Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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Index Classification: Material and Technique

Chalk Drawing

Drawing, Chalk

Works of Art (78)

Adoration, ca. 1760–70, François Boucher (French), Gouache over black chalk on paper (1997.95)
The Age of Gold, ca. 1878?, Auguste Rodin (French), Black chalk and traces of white chalk on gray paper (63.92.3)
Andromache and Astyanax, ca. 1798, Pierre Paul Prud'hon (French), Pen and gray ink with brush and brown wash over traces of black chalk (1999.348)
Arcadian Landscape with Three Figures at a Lake, 1792, Johann Christian Reinhart (German), Rome, Black chalk and white gouache on two sheets of brown paper, laid down (2007.264)
The Archangel Gabriel Announcing the Birth of Christ, 1520s, Lucas van Leyden (Netherlandish), Pen and brown ink with traces of squaring in black chalk (2008.253)
Architectural Drawing, 1450–1500, France, Pen and brown ink over black chalk on vellum (68.49)
Bust of a Woman with an Elaborate Coiffure, Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, Florentine), Black chalk, certain contours reinforced in pen and brown ink, background tinted in brown wash (52.124.2)
Charles the Great's Entrance into Pavia, 1840, Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (German), Black chalk, graphite, brown watercolor washes, red chalk, red chalk washes; squared for transfer in graphite with numerical indications of vertical divisions at the lower edge (2003.85)
A Corridor in the Asylum, late May or early June 1889, Vincent van Gogh (Dutch), Black chalk and gouache on pink Ingres paper (48.190.2)
Daniel Strobel, Jr., ca. 1799, John Vanderlyn (American), Probably Conte crayon, black chalk, and white gouache on off-white wove paper (17.134.1)
Design for a Silver Vessel with Scenes from the Passion of Christ, ca. 1600, Paulus Willemsz. van Vianen (Netherlandish), Black chalk, pen and brown ink and brown wash (2000.581)
Dutch Fishing Boats, Verso: Sketches of Boats, Johan Barthold Jongkind (Dutch), Watercolor over black chalk on paper; verso black chalk (17.120.238)
Figures in One of Michelangelo's Niches on the Apse of Saint Peter's, Rome, Hubert Robert (French), Red chalk; framing lines in pen and brown ink (1972.118.229)
A Fisherman Pulling a Net, 1774, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French), Red chalk (2006.353.1)

