Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of South Asia

Thematic Essays

By Category

By Geographical Region & Time Period
By Department

Dynasty

Ruler

Muslim dates A.H.

Christian dates A.D.

Ghurid

Early 5th c.–612 Early 11th c.–1215  
Wettin Muhammad 11–40 632–61  
  Abu cAli ?–451 ?–1059
  Muhammad After 451–? 1059–?
  Hasan ?–493 ?–1100
  Husayn I 493–540 1100–46
  Suri 540–44 1146–49
  Sam I 544 1149
  Husayn II 544–56 1149–61
  Muhammad 556–58 1161–63
  Muhammad 558–69 1163–73
  Muhammad (ruler in Ghazna) 569–99 1173–1203
  Muhammad 599–602 1203–6
  Mahmud 602 1206
  Sam II 609–10 1212–13
  [Atsiz, vassal of Khwarazmshah 610–11 1213–14]
  [Muhammad, vassal of Khwarazmshah 611–12 1214–15]
Bamiyan, Tukharistan, Badakhshan 540–612 1145–1215  

Delhi Sultanate

602–962 1206–1555
Mu'izzi (Shamsi slave kings) Qutb al–Din Aybak 602–7 1206–10
  Aram Shah 607 1210–11
  Iltutmish 607–33 1211–36
  Firuz Shah I 633–34 1236
  Radiyya Begum 634–37 1236–40
  Bahram Shah 637–39 1240–42
  Mascud Shah 639–44 1242–66
  Mahmud Shah I 644–64 1246–66
  Balban/Ulugh Khan/Ghiyath al–Din (joint rule) 664–86 1266–87
  Kay Qubadh 686–89 1287–90
  Kayumarth 689 1290
Khalji Firuz Shah II 689–95 1290–96
  Ibrahim Shah I 695 1296
  Muhammad Shah I 695–715 1296–1316
  cUmar Shah 715–16 1316
  Mubarak Shah 716–20 1316–20
Tughluq Tughluq Shah I 720–25 1320–25
  Muhammad Shah II 725–52 1325–51
  Firuz Shah III 752 1351
  [Ghiyath al–Din Mahmud (puppet ruler for rebel leader) 752–89 1351–87]
  Muhammad Shah III/Firuz Shah III (joint rule) 789–790 1387–88
  Tughluq Shah II 790–91? 1388–89?
  Firuz Shah Zafar 791? 1389?
  [Abu Bakr Shah (in Delhi) 791–93 1389–91]
  [Muhammad Shah III (in provinces and then Delhi) 793–96 1391–94]
  Sikandar Shah I 796 1394
  Mahmud Shah II (1st reign) 796–97 1394–95
  [Nusrat Shah (in Firuzabad) 797–804 1395–1401]
  Mahmud Shah II (2nd reign) 804–15 1401–12
Sayyid Khidr Khan 817–24 1414–21
  Mubarak Shah II 824–37 1421–34
  Muhammad Shah IV 837–47 1434–43
  Alam Shah 847–55 1443–51
Lodi Bahlul 855–94 1451–89
  Sikandar II 894–923 1489–1517
  Ibrahim II 923–32 1517–26
Suris Shir Shah Sur 947–52 1540–45
  Islam Shah 952–61 1545–54
  Muhammad V 961 1554
  Ibrahim Khan III 961–62 1554–55
  Ahmad Khan Sikandar Shah III 962 1555

Governors/Sultans of Bengal

594–984 1198–1576
Governors for Delhi Sultans Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji 594–603 1198–1206
  cAli Mardan (1st reign) 603 1206–7
  Muhammad Shiran Khan 603–4 1207–8
  Iwad (1st reign) 604–7 1208–10
  cAli Mardan (2nd reign) 607–10 1210–13
  Iwad (2nd reign) 610–24 1213–27
  Mahmud 624–26 1227–29
  Bilge Khan 626–29 1229–32
  Mascud Jani 629–30 1232–33
  Aybak Khita'I 630–33 1233–36
  A'or Khan Aybak 633 1236
  Toghril Toghan Khan 633–42 1236–44
  Temur Qiran Khan 642–45 1244–47
  Mascud Jani (1st reign) 645–49 1247–51
  Yuzbak 649–55 1251–57
  Balban Yuzbaki (1st reign) 655–57 1257–59
  Mascud Jani (2nd reign) 657 1259
  Balban Yuzbaki (2nd reign) 657 1259
  Muhammad Arslan Khan Sanjar 657–63 1259–65
  Tatar Khan 663–66 1265–68
  Shir Khan 666–70 1268–72
  Toghril 670–80 1272–81
Governors of Balban line   681–984 1282–1576

