Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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Liturgical Books

Literature and Literary Connections, Liturgical Books

Works of Art (124)

Adoration of the Magi, ca. 1520, Attributed to Master of James IV of Scotland, Ink and tempera on vellum (48.149.15)
The Adoration of the Shepherds, ca. 1500, Francesco Marmitta (Italian), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2491)
Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave: Folio from the Khamsa (Quintet) of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi, Mughal period (1526–1858), 1597–98, Attributed to Basawan, India, Main support: ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper; margins: gold on dyed paper (13.228.30)
All Saints in an Initial E: Cutting from an Antiphonary, ca. 1430–40, Osservanza Master (Italian), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2484)
The Angel Surush Rescues Khusrau Parviz: From the Shahnama (Book of Kings) of Shah Tahmasp, ca. 1530–35, Attributed to Muzaffar cAli, Iran, Tabriz, Colors, ink, silver, and gold on paper (1970.301.73)
The Annunciation from a Book of Hours, ca. 1485–90, France (Tours), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (2004.564)
Assumption of the Virgin in an Initial A: Cutting from an Antiphonary, ca. 1470–80, Cosmè Tura (Italian, Ferrarese), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (11.50.1)
Assumption of the Virgin in an Initial V, ca. 1340, Leaf from an antiphonary, Niccolò di ser Sozzo (Italian), Italian (Siena), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (96.32.12)
Bahram Gur in the Turquoise Pavilion: Page from a manuscript of the Khamsa (Quintet) of Nizami, dated 1524–25; Safavid, Afghanistan (Herat), Colors, gold, and silver on paper (13.228.7.10)
Belles Heures of Jean of France, Duke of Berry, 1405–1408/9, Herman, Paul, and Jean Limbourg (Franco-Netherlandish), French; Made in Paris, Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum (54.1.1)

Bible, ca. 1250–1275, French; Paris, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment; leather binding (1997.320)
Bifolium from an antiphonary: Christ in Majesty in an Initial A, ca. 1405, Bohemian, Prague, Tempera, ink, and gold on parchment (2013.38)
Bifolium from the "Nurse's Qur'an" (Mashaf al-Hadina), 410 A.H. / 1019–20 A.D., Tunisia, probably Qairawan, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on parchment (2007.191)
Bifolium, from a Manuscript of the Decretals of Gratian, ca. 1290, French; Paris, Tempera and gold leaf with brown ink on parchment (1990.217)
Binding for a Qur'an, late 16th century, Iran, Leather binding, stamped, cut, and gilt with turquoise insets (56.222)
Book of Prayers, Sura Yasin and Surat al-Fath, dated A.H. 1132/A.D. 1719–20, Calligraphy: Ahmad Nairizi (Persian), Illumination: Attributed to Muhammad Hadi, Iran, Ink, colors, and gold on paper; lacquer binding (2003.239)
The Conference of the Birds: Page from a manuscript of the Mantiq al-Tayr (The Language of the Birds) of Farid al-Din cAttar, ca. 1600; Safavid, Iran (Isfahan), Opaque watercolor, ink, silver, gold on paper (63.210.11)
Coptic Manuscript, 700–900, Coptic; Possibly from the Kasr Deir es Surian (Castle of the Monastery of the Syrians), Wadi an-Natrun, Egypt; Written and illustrated in Egypt, Ink and colored inks on parchment (19.196.5)
Coptic Manuscript, Coptic; Possibly from the Dayr al-Suriyan (Monastery of the Syrians), Wadi an-Natrun, Egypt; Written and illustrated in Egypt; Written in Coptic, with Arabic in the margins, in black and red, Paper (19.196.3)
Cover for a Buddhist manuscript, 12th century, Nepal, Ink and color on wood (1984.479.1b)
De topographia Constantinopoleos by Pierre Gilles, 1561, Lyon, Printed book (551.3 G41)
Descent from the Cross: Cutting from a Missal, ca. 1475–76, Girolamo da Cremona (Italian), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment, laid down on wood (49.7.8)
Devananda's Fourteen Auspicious Dreams Foretelling the Birth of Mahavira: Folio from a Kalpasutra Manuscript, ca. 1465, India (Gujarat, Jaunpur), Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (1992.359)
Double page from a Divan (Anthology) of Sultan Husain Baiqara, 1500; Timurid, Calligraphy by Sultan cAli Mashhadi, Afghanistan (Herat), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (1982.120.1)
