalcedony cameo in gold mount with pearls, emeralds, garnets, sapphires, and sardonyx intaglio (2007.9)
Pendant capsule in the form of a tau cross, with the Trinity and the Virgin and Child, ca. 1485, Made in England, Cast and engraved gold (1990.283a,b)
Pendant in the form of Neptune and a sea monster, early 17th century, Probably Netherlandish, Baroque pearl with enameled gold mounts set with rubies, diamonds, pearls (1982.60.378)
Pendant, ca. 1901, René-Jules Lalique (French), French (Paris), Gold, enamel, opal, pearl, diamonds (1991.164)
Pommel plate, ca. 1580, French or Flemish, Steel and gold (29.171)
Powder flask, ca. 1575, Germany, Iron, gold, textile (2008.638.1)
Reliquary Pendant, 1174–77, English, Gold (63.160)
Ring Brooch, 1340–49, German, Middle Rhine, Gold, spinels, sapphires (2006.257)
Ring with head of Herakles, late 4th–3rd century B.C.; Hellenistic, Greek, Gold (10.132.1)
Ring with intaglio portrait of Emperor Tiberius, 14–37 A.D.; Early Imperial, Roman, Gold, carnelian (1994.230.7)
Ring, 10th–11th century, Germany (Ottonian), Gold with cloisonné enamel (2004.274)
Ring, late 4th or early 3rd century B.C.; Late Classical or Hellenistic, Etruscan, Gold (03.24.34)
Saddle, ca. 1570–80, Italian (Milan), Wood, textiles, iron, leather, steel, and gold (04.3.252)
Saint Anthony of Padua, Maso di Banco (Italian, Florentine), Tempera on wood, gold ground (43.98.13)
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, early 15th century, French, Gold, ronde-basse enamel, jewels (17.190.905)
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, shortly after 1342, Pietro Lorenzetti (Italian, Sienese), Tempera on wood, gold ground (13.212)
Saint John the Baptist with Scenes from His Life, 1464–1507, Domingo Ram (Spanish), Tempera on wood, gold ground (25.120.929)
Saint Julian, 1340s, Taddeo Gaddi (Italian, Florentine), Tempera on wood, gold ground (1997.117.1)
Saint Margaret, ca. 1475, Southern France (Toulouse?), Alabaster with traces of gilding (2000.641)
Saltcellar, mid-13th century, French; Made in Paris, Gold, rock crystal, emeralds, pearls, spinel or balas rubies (1983.434)
Set of four wall brackets, 18th century (ca. 1788), Made under the direction of Jean Hauré (French), cast either by Étienne-Jean Forestier (French) or his brother Pierre-Auguste (French), chased by Pierre-Philippe Thomire (French), Gilt bronze (1979.172.3-6)
Set of jewelry, early 5th century B.C.; late Archaic, Etruscan, Gold, glass, rock crystal, agate, carnelian (40.11.7-.18)
Set of pruning tools, 1575–1600, French; Moulins, Steel, partly gilded, and mother-of-pearl (64.101.1470–.1476)
Shaffron and crinet plate, ca. 1555, Kunz Lochner (German), German (Nuremberg), Steel, etched, gilt, and painted; gilt brass (21.42) (14.25.854)
Shaffron of Henry II of France when Dauphin, ca. 1490–1500, redecorated 1539, Attributed to Romain des Ursins (Milan, rec. Lyon), Franco-Italian, Steel, gold, brass (04.3.253)
Shoe Buckle, 400–450, Hunnic or Frankish, Gold, garnets (17.190.697)
Smallsword with scabbard, hallmarked for 1773–74, Master GG (active Paris), France (Paris), Gold, steel, wood, fish skin (1998.35a,b)
Standing Bishop, 1508–12, Hans von Reutlingen or Workshop, Germany (Aachen), Silver, gilt silver (1991.9)
Standing cup, Probably after a design by Reinhold Vasters (German), Jasper, partly enameled gold mounts, set with diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and pearls (17.190.1703)
Stater with head of Alexander the Great, 286–281 B.C.; Hellenistic, Greek; Lysimachos, Pella, Gold (52.127.4)
Statuette of Zeus Serapis, Mid-Imperial, 2nd century A.D., Roman, Gold (53.191.2)
The Story of Esther, 1460–70, Marco del Buono Giamberti (Italian, Florentine); Apollonio di Giovanni di Tomaso (Italian, Florentine), Tempera and gold on wood (18.117.2)
Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent Wearing a Jewel-Studded Helmet, ca. 1532, Venice, Woodcut on paper (42.41.1)