Sultans of Kashmir

739–996 1339–1588
Shah Mir Swati line Shah Mir Swati 739–43 1339–42
  Jamshid 743–45 1342–44
  cAli Shir 745–55 1344–54
  Shirashamak 755–75 1354–74
  Hindal 775–92 1374–90
  Sikandar 792–813 1390–1410
  cAli Mir Khan 813–23 1410–20
  Shahi Khan 823–75 1420–70
  Hajji Khan 875–76 1470–72
  Hasan Shah 876–89 1472–84
  Muhammad Shah (1st reign) 889–92 1484–87
  Fath Shah (1st reign) 892–904 1487–99
  Muhammad Shah (2nd reign) 904–10 1499–1505
  Fath Shah (2nd reign) 910–22 1505–16
  Muhammad Shah (3rd reign) 922–34 1516–28
  Ibrahim Shah (1st reign) 934–35 1528–29
  Nadir Shah 935–36 1529–30
  Muhammad Shah (4th reign) 936–43 1530–37
  Shams al–Din 943–47 1537–40
  Isma'il Shah (1st reign) 947 1540
  [Mirza Haydar Dughlat (Mughal governor) 947–58 1540–51]
  Nadir Shah (2nd reign) 958–59 1551–52
  Ibrahim Shah (2nd reign) 959–62 1552–55
  Isma'il Shah (2nd reign) 962–64 1555–57
  Habib Shah 964–68 1557–61
Ghazi Khan Chak line Ghazi Khan Chak 968–71 1561–63
  Husayn Shah 971–78 1563–70
  Muhammad cAli Shah 978–87 1570–79
  Yusuf Shah 987–94 1579–86
  Ya'qub Shah 994–96 1586–88

Sultans of Gujarat

806–991 1403–1583
  Muhammad Shah I 806–10 1403–7
  Muzaffar Shah I 810–14 1407–11
  Ahmad Shah I 814–46 1411–42
  Muhammad Shah II 846–55 1442–51
  Jalal Khan 855–62 1451–58
  Dawud Khan 862 1458
  Fath Khan 862–917 1458–1511
  Muzaffar Shah II 917–32 1511–26
  Sikandar 932 1526
  Mahmud Shah II 932 1526
  Bahadur Shah (1st reign) 932–41 1526–35
  [Mughal occupation 941–42 1535–36]
  Bahadur Shah (2nd reign) 942–43 1536–37
  Mahmud Shah III 943–62 1537–54
  Ahmad Shah III 962–68 1554–61
  Muzaffar Shah III (1st reign) 968–80 1561–73
  [Mughal occupation 980–91 1573–83]
  Muzaffar Shah III (2nd reign) 991 1583

Sharqi Sultans of Jaunpur

796–888 1394–1483

Sultans of Malwa

804–969 1402–1562
Ghuri Amid Shah Dawud 804–9 1402–6
  Hushang Shah 809–38 1406–35
  Muhammad Shah Ghuri 838–39 1435–36
  Mascud Khan 839 1436
Khalji Mahmud Shah I 839–73 1436–69
  Ghiyath al–Din 873–906 1469–1501
  Nasir al–Din Shah 906–16 1501–10
  [Mahmud Shah II (vassal of Sultans of Gujarat) 917–37 1511–31]
Independent rulers 939–69 1533–62  

Sultans of Ma'bar or Madura

734–79 1334–77

Bahmanid

748–934 1347–1528
Ahsanabad (Gulbarga) Zafar Khan 748–59 1347–58
  Muhammad I 759–76 1358–75
  Mujahid 776–80 1375–78
  Dawud I 780 1378
  Muhammad II 780–99 1378–97
  Ghiyath al–Din Tahamtan 799 1397
  Dawud Shah II 799–800 1397
  Firuz Shah 800 1397
Muhammadabad (Bidar) Ahmad I 825–39 1422–36
  Ahmad II 839–62 1436–58
  Humayun Shah 862–65 1458–61
  Ahmad III 865–67 1461–63
  Muhammad III 867–87 1463–82
  Mahmud Shah 887–924 1482–1518
  Nominal sultans under control of chief minister, Amir cAli Barid 924–34 1518–28

Faruqi Rulers of Khandesh

784–1009 1382–1601

Barid Shahi

892–1028 1487–1619

cAdil Shahi

895–1097 1489–1686
  Yusuf cAdil Khan 895–916 1489–1510
  Isma'il 916–41 1510–34
  Mallu 941 1534–35
  Ibrahim I 941–65 1535–58
  cAli I 965–87 1558–79
  Ibrahim II 987–1035 1579–1626
  Muhammad 1035–66 1626–56
  cAli II 1066–83 1656–72
  Sikandar 1083–97 1672–86