Double-Sided Gospel Leaf, first half of 14th century, Ethiopia; Tigray region, Tempera on parchment (2006.100)
Elephant Clock: Leaf from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari, Detached folio from an illustrated manuscript, 715 A.H. / 1315 A.D.; Mamluk, Abu’l Izz Ismacil al-Jazari, Author, Probably Syria, Ink, colors, and gold on paper (57.51.23)
Folio from a Qur'an manuscript, 13th–14th century, Spain, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on parchment (42.63)
Folio from the "Blue Qur'an,", second half of 9th–mid-10th century,Tunisia, probably Qairawan, Gold and silver on indigo-dyed parchment (2004.88)
Folio from the Kevorkian Album, ca. 1540, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, Calligraphy signed by Mir cAli Haravi, Ink, gold, and colors on paper (55.121.10.7v)
Fragment from a Qur’an manuscript, ca. 1400; Timurid, Calligraphy attributed to cUmar Aqtac, Central Asia (probably Samarqand), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (1972.279)
Funeral Procession in an Initial R, second half of 15th century, Leaf from a gradual, Mariano del Buono (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (96.32.16)
Garden of the Unsuccessful Politician, Ming dynasty, dated 1551, Wen Zhengming (Chinese), Album of eight paintings with facing pages of calligraphy; ink on paper (1979.458.1)
Gopis Beseech Krishna to Return Their Clothing: Page from the Dispersed "Isarda" Bhagavata Purana (Ancient Stories of Lord Vishnu), ca. 1560–65, India, probably Delhi-Agra area, Ink and opaque watercolor on paper (1972.260)
The Great Abu Sa'ud Teaching Law: Folio from the Divan of Mahmud 'Abd al-Baqi, Ottoman period (ca. 1299–1923), mid-16th century, Turkey, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (25.83.9)
The Groenendaal Passion, late 15th century, Twelve engravings by Israhel van Meckenem (German), two touched with gold; one hand-colored woodcut, Netherlandish School, 15th century; one hand-colored metalcut, Cologne School, 15th century; and 32 leaves of manuscript text in Dutch and Latin in brown ink with initials in red, bound in Netherlandish blind-stamped leather (2003.476)
Haft Paikar (Seven Portraits) of the Khamsa (Quintet) of Nizami, Illustrated detached folios, ca. 1430; Timurid, Nizami (Ilyas Abu Muhammad Nizam al-Din of Ganj), Author; Maulana Azhar, Calligrapher, Iranian; Made in Afghanistan, Ink, colors, and gold on paper (13.228.13)
Hizb (Litany) of An-Nawawi, Ottoman period (ca. 1299–1923), dated A.H. 1152 / A.D. 1739, Turkey, Istanbul, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (1975.192.1)
Holy Virgins Greeted by Christ as They Enter the Gates of Paradise: Leaf from the Breviary of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York, ca. 1467–70, Simon Marmion (French), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2477)
The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, ca. 1324–28, Jean Pucelle (French, active in Paris), Made in Paris, Grisaille and tempera on vellum (54.1.2)

The House of Bijapur: Album leaf, ca. 1680, Kamal Muhammad; Chand Muhammad, Attributed to India, Deccan, Bijapur, Ink, opaque colors, gold, and silver on paper (1982.213)
Illuminated pages from a dispersed Dharani manuscript, 14th–15th century, Tibet (Zhalu monastery), Inks and color on paper (1986.509.1a,b)
Illustrated manuscript of the Lotus Sutra, Goryeo dynasty, ca. 1340, Unidentified artist (late 14th century), Korea, Folding book, gold and silver on indigo-dyed mulberry paper; 106 pages (1994.207)
Incipit Page to the Gospel of John, 1300–1310, From a gospel book attributed to the illuminator Sargis; scribe unknown, Armenian; Probably from Siwnik’, Noravank’, Vellum, pigments, and gold (38.171.2)
Initial A with Saint Dominic Saving the Church of Saint John Lateran, mid-15th century, From a Dominican gradual, Italian (Lombardy, possibly Cremona), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (31.134.5)
Initial A with Scenes of Easter, ca. 1320, From an Augustinian antiphonary, Nerius (Italian), Italian (Bologna), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (12.56.1)
Initial B with King David in Prayer, ca. 1450, From a Benedictine psalter, Zanobi Strozzi (Italian), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1975.1.2470)
Initial C with Saint Lawrence, ca. 1380–90, From a gradual, Don Simone Camaldolese (Italian), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (90.61.2)