A Fisherman Leaning on an Oar, 1774, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French), Red chalk (2006.353.2)
A Gathering at Woods' Edge, ca. 1765–73, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French), Red chalk (1995.101)
Head of a Man, ca. 1718, Jean Antoine Watteau (French), French, Red and black chalk (37.165.107)
Head of a Young Man in Three-Quarter View Facing Left, Looking Upward, 1750–60, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italian, Venetian), Red chalk, highlighted with white chalk, on blue-gray paper (2005.330.7)
Head of a Young Woman, Albrecht Dürer (German), Black chalk heightened with white chalk on green prepared paper (1975.1.859)
Head of the Virgin in Three-Quarter View Facing Right, 1508–12, Leonardo da Vinci (Italian), Italian, Charcoal, black and red chalks; traces of framing line in pen and brown ink at upper right (51.90)
The Holy Family, ca. 1510–20, Jan Gossart (Netherlandish), Pen and two colors of light brown ink, over remains of black chalk, on vellum (2001.190)
Italian Landscape with an Old Woman Holding a Spindle (after Domenico Campagnola), ca. 1715, Jean Antoine Watteau (French), Red chalk (1972.118.237)
Jeremiah Dictating the Word of God to Baruch, Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish), after Raphael (Italian), Red chalk, brush and red wash, body color, heightened with white, on paper washed with pink (1995.401)
A King of Judah and Israel, n.d., Martin Fréminet (French), Pen and brown ink, black chalk with heightening in white (2011.319)
Landscape with Trees, Aelbert Cuyp (Dutch, Black chalk, gray wash, watercolored in brown, yellow, and green, partly brushed with gum arabic (07.282.14)
Leonidas at Thermopylae, ca. 1814, Jacques Louis David (French), Black chalk, squared in black chalk (63.1)
Madonna and Child with the Infant Saint John the Baptist; Study for the Right Arm of the Infant Saint John (upper left); Study for Drapery (upper right), Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, Marchigian), Red chalk (64.47)
The Martyrdom of Saint Cecilia, 1612–14, Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri) (Italian, Bolognese), Charcoal with white chalk heightening on fourteen sheets of blue laid paper, two of the sheets cut from elsewhere on the original cartoon and reset at the left and right margins to make up the oval (1998.211)
Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence, Attributed to Anthony van Dyck (Flemish), Black chalk, pen and brown ink, brown wash, heightened with white; contours traced with stylus for transfer (61.68)
Maternity, 1784, Benjamin West (American), Red chalk on thin off-white laid paper, mounted on off-white laid paper (2002.1)
Mrs. William Morris (Jane Burden, 1840–1914), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (British), Red, black, and white chalk on paper (47.66)
Nicolo Paganini, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (French), Counterproof strengthened with graphite and white chalk on paper (43.85.10)
Nymphs and Satyrs in a Landscape, 1599 or before, Joseph Heintz the Elder (Swiss), Pen and brown ink, brown wash, red chalk, heightened with white body color, on yellow tinted paper (2007.174)
The Octagonal Room in the Small Baths at the Villa of Hadrian (Tivoli): Study for Vedute di Roma, Dieta o sia luogo che da ingressoa diversi grandiosi Cubicoli, e ad altre magnifiche Stanze, esistente nella Villa Adriana, ca. 1777, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Italian), Red chalk over black chalk or charcoal with partly ruled construction; sheet glued onto secondary paper support (1994.20)
Otto, Count of Nassau, and his Wife Adelheid van Vianden, ca. 1530, Bernaert van Orley (Netherlandish), Pen and brown ink, watercolor over traces of black chalk; on verso, tracing in black chalk of the figures on recto (1995.12)
Perseus and the Origin of Coral, ca. 1671
Claude Lorrain (Claude Gellée) (French), Black chalk, sepia and black ink, sepia and gray wash heightened with white (1975.1.661)
Portrait of a Man, Jean Étienne Liotard (Swiss), Red and black chalk (2000.7)
Portrait of Agata Dolci, 1616–86, Carlo Dolci (Italian, Florentine), Red and black chalk on pale gray paper (1994.383)
Portrait of Charlotte Duchesne, ca. 1628–30, Philippe de Champaigne (French), Black chalk, heightened with white chalk, touches of red chalk (1994.7)
Portrait of Louis XIII, ca. 1632–35, Simon Vouet (French), Black and white chalk with touches of pastel on light brown paper (2012.106)
Portrait of Nicolas Trigault in Chinese Costume, 1617, Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish), Black, red, and white chalk, blue pastel, and pen and brown ink on light brown laid paper (1999.222)
Reclining Figure of Day, after Michelangelo (recto); Another Study of the Same Figure (verso), Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) (Italian, Venetian), Black chalk, heightened with white, on blue paper (54.125)
Rinaldo in the Enchanted Forest, ca. 1761–65, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French), Brush and brown wash over black chalk underdrawing (2009.236)
