In Senufo society, men's poro
and women's sandogo
associations are directly engaged with the spiritual forces that affect human well-being. The fundamental partnership of man and woman is a dynamic that is clearly underscored in Senufo social institutions and forms of artistic expression. This cultural ideal is evident in Senufo accounts of genesis in which Kolotyolo sets life in motion with his creation of a first man and woman who become parents to the first children, a pair of twins, one male and one female. Positioned on an altar, this sculpture and its counterpart
were created to appeal to the intermediaries of nature spirits and to reflect on their patron's status and prestige. The scale of this sculptural pair suggests that they served as spirit figures, or ndebele
), belonging to a senior member of poro
. The term ndebele
refers to both altar figures and to nature spirits, a testimony to their close connection.
The 1963 MPA exhibition brought together a diverse array of Senufo sculpture from its own collection as well as those in important private and public collections to make audiences aware of the range of creative expression concentrated within a single region. Works featured ranged from face and helmet masks to large figurative sculptures, as well as small personal objects. African art scholar Jacqueline Delange summarized Goldwater's curatorial choices with the following words: "It is easy to find in these exhibitions the results of his obstinate efforts to obtain a highly pertinent and exemplary sampling of forms . . . Goldwater's choices were discreet, prudent, preferably oriented by current studies and established knowledge, but always sustained by firm requirements of visual quality."