Initial C with the Last Judgment, ca. 1406–7, From an antiphonary created for the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence, Lorenzo Monaco (Piero di Giovanni) (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1975.1.2485)
Initial E with the Martyrdom of Saint Stephen, ca. 1394–1402, From a gradual created for the Carthusian monastery of the Holy Spirit at Farneta, near Lucca, Niccolò di Giacomo da Bologna (Italian), Italian (Bologna), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (2007.236)
Initial G with the Birth of the Virgin, ca. 1375, From a gradual created for the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence, Don Silvestro de' Gherarducci (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (21.168)
Initial M with David in Prayer, 1501–2, From a psalter created for the Olivetan monastery of Santa Maria in Organo, Verona, Girolamo dai Libri (Italian Veronese), Italian (Verona), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (12.56.3)
Initial P with the Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr, second half of 13th century, From a Dominican antiphonary, Italian (Bologna), Tempera and ink on parchment (23.21.2)
Initial R, with the Annunciation, from a Gradual, ca. 1300, German; Probably made at the convent of Sankt Katharinenthal, Lake Constance, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1982.175)
Initial S with the Beheading of Saint Paul, ca. 1278, From an antiphonary created for the Cathedral of Imola, Master of Bagnacavallo, Italian (Imola), Tempera and ink on parchment (26.159.2)
Initial S with the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, ca. 1278, From an antiphonary created for the Cathedral of Imola, Master of Bagnacavallo, Italian (Imola), Tempera and ink on parchment (26.159.1)
Initial V from a Bible, ca. 1175–1195, French; From the Abbey of Pontigny, Tempera on parchment (1999.364.2)
Jaharis Lectionary, ca. 1100, Byzantine (Constantinople), Tempera, ink, and gold leaf on parchment, leather binding (2007.286)
Jesus Entering the Temple in a Letter D, ca. 1408–11, From a gradual created for the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence, Lorenzo Monaco (Piero di Giovanni) (Italian, Florentine), Italian (Florence), Pen and brown ink, brush and brown wash, over traces of leadpoint, on vellum (1999.391)
Journey of the Prophet Muhammad; Leaf from a copy of the Majmac al-tawarikh (Compendium of Histories), ca. 1425; Timurid, Herat, Afghanistan, Colors, silver, and gilt on brownish paper (57.51.9)
Khamsa (Quintet) of Nizami, Safavid period (1501–1722), 1509–1510, Iran, Shiraz, Leather; tooled and gilded; ink on paper (13.228.6)
Khusrau Hunting: Page from a manuscript of the Khusrau and Shirin of Hatifi, dated 1498; Ottoman, Turkey (probably Istanbul), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (69.27)
King David in an Initial I, early 15th century, Leaf from a psalter, Northern Italian, Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (28.225.65)
King Siddharta Listens to an Astrologer Forecast the Conception and Birth of His Son, the Jina Mahavira: Folio from a Kalpasutra Manuscript, late 14th century, India (Gujarat), Opaque watercolor on paper (1997.133)
Krishna Battles the Armies of the Demon Naraka: Page from a Dispersed Bhagavata Purana (Ancient Stories of Lord Vishnu), ca. 1520–30, India, Delhi-Agra area, Ink and opaque watercolor on paper (1985.34)
Krishna Holds Up Mount Govardhan to Shelter the Villagers of Braj: Folio from the Harivamsa (Legend of Hari [Krishna]), Mughal period (1526–1858), ca. 1590–95, Present-day Pakistan, probably Lahore, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (28.63.1)
Last Judgment, from a Book of Hours, ca. 1400, French; Paris, Tempera and gold on vellum (1998.179)
Leaf from a manuscript, 19th century; Qajar, Iran, Ink, watercolors, gold, and silver on paper (1997.293)
Leaf from a Missal, ca. 1270–1290, French; Made in Paris, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1981.322)
Leaf from a Missal, ca. 1290, Northeast French; Beauvais (?), Tempera and gold leaf, on parchment (1992.238)
Leaf from a Psalter: Initial D with Monks Singing, ca. 1495, Girolamo dai Libri (Italian Veronese), Italian; from the Olivetan monastery of Santa Maria in Organa, Verona, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (12.56.4)