Sword hilt with the Virgin Mary, Saint Michael, and Satan, ca. 1882, Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse (sculptor; French); Germain Bapst (goldsmith; French); Lucien Falize (goldsmith; French); in partnership 1880–92, France (Paris), Bronze, gold (1989.229)
Sword pommel with the arms of Pierre de Dreux (ca. 1190–1250), Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, ca. 1240–50, French, Copper, gold, enamel, iron (38.60)
Tip of a Pointer, late 11th–first half of 12th century, Byzantine (Constantinople), Cloisonné enamel, gold (1997.235)
Triptych with the Crucifixion, ca. 1510, Francesco Granacci (Francesco di Andrea di Marco) (Italian), Italy; Florence, Tempera and gold on wood (2006.409)
Vase or clock ornament, ca. 1770, French, Gilt bronze (07.225.510.316)
The Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist, ca. 1520–30, Northern Italian, Sardonyx; mounted in gold as a ring (38.150.4)
Watch in the form of a Lesser George,Movement by Nicholas Vallin (Flemish), Case: gold, partly enameled, and rock crystal; Dial: gold, partly enameled, with gilded-brass hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1475)
Watch, ca. 1630–40, Movement by Johann Possdorffer, or Poestdorffer (Bohemian or German), Case: rock crystal and gold, partly enameled; Dial: painted enamel on gold, with a single gold hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1525)
Watch, ca. 1645–50, Movement by Jacques Goullons (French), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1557)
Watch, ca. 1650, Movement by Nicolas Bernard (French), Case: enameled gold; Dial: enameled gold, with a single gilded brass hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1622)
Watch, ca. 1650–60, Movement by Charles Bobinet (Swiss), Case: pink agate, mounted in enameled gold; Dial: painted enamel with a single gilded-brass hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1617)
Watch, ca. 1660–70, Movement by F. L. Meybom, or Maybon; case attributed to Isaac Bergeron, dit d'Argent (French), Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver; Case: blued steel, gilded brass, rock crystal, silver, and diamonds; Dial: painted enamel and basse-taille enamel on gold, with a single gold hand (17.190.1600)
Watch, ca. 1675–80, Movement by Johannes Van Ceulen the Elder (Dutch); case and dial probably by Josias Belle (French), Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver; Case and dial: enameled gold and painted enamel on gold (17.190.1417)
Watch, ca. 1680, Movement probably by Nicolas Gribelin (French), Case: painted enamel on gold; Dial: painted enamel with champlevé gold chapter ring; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1559)
Watch, ca. 1850–55, Firm of François Czapek (Swiss), Case of enameled gold; dial of painted enamel; movement of gilded brass and steel (1983.183.5)
Watch, probably ca. 1670, Movement by Nikolaus II Rugendas (German), Case: gold, enameled and set with gemstones; Dial: painted enamel on gold, with a single gold hand; Movement: glided brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1520)
Watchcase, ca. 1645, movement ca. 1750, Movement by Lambertus Vrijthoff (Dutch), French (probably Paris), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1413)
Watchcase, ca. 1686–88, Case by Jean-Pierre Huaud (Swiss); movement by Johann G. Racine (Swiss, active Berlin), Case: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1522)
Woman's comb, 15th or 16th century, France or Italy, Ivory, polychromy, gilding (17.190.245)
A Wooded River Landscape with a Church and Figures, 1613, Hendrick Avercamp (Dutch), Gouache, watercolor, over lead point or graphite, on paper prepared with gouache; framing line in pen and brown ink and gold paint (2013.646)
Young Woman with a Torch and a Vase, ca. 1770–90, Giovanni Pichler, Rome, Sardonyx; mounted in gold as a ring (39.22.42)

Thematic Essays (55)