Madeleine II

Henri Matisse (French, Le Cateau-Cambrésis 1869–1954 Nice)

23 1/4 x 7 1/2 x 7 1/2 in. (59.1 x 19.1 x 19.1 cm)
Credit Line:
The Pierre and Maria-Gaetana Matisse Collection, 2002
Accession Number:
Rights and Reproduction:
© 2011 Succession H. Matisse / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
  • Description

    Although Matisse is best known as a painter, his activities as a sculptor extended through most of his career and resulted in some eighty pieces; the majority are bronzes cast from plaster models. In the 1890s, as an art student in Paris, he had studied and drawn from casts and sculptures in the Louvre as was the academic custom, and his earliest known sculpture-in-the-round (1899-1901) is a study after Antoine-Louis Barye's 1852 bronze, Jaguar Devouring a Hare, from that museum. Soon he began to sculpt compositions of his own devising, focusing exclusively on the human body, most often female, which was the primary subject for his paintings, drawings, and prints as well. The two periods of his greatest sculptural production were 1900-1913 and 1922-32.

    Madeleine, I (1901) and Madeleine, II (1903) are typical of his early figurative work. In both, the serpentine stance of the nude model is accentuated, and she appears momentarily caught by the viewer's gaze, before moving around. The spontaneity of Matisse's first version, sculpted from life in his studio, is not lost in his second version, which has a rougher, more staccato surface that captures light and reflects it back as visual movement. As with other of his sculptures developed in a series, Matisse maintained his initial sensation, while progressively increasing its effect with each subsequent variation.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: (on back of proper left calf): HM 1/10
    (on back of base): [CIRE / C. VALSUANI / PERDUE]

  • Provenance

    Henri Matisse (cast in 1930 - his d. 1954); Estate of Henri Matisse, Paris (1954);
    Pierre Matisse, New York (his share of the HM estate, 1958 - his d. 1989); his widow, Maria-Gaetana Matisse, née von Spreti, New York (1989 - her d. 2001); Pierre and Maria Gaetana Matisse Foundation (2002; gift to MMA).

  • Exhibition History

    "Sculpture by Henri Matisse," Brummer Gallery, New York, January 5-February 7, 1931, exh. cat., no. 29 [unspecified cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture," San Francisco Museum of Art, January 11-February 24, 1936, exh. cat. with preface by G.L.M.M., no. 33 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse," Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lucerne, July 9-October 2, 1949, exh. cat. with texts by A. Troller, Jean Cassou, and H.P. Landolt, no. 285 [unspecified cast];

    "Henri Matisse, Chaoelle, Peinture, Dessins, Sculptures," Maison de la pensée française, Paris, July 5-September 24, 1950, exh. cat. with preface by Louis Aragon, no. 72 [unspecified cast];

    "Contemporary Paintings and Sculpture," Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, December 18, 1951-January 12, 1952, exh cat., no. 27 [unspecified cast];

    "An Exhibition of the Sculpture of Matisse and 3 Paintings with Studies," Tate Gallery, Millbank, London, January 9-February 22, 1953, exh. cat. with preface by Philip James and intro by Jean Cassou, no. 5, ill. pl. 3 [unpsecified cast ];

    "The Sculpture of Henri Matisse," Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, February 10-28, 1953, exh cat. with excerpt from Barr 1951, no. 4, ill. [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Skulpturer, Malerier, Farveklip," Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, November 6-December 6, 1953, exh cat. with foreword by Haavard Rostrup (in Danish), and introduction by Jean Cassou (in English transl.), no. 4, ill. [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse," Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, February 20-March 7, 1954, exh. cat. with foreword by Haarvard Rostrup, and introduction by Jean Cassou, no. 4, pp. 12, 15 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Sculptures, Paintings, Drawings," National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1954, exh. cat. with introduction by Jean Cassou, no. 4 [unspecified cast];

    "Matisse," Museum Boymans, Rotterdam, April 16-June 8, 1954, exh. cat. with preface by J.C. Ebbinge Wubben (in Dutch) and intro. by Jean Cassou (in French), no. 4, ill. [not our cast];

    "Cézanne till Picasso: Fransk konst i Svensk ägo," Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, September 1954, exh. cat. with foreword by Kjell Hägglöf and essay by Ragnar Hoppe, no. 473, p. 104 [unspecified cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Sculptures, Paintings, and Drawings," Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, September 18-October 16, 1955, exh. cat. with preface by Lee Malone and intro by Jean Cassou, no. 4 [unspecified cast];