Leaf from a Qur’an manuscript, 1307–1308; Ilkhanid, Ahmad ibn al-Suhrawardi al-Bakri, Calligrapher, Muhammed ibn Aybak, Illuminator, Baghdad, Iraq, Ink, colors, and gold on paper (55.44)
Leaf from a Qur’an manuscript, dated 1137, Iran, Ink, gold, and colors on paper (1996.294.1)
Leaf from a Qur’an manuscript, late 9th–10th century, Possibly Syria, Ink, gold, and colors on vellum (30.45)
Leaf from a Qur’an, ca. 1250–1350, North Africa, Ink, colors, and gold on vellum (37.21)
Leaf from a Royal Manuscript, with Scenes from the Life of Saint Francis, ca. 1320–1342, Italian; Made in Bologna, for Hungarian use, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1994.516)
Leaf from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides ("The Pharmacy"), dated 1224, Iraq, Baghdad School, Colors and gilt on paper (57.51.21)
Leaf from Futuh al-Haramain (Description of the Two Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina), mid-16th century; Ottoman, Probably Turkey, Ink, colors, and gold on paper (32.131)
Leaf from the Epistle to the Hebrews, 12th century (1101), Byzantine; Found in Meteora, Greece (before 1898), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (1991.232.15)
Leaf from the Hours of Étienne Chevalier: The Right Hand of God Protecting the Faithful against Demons, ca. 1452–60, Jean Fouquet (French), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2490)
Leaf from the Razmnama, ca. 1616–17; Mughal, period of Jahangir, India, Ink, colors, and gold on paper (55.121.30)
Leaves from a Beatus Manuscript, ca. 1180, Spanish (Burgos, Castile-León), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, metal leaf (1991.232.1–.14)
Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg Chronicle), 1493, Author: Hartmann Schedel, Illustrators: Michel Wolgemuth (German) and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff (German), Printed book with woodcut illustrations (21.36.145)
Lotus Sutra, Heian period, 12th century, Japan, Gold on indigo-dyed paper (65.216.1)
Lustration of the Infant Jina Mahavira: Folio from a Kalpasutra Manuscript, late 14th century, India (Gujarat), Opaque watercolor on paper (2005.35)
Manuscript cover with scenes from Kalidasa's play, Shakuntala, 12th century, Nepal, Ink and color on wood (L.1985.42.28)
Manuscript Illumination with the Evangelist Luke, late 13th–early 14th century, Byzantine, Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (2001.633)
Manuscript Leaf from a Choir Book, second half of 15th century, Mariano del Buono (Italian, Florentine(?)), Parchment, tempera, ink, gold leaf (96.32.15)
Manuscript Leaf from a Gospel Book, 1290–1330, Armenian; Written in Armenian and painted possibly in the Lake Van region, Vaspurakan (now eastern Turkey), Ink and tempera on parchment (57.185.3)
Manuscript Leaf from a Psalter: Agony in the Garden and Betrayal of Christ, ca. 1270, English, Vellum, tempera, ink, metal leaf (22.24.4)
Manuscript of the Apocalypse, 1320s, Normandy, Paint, gold, silver, and brown ink on vellum (68.174)
Martyrdom of Saint Agatha in an Initial D: Cutting from an Antiphonary, ca. 1470–73, Sano di Pietro (Italian), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2488)
The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1340, Leaf from the laudario created for Sant'Agnese, Florence, Pacino di Bonaguida (Italian), Italian (Florence), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (2006.250)
Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr in an Initial P, second half of 13th century, Leaf from a Dominican gradual, Southern Italy (probably Naples), Tempera and ink on parchment (2005.273)
The Mi'raj, or, The Night Flight of Muhammad on his Steed Buraq: Folio from a Bustan of Sa'di, Safavid period (1501–1722), ca. 1525–35, Calligrapher: Sultan Muhammad Nur (ca. 1472–ca. 1536), Present-day Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, probably Bukhara and Herat, Ink, gold, and colors on paper (1974.294.2)
Mounted Hunter with Dog, 16th century; Safavid, Iran, Ink and transparent colors on paper (1975.192.17)
Muhammad's Call to Prophecy and the First Revelation; Leaf from a copy of the Majmac al-tawarikh (Compendium of Histories), ca. 1425; Timurid, Herat, Afghanistan, Colors, silver, and gilt on brownish paper (57.51.37.3)
One of a Pair of Jain Manuscripts, early 12th century, India (Gujarat), Opaque watercolor on wood (1984.496.33b)