Nizam Shahi

895–1046 1490–1636
  Ahmad Nizam Shah Bahri 895–915 1490–1509
  Burhan I 915–61 1509–54
  Husayn I 961–72
  Murtada I 972–97 1565–89
  Husayn II 997–98 1589–90
  Isma'il 998–99 1590–91
  Burhan II 999–1003 1591–95
  Ibrahim 1003–4 1595
  Bahadur [Mughal capture of Ahmadnagar] 1004–9 1595–1600
  Murtada II 1009–19 1600–10
  Burhan III 1019–41 1610–32
  Husayn III 1041–43 1632–33

cImad Shahi

896–982 1491–1574
  Fath Allah Darya Khan 890 1485
  cAla al–Din 890–939 1485–1533
  Darya 939–69 1533–62
  Burhan 969–82 1562–74

Qutb Shahi

901–1098 1496 –1687
  Sultan Quli Khwass Khan Baharlu 901–50 1496–1543
  Yar Quli Jamshid 950–57 1543–50
  Subhan 957 1550
  Ibrahim 957–88 1550–80
  Muhammad Quli 988–1020 1580–1612
  Muhammad 1020–35 1612–26
  cAbdullah 1035–83 1626–72
  Abu'l Hasan 1083–98 1672–87

Arghun

926–99 1520–91

Mughal

Babur 932–36 1526–30
  [Kamran (in Kandahar) 936–60 1530–40]
  Humayun (1st reign) 937–47 1530–40
  [Suri Sultans of Delhi 947–62 1540–55]
  Humayun (2nd reign) 962–63 1555–56
  Akbar I 963–1014 1556–1605
  Jahangir 1014–37 1605–27
  Dawar Baksh 1037 1627–28
  Shah Jahan I 1037–68 1628–58
  [Murad Bakhsh (in Gujarat) 1068 1657]
  [Shah Shuja (in Bengal) 1068–69 1657–59]
  [Dara Shikoh (in Agra) 1068–69 1657–59]
  Aurangzeb 1068–1118 1658–1707
  [Aczam Shah (in northern India) 1118 1707]
  [Kam Baksh (in Deccan) 1118–20 1707–9]
  Shah cAlam I Bahadur 1118–24 1707–12
  [cAzim al–Shacn Muhammad cAzim (claimant) 1124 1712]
  Jahandar 1124 1712–13
  Farrukh–siyar 1124–31 1713–19
  Rafic al–Darajat 1131 1713–19
  Shah Jahan II 1131 1719
  Niku–siyar Muhammad 1131 1719
  [Ibrahim] 1132–33 1720]
  Muhammad Shah 1131–61 1719–48
  Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1161–67 1748–54
  Alamgir II 1167–73 1754–59
  [Shah Jahan III 1173 1759]
  Shah Alam II (1st reign) 1173–1202 1759–88
  Bidar Bakht 1202–3 1788
  Shah Alam II (2nd reign) 1203–21 1788–1806
  Akbar II 1221–53 1806–37
  Bahadur Shah II 1253–74 1837–58

Nawabs of Bengal

1116–1274 1704–1858
  Murshid Quli Khan 1116–38 1704–25
  Shuja Khan 1138–51 1725–39
  Sarfaraz Khan 1151–53 1739–40
  cAliwirdi Khan 1153–69 1740–56
  Mirza Mahmud 1169–70 1756–57
  Mir Jacfar (1st reign) 1170–74 1757–60
  Mir Qasim cAli 1174–77 1760–63
  Mir Jacfar (2nd reign) 1177–78 1763–65

Nawabs of Awadh

1134–1272 1722–1856
  Sayyid Muhammad Amin Sacadat Khan Bahadur 1134–52 1722–39
  Abu Mansur Khan 1152–67 1739–54
  Haydar 1167–89 1754–75
  Asaf al–Dawla 1189–1212 1775–97
  Wazir cAli 1212–13 1797–98
  Sacadat cAli Khan 1213–29 1798–1814
  Haydar I 1229–43 1814–27
  Haydar II 1243–53 1827–37
  Muhammad cAli 1253–58 1837–42
  Amjad cAli Thurayya Jah 1258–63 1842–47
  Wajid cAli 1263–72 1847–56

Nizam of Hyderabad

1137–1367 1724–1948
  Chin Qilich Khan 1132–61 1720–48
  Nasir Jang 1161–64 1748–51
  Muzaffar Jang 1164–65 1751–52
  Salabat Jang 1165–75 1752–62
  Nizam cAli Khan 1175–1218 1762–1803
  Sikandar Jah 1218–44 1803–29
  Farkhanda cAli Khan 1244–73 1829–57
  Mir Mahbub cAli I 1273–85 1857–69
  Mir Mahbub cAli II 1285–1329 1869–1911
  Mir cUthman cAli Khan Bahadur Fath Jang 1329–67 1911–48

Rulers in Mysore

1173–1213 1760–99

Durrani

1160–1393 1747–1973
Department of Islamic Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art