    "Matisse: Sculptures, Paintings, Drawings," Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, November 1-27, 1955, exh. cat. with foreword by Perry T. Rathbone and intro by Jean Cassou, no. 4 [unspecified cast];

    "Henri Matisse, Apollon, Utställning anordnad i samarbete med Medicinska Föreningen," Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, September 4-23, 1957, exh. cat. by Bo Wennberg, no. 10 [unspecified cast];

    "Henri Matisse, Apollon: Theodor Ahrenbergin Kokoelema," Helsingin Taidehalli, Helsinki, December 10, 1957-January 6, 1958, exh. cat., no. 136 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse, Apollon: Collection Theodor Ahrenberg," Muse?e des Beaux-Arts, Lie?ge, May 3-July 31, 1958, exh. cat. with prefaces by Gösta Lilja and Jules Bosmant and essay by Bertel Hintze, no. 136 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse, das plastische Werk: sa?mtliche Plastiken des Meisters sowie Zeichnungen, Graphik und Collagen als Leihgaben der Sammlung Ahrenberg, Stockholm, der Familie des Ku?nstlers und aus Schweizer Privatbesitz," Kunsthaus Zurich, July 14-August 12, 1959, exh. cat. with foreword by R. W., and essays by Eduard Hüttinger and Ulf Linde (all in German), no. 7, p. 4, ill. [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse, Ur Theodor Ahrenbergs Samling," Göteborgs konstförening, Könsthallen, Göteborg, March 16-April 10, 1960, exh. cat. with forword by Jean Cassou, no. 164 [not our cast];

    Auction sale, "Forty-Nine Bronzes by Matisse - The Property of Mr. and Mrs. Theodor Ahrenberg of Stockholm," Sotheby & Co., London, July 7, 1960, no. 6, p. 12, ill. [not our cast];

    "Exposition Henri Matisse, 1869-1954: peintures, dessins, gouaches, sculptures, gravures," Musée Toulouse-Lautrec, Albi, July 11-September 15, 1961, exh. cat. with preface by Edouard Julien, and intro by Jacques Lassaigne, no. 102 [not our cast];

    Auction sale, "Impressionist and Modern Paintings, Sculptures, Drawings," Parke Bernet Galleries, New York, April 14, 1965, cat. no. 17, ill. p. 16 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Retrospective 1966," UCLA Art Galleries, Los Angeles, January 5-February 27, 1966, Art Institute of Chicago, March 11-April 25, 1966, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, May 5-July 3, 1966 (this venue had its own cat., see below), exh. cat. with essays by Jean Leymarie, Herbert Read, and William S. Liebermann, no. 98, pp. 125 (ill.), 21, 193 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse" (venue of UCLA 1966), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, May 5-July 3, 1966, exh. cat. with excerpts from a letter by Henri Matisse to Mr. Henri Clifford, and "Notes of a Painter" by Henri Matisse, no. 98 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse, exposition du centenaire," Galeries Nationales d'Exposition du Grand Palais, Paris, April 21-September 21, 1970, exh. cat. by Pierre Schneider, no. 231B, ill. p. 276 [not our cast];

    "The Sculpture of Matisse," The Museum of Modern Art, New York, February 24-May 1, 1972, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, June 20-August 6, 1972, University Art Center, University of California, Berkeley, September 18-November 5, 1972, exh. cat. by Alicia Legg, no. 9, pp. 11 (ill.), 12, 50 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse Sculptures," Musée Matisse, Nice, July 29-September 29, 1974, exh. cat. by Colette Audibert, with preface by Jean Leymarie, no. 7, pp. 7, 10, 20, ill. [our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Dessins et sculpture," Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, May 29-September 7, 1975, exh. cat. with introduction by Dominique Bozo, essay by Dominique Fourcade, catalogue by Dominique Fourcade and Isabelle Monod-Fontaine, no. 170, pp. 191-192, ill. [our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: dessins et sculpture / tekeningen en sculpturen" (venue of Paris 1975), Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, September 27-October 26, 1975, exh. cat. with introduction by Dominique Bozo, no. 162 [our cast];

    "Matisse et ses amis," Museum of Fine Arts, Hiroshima, March 14-April 5, 1981, Otani Museum of Fine Arts, Nishinomiya (organizer), April 10-May 5, 1981, Museum of Fine Arts, Kumamoto, May 9-13, 1981, House of Regional Culture, Tokushima Prefecture, June 6-28, 1981, exh. cat. by Colette Audibert, Chu?ji Ikegami, Patrick Ducournau, no. 20, ill. [not our cast];