Opening folio of Volume 26 of the "Anonymous Baghdad Qur'an", Ilkhanid period (1206–1353), A.H. 706 / A.D. 1306–7, Iraq, Baghdad, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (50.12)
Ornamental drawing of a dragon, mid-16th century; Ottoman, Attributed to Shah Quli, Turkey (Istanbul), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (57.51.26)
Page from a Poetic Anthology of Works by Nizami and Others, dated 1411; Timurid, Calligraphy by Mahmud al-Husaini, Iran (Shiraz), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (13.228.19)
Page from an Album of Calligraphies of Prophetic Traditions (Hadith), ca. 1500; Ottoman, Signed by Hamdullah ibn Mustafa Dede, Turkey (Istanbul), Ink, colors, and gold on paper; marbled paper, leather binding (1982.120.3)
Page from an Illuminated Gospel, late 14th century, Ethiopia, Highland region, Parchment (vellum), wood (accacia), tempera, ink (1998.66)
Pair of manuscript covers with Buddhist deities, late 11th century, Nepal, Distemper on wood (1976.192.1-2)
Peter of Poitiers' Genealogy of Christ, ca. 1230, English, Ink on vellum (2002.433)
Portrait of a Dervish, Safavid period (1501–1722), 16th century, Present-day Uzbekistan, Bukhara, Main support: ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper, margins: gold on dyed paper (57.51.27)
Prayer Book: Arganona Weddase (The Harp of Praise), late 17th century, Baselyos, Ethiopia, Lasta region, Hide, pigment, wood, fiber (2006.99)
Preparation of Medicine from Honey: Leaf from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, dated 1224, Iraq, Baghdad School, Colors and gold on paper (13.152.6)
Princely Hawking Party, Safavid period (1501–1722), ca. 1570, Iran, Qazvin or Mashhad, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (12.223.1)
Prophet Muhammad Preaching: Folio from the Maqtal-i Al-i Rasul of Lami'i Chelebi Ottoman period (ca. 1299–1923), late 16th century, Turkey or Iraq, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (55.121.40)
Psalter and Hours of Bonne de Luxembourg, Duchess of Normandy, before 1349, Probably Jean Le Noir, his daughter Bourgot, and his workshop, French (Paris), Tempera, grisaille, ink, and gold leaf on vellum (69.86)
Psalter, late 12th century, Byzantine, Tempera, black ink, gold leaf on parchment with paper endpapers (2001.730)
Qur'an holder, late 19th–early 20th century, Central Asia and Iran, Silver with silver filigree and cabochon- and table-cut turquoises; Leather strap (2005.443.8)
Qur’an of Ibrahim Sultan, dated 1427; Timurid, Iran (Shiraz), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (13.228.1)
Rama Receives Surgriva and Jambavat, the Monkey and Bear Kings: Leaf from a manuscript of the Ramayana, ca. 1605; Mughal, India, Opaque watercolor and gold on paper (2002.503)
Safavid Prince Haidar Mirza's Entrance into Istanbul in 1590: Page from a dispersed Divan of Mahmud cAbd al-Baki, 1590–95; Ottoman, Iraq (Baghdad), Ink, colors, and gold on paper (45.174.5)
Saint John the Baptist, Master of James IV of Scotland, Ink and tempera on vellum (48.149.16)
Saint Mark the Evangelist and Saint Sinibaldus Venerated by Members of a Lay Confraternity: Leaf from a Mariegola, ca. 1425–34, Cristoforo Cortese (Italian), Tempera and gold leaf on parchment (1975.1.2468)
Spy Zambur Brings Mahiya to Tawariq, Where They Meet Ustad Khatun: Page from the Hamzanama (Adventures of Hamza), ca. 1570; Mughal, India, Ink, colors, and gold on cotton (23.264.1)
A Stallion, Safavid period (1501–1722), ca. 1601–6, Habiballah of Sava (active ca. 1590–1610), Present-day Afghanistan, Herat, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (1992.51)
Three Men before a Castle: Folio from the Khavarannama (Book of the East) of Ibn Husam, Aq Quyunlu period (1396–1508), ca. 1476–86, Iran, Shiraz, Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper (55.184.1)
Tournament book, late 16th/early 17th century, German (Nuremberg), Pen and colored wash on paper, leather (22.229)
Two Leaves from a Book of Hours, Representing the Annunciation, 1465, Master of Charles of France, French (Bourges), Tempera and gold leaf on vellum (58.71a,b)
The Visitation in an Initial A and Cardinal Adam Easton with a Dominican Saint and Saint Dominic, ca. 1400, Leaf from an antiphonary, Italian (Venice), Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment (90.61.3)
Volume from a thirty-part Qur’an, 18th century, North Africa, probably Tunisia, Colors and gold on paper, leather binding (1982.120.2)

Thematic Essays (66)