Pakistan became an independent state in 1947. Artists created works of art to promote the establishment of Pakistan as a modern country. This joyous occasion, however, was tempered by looming difficulties. The nation was located in two geographically distinct units separated by a thousand miles. The form of its government seemed uncertain—its founders had envisioned a democratic state in which all religions, including Islam, could be worshipped freely. However, because Pakistan was created as the homeland for South Asia’s Muslim population, there was pressure to govern with Islamic law. In this tense political climate, writers critiqued and questioned the founding of the nation in stories, novels, and poems.
Modern Painting in West Pakistan
New on the world stage, Pakistani artists aimed to present themselves as modern according to international standards. They adopted styles prevalent in Europe and the United States, but they also experimented with indigenous traditions to see how these could fit into the modern world.
The first artist in Pakistan to have an exhibition of modern paintings was a woman—Zubeida Agha (1922–1997). Trained in both Pakistan and Europe, Agha developed an approach to painting that reflected her education and experience. Her images of landscapes and people are simplified forms made with a variety of vibrant colors reminiscent of both Fauvism and Rajput miniatures.
In the 1950s, Shakir ‘Ali (1916–1975), fresh from Europe, taught and later became principal of the National College of Arts. He brought back with him knowledge about Cézanne and Cubism, which offered new ways of interpreting the natural world in art. ‘Ali’s simplified and heavily outlined images of people, animals, and objects reflect a familiarity with Primitivism, a style developed in Europe yet influenced by Eastern art. Anna Molka Ahmed (1917–1994), coming from London to Lahore with her husband, also experienced the art world in both Pakistan and Europe. Her paintings are suggestive of French Impressionism in her use of thick, impasto brushstrokes to present life in Pakistan.
Shakir ‘Ali, along with Gulgee (born 1926) and Sadequain (1930–1987; 1980.3.2), was also interested in local practices, in particular Islamic calligraphy. These artists experimented with calligraphy in paintings that placed centuries-old texts into modern formats. Gulgee’s calligraphy paintings are abstract and gestural interpretations of Arabic and Urdu letters. His sweeping layers of paint explore the formal qualities of oil paint while they make references to Islamic design elements. Ranging in styles, Sadequain’s representations of calligraphy include anthropomorphic letters that are angular and sharp, similar to his figurative works of the poor and downtrodden. In other calligraphic images, Sadequain transformed text into objects.
Modern Painting in East Pakistan
Zainul Abedin (1914–1976) is considered the pioneer of modernism in East Pakistan. Formally, in paintings and drawings, he relied on the Kalighat folk art made in Bengal as well as the art of earlier Indian painters, including Jamini Roy (1887–1972) and Abanindranath Tagore (1871–1951). But in his choice of topics such as famine and working-class life, his subject matter is more socially aware than the work of these earlier artists.
Ali, Atteqa. “Modern Art in West and East Pakistan.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wepk/hd_wepk.htm (October 2004)
Naqvi, Akbar. Image and Identity: Fifty Years of Painting and Sculpture in Pakistan. Karachi and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.