    "Espace-lumie?re dans des sculptures du cubisme a? aujourd'hui," Château de Ratilly, Treigny, France, June 18-September 10, 1977, exh. cat. with preface by A.M. Hammacher, no. 1 [unspecified cast];

    "La grand aventure du Salon d'automne: 75 ans d'ardeur, " Grand Palais, Paris, November 1979, exh. cat., no. 57, ill.;

    "De Carpeaux à Matisse: La Sculpture française de 1850 à 1914 dans les musées et les collections publiques du Nord de la France, " Musée des Beaux-Arts de Calais, March 18 - June 6, 1982, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lille, June 15 - August 31, 1982, Musée des Beaux-Arts, ancienne abbaye Saint-Waast, Arras, September 15 - November 15, 1982, Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie, Boulogne-sur-Mer, December 1, 1982 - February 1, 1983, Musée Rodin, Paris, February - April 1983, exh. cat. by Anne Pingeot, Françoise Maison, Dominique Viéville, with additional contributions by Chantal Martinet, Antoinette Le Normand-Romain, & Louis-Michel Gohel, no. 142, pp. 260-261, ill. [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse, Sculptor-Painter: A Formal Analysis of Selected Works," Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, May 26-September 2, 1984, exh. cat. by Michael P. Mezzatesta, no. 4, pp. 47-48, ill. [not our cast];

    "The Sculpture of Henri Matisse," City Art Center, Edimburgh, August 3-September 15, 1984, Hayward Gallery, London, October 4, 1984-January 6, 1985, City Art Gallery, Leeds, January 18-March 24, 1985, exh. cat. ed. by Catherine Lampert, with essay by by Isabelle Monod-Fontaine, transl. by David Macey, no. 6, ill. n.p., p. 145 [our cast];

    "Henri Matisse," Moderna Museet, Stockholm, November 3, 1984-January 6, 1985, exh. cat. by Nina Öhman, with introduction by Ulrf Linde, no. 155, p. 69 [unspecified cast];

    "Henri Matisse" Venue of Stockholm 1984-5), Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark, January 19-April 14, 1985, exh. cat. in Louisiana Revy, vol. 25, no. 2 (January 1985), no. 184, p. 67 [unspecified cast];

    "Matisse et l'Italie," Museo Correr, Venice, May 28-October 18, 1987, exh. cat. edited by Pierre Schneider, with essays by Pierre Schneider, Attilio Codognato, Xavier Girard, Christian Arthaud, and Giandomenico Romanelli, entries by Tamara Préaud, no. S7, pp. 169, 227 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse 1869-1954: Skulturen und Druckgraphik / Sculptures et gravures, Kunstmuseum, Bern, November 30, 1990-February 10, 1991, exh. cat. by Xavier Girard and Sandor Kuthy, no. 6, ill. p. 21 [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Zeichnungen und Skulpturen," Saarland Museum, Saarbrücken, May 12-July 7, 1991, exh. cat. by Ernst-Gerhard Güse, with essays by Dominique Fourcade, Xavier Girard, Isabelle Monod-Fontaine, Ernest W. Uthemann, Christian Arthaud, & Ernst-Gerhard Güse, no. 103, ill. [not our cast];

    "De Matisse a? aujourd'hui: La Sculpture du XXe sie?cle dans le collections des muse?es et du Fonds re?gional d'art contemporain du Nord-Pas-de-Calais, " Muse?e Matisse, Le Cateau-Cambrésis, and Musée des Beaux-Arts, Cambrai, February 15-April 26, 1992, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tourcoing, May 8-June 28, 1992, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Calais, and Musée d'art moderne, Dunkerque, July 4-September 14, 1992, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Arras, September-October 1992, exh. cat. by Patrick Le Nouëne, and Dominique Szymuziak, no. 395, pp. 30-31 (ill.), 253 [not our cast];

    "Transform: BildObjektSkulptur im 20. Jahrhundert," Kunstmuseum und Kunsthalle Basel, June 14-September 27, 1992, exh. cat. edited by Theodora Vischer, Matisse section by Susanne Kudielka, no. 7, pp. 28 (ill.) 214 [unspecified cast];

    "Dation Pierre Matisse," Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, June 18-September 13, 1992, exh. cat. by Isabelle Monod-Fontaine and Claude Laugier, essay by Pierre Schneider, pp. 20-21, ill. [not our cast];