Road in Etten, 1881, Vincent van Gogh (Dutch), Chalk, pencil, pastel, watercolor (1975.1.774)
Saint Celestine V Renouncing the Papacy (after Mattia Preti), 1761, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French), Black chalk over a black chalk counterproof (1987.239)
Savoyarde, ca. 1715, Jean Antoine Watteau (French), Red and black chalk (1978.12.1)
Seated Female Nude (recto); Standing Male Nude (verso), Pierre Paul Prud'hon (French), Black and white chalk, stumped, on blue paper (1972.118.226a,b)
Seated Figure of Mercury, 1524–26, Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola) (Italian), Black chalk (1997.154)
Seated Male Nude, Louis Lagrenée (French), Red chalk (1985.112.1)
Seated Male Nude, 1565–69, Agnolo Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori) (Italian, Florentine,Black chalk (2005.354)
Seated Man Reading, ca. 1773–74, Jean Honoré Fragonard (French), Red chalk (1978.516.1)
Seated Woman, 1716–17, Jean Antoine Watteau (French), Black, red, and white chalk (1975.1.763)
A Sermon in a Village Church, ca. 1635–40, Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish), Black chalk, oil- and water-based paints (2000.483)
Standing Draped Male Figure, 1611–89, Baldassare Franceschini (Il Volterrano) (Italian), Black chalk, highlighted wtih white, on blue-green paper, deckled edges; glued onto secondary paper support (1996.142.3)
Standing Nude Man Holding Bottles, ca. 1715–16, Jean Antoine Watteau (French), Red, black, and white chalk (1972.118.238)
Street in Saintes-Maries, ca. July 17, 1888, Vincent van Gogh (Dutch), Pens (including reed pen), brush, and iron gall ink over chalk on wove paper (backed with wove paper) (48.190.1)
Studies after Pietro da Cortona, Jacques Louis David (French), Black chalk (63.92.1)
Studies for a Scourging Soldier and the Head of Christ, Jacopo Bassano (Jacopo da Ponte) (Italian), Pastel with red chalk on laid light brown paper (formerly blue)(1999.390)
Studies for the Libyan Sibyl (recto); Studies for the Libyan Sibyl and a Small Sketch for a Seated Figure (verso), 1508–12, Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian), Italian, Red chalk (recto); charcoal or black chalk (verso) (24.197.2)
Studies of Ten (?) Heads and Two Ears; Studies of Three Figures and a Head, ca. 1495–98, Gerard David (Netherlandish), Metalpoint on prepared paper, black chalk (verso) (2008.368a, b)
Study for a Portrait of a Lady, Anthony van Dyck (Flemish), Black chalk heightene (1972.118.279)
Study for a Triton (recto); Anatomical Studies (?) (verso), 1642–44, Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italian), Drawing in red chalk, background tinted with an almost imperceptible pale brown wash, framing lines in pen and brown ink (recto); black chalk (verso) (1973.265)
Study for the Head of Julius Caesar, ca. 1520–21, Andrea del Sarto (Italian), Red chalk (2008.367)
Study for The Siege of Gibraltar: three figures, 1785–86, John Singleton Copley (American), Black and red chalk on blue laid paper (60.44.19)
Study of a Boy in a Blue Jacket, 1717, Benedetto Luti (Italian), Pastel and chalk on blue laid paper, laid down on paste paper (2007.360)
Study of a Girl in Red, 1717, Benedetto Luti (Italian), Pastel and chalk on blue laid paper, laid down on paste paper (2007.361)
Study of a Left Leg and Drapery, ca. 1545–50, Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano) (Italian, Florentine), Black chalk (2006.449)
Study of a Palm Tree (recto); Mountain Landscape (verso), ca. 1635–40, Nicolas Poussin (French), Pen and brown ink, over traces of black chalk (recto); pen and brown ink (verso) (2002.39a,b)
Study of a Woman's Head and Hands, ca. 1717, Antoine Watteau (French), Red and white chalk and graphite on off-white laid paper (2012.150.1)
Study of Eleven Heads, ca. 1604(?), Jacques de Gheyn II (Netherlandish), Pen and three shades of brown ink with black chalk (2006.101)
Study of the Belvedere Torso, ca. 1601–2, Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish), Red chalk (2002.12b)
Three Studies for the Christ Child, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, Marchigian), Red chalk (1997.75)
Triton Sounding a Conch Shell, ca. 1597–1602, Annibale Carracci (Italian, Bolognese), Black chalk on blue paper (1970.15)
Two Winged Putti, ca. 1748–50, François Boucher (French), Black chalk, brush and gray wash, heightened with white chalk, on beige paper (60.175.1)
Vertumnus and Pomona, ca. 1760–70, François Boucher (French), Brown chalk (60.176.2)
View of St. Peter's and the Vatican from the Janiculum (Gianicolo), 1754, Richard Wilson (British), British, Black and white chalks with stumping, on gray paper laid down on original artist's mount, colored with purple wash (1972.118.294)
Virgin and Child with Saint Elizabeth, the Infant Baptist, Saint Anthony of Padua, and a Female Martyr, Jacopo da Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) (Italian), Red chalk, brush and red wash (19.76.11)
Young Communards in Prison (Les Fédérés à la Conciergerie), 1871, Gustave Courbet (French), Black chalk (rubbed) on wove paper (1999.251)