    "Matisse, sculptures-dessins, dialogue," Musée Matisse, Le Cateau-Cambrésis, November 6, 1993-February 6, 1994, exh. cat. by Dominique Szymusiak, pp. 38-39, ill. fig. 20 [not our cast];

    Auction sale, "Impressionist and Modern Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture (Part I)," Christie's, New York, November 9, 1994, no. 26, pp. 74-75, ill. [not our cast];

    "Matisse," Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Mar. 20-May 16, 1995, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, May 27-July 9, 1995, and National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, July 19-Sept. 3, 1995, exh. cat. edited by Caroline Turner and Roger Benjamin, no. 20, ills. pp. 147 (figs. 4a, 4b), 179 (fig. 20) [not our cast];

    "Henri Matisse: Sculpture," C&M Arts, New York, September 23- December 12, 1998, exh. cat. with essay by Jack Flam, no. 4, ill. n.p., and checklist n.p. [unspecified cast];

    "The Pierre and Maria-Gaetana Matisse Collection," Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, exh. in three parts, May 18, 2004-June 26, 2005, no cat. (see MMA Bulletin 2004) [our cast];

    "La Colección Pierre & Maria-Gaetana Matisse en The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Nueva York / The Pierre & Maria-Gaetana Matisse Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," Museo Picasso, Malaga, March 26-June 24, 2007, exh. cat. edited by Bernardo Laniado-Romero, texts by Pierre Schneider and Jonathan Pascoe Pratt, ill. p. 140, no. 39, pp. 187, 188 [our cast];

    "Matisse: painter as sculptor," Dallas Museum of Art and Nasher Sculpture Center, January 21-April 29, 2007; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, June 9-September 16, 2007; and Baltimore Museum of Art, October 28, 2007-February 3, 2008, exh. cat. by Dorothy Kosinski, Jay McKean Fisher, & Steven Nash, with essays by Steven Nash, Dorothy Kosinski, Jay McKean Fisher, Ann Boulton, & Oliver Shell, and catalogue by Heather MacDonald, Jed Morse, Oliver Shell, no. 15, p. 76, ill. fig. 69, pp. 114-123, 267, ill. p. 119 [not our cast].

  • References

    André Lhote, Henri Matisse, Robert Rey, Waldemar George, Georges Rouault, Paul Fierens, Roger Fry and Fritz Neugass, "Pour ou contre Henri-Matisse: Enquête, opinions, documents," Chroniques du jour, n.s., vol. 2, no. 9 (April 1931), ill. n.p. (installation photo, 1931 exh., Galerie Brummer NY);

    Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Matisse: His Art and His Public (New York 1951 and 1974), p. 52;

    Gaston Diehl, Henri Matisse (Paris 1958), p. 18;

    Albert E. Elsen, "The Sculpture of Matisse, Part II: Old Problems and New Possibilities," Artforum, vol. 7, no. 2 (October 1968), p. 23, ill.;

    Louis Aragon, Henri Matisse, roman, 2 vols. (Paris 1971), vol. 2, ill. p. 174, fig. 124;

    Albert E. Elsen, The Sculpture of Henri Matisse (New York 1972), pp. 50-56, ills. fig. 54, 59-61;

    Robert Goldwater, "The Sculpture of Matisse" (review of MoMA 1972), Art in America, vol. 60 (March-April 1972), p. 42;

    Albert E. Elsen, "Pioneers and Premises of Modern Sculpture," in Pioneers of Modern Sculpture, exh. cat. (Hayward Gallery, London, 1973), p. 53, ill. [not our cast];

    A. Izerghina, Henri Matisse: Paintings and Sculptures in Soviet Museums (Leningrad 1978), ill. p. 137;

    Pierre Schneider, Matisse, transl. by Michael Taylor and Bridget Strevens Romer (Paris & New York 1984 and 1992), pp. 266, 550, 556, 562; also revised edition (Paris & London 2002), ibid.;

    Gilles Néret, Matisse (Paris 1991), p. 18, fig. 27;

    Gilles Néret, Henri Matisse (Cologne 1996), p. 16;

    Claude Duthuit, Henri Matisse: Catalogue raisonné de l'oeuvre sculpté, in collaboration with Wanda de Guébriant, with preface by Yve-Alain Bois (Paris 1997), no. 10, pp. 20-23 (ills.), 308, 340, 351.

    Magdalena Dabrowski in The American Matisse: The Dealer, His Artists, His Collection. The Pierre and Maria-Gaetana Matisse Collection (New York, 2009), pp. 79-80, 157, ill.