Exhibitions/ Art Object

Portrait of a German Officer

Artist:
Marsden Hartley (American, Lewiston, Maine 1877–1943 Ellsworth, Maine)
Date:
1914
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
68 1/4 x 41 3/8 in. (173.4 x 105.1 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949
Accession Number:
49.70.42
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 910
This monumental painting is the centerpiece of a series that evokes the dynamism, pageantry, and danger of life in Berlin during World War I. The painting’s collagelike appearance, dramatic color, and emotional brushwork attest to Hartley’s skillful synthesis of Cubism and German Expressionism. Hartley’s composition is an abstract portrait of Karl von Freyburg, a Prussian lieutenant whom the artist loved and who died in the war. Von Freyburg is portrayed symbolically with the initials, "K.v.F."; his regiment number, 4; his age at death, 24; and the Iron Cross that he received posthumously.
the artist (from 1914; to Stieglitz); Alfred Stieglitz, New York (by 1935–d. 1946; his estate, 1946–49; gift to MMA)

Münchener Graphik–Verlag, Berlin. "Hartley Exhibition," October 1915 [possibly this work].

Anderson Galleries, New York. "Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters," March 13–25, 1916, brochure no. 51 (as "Portrait of a Young Man"; for sale, $600).

New York. 291. "Exhibition of Paintings by Marsden Hartley," April 4–May 22, 1916, no catalogue.

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Painting and Sculpture by Living Americans, Ninth Loan Exhibition," December 2, 1930–January 20, 1931, no. 42 (as "Portrait of My Friend," lent by An American Place; for sale, $2,000).

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Modern Works of Art: Fifth Anniversary Exhibition," November 20, 1934–January 20, 1935, no. 85 (lent by An American Place).

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Abstract Painting in America," February 12–March 22, 1935, no. 53 (as "Portrait of My Friend," lent by Mr. Alfred Stieglitz).

Cincinnati Modern Art Society. "Marsden Hartley—Stuart Davis," October 24–November 24, 1941, unnumbered cat. (p. 10; as "Portrait of My Friend," lent by An American Place).

Hartford. Wadsworth Atheneum. "Men in Arms," February 2–March 4, 1943, no. 41.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "History of an American, Alfred Stieglitz: '291' and After, Selections from the Stieglitz Collection," July 1–November 1, 1944, no. 241 (as "Portrait of My Friend [German Officer]").

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Alfred Stieglitz Exhibition: His Collection," June 10–August 31, 1947, no catalogue (checklist no. 35).

Art Institute of Chicago. "Alfred Stieglitz: His Photographs and His Collection," February 2–29, 1948, extended to March 7, 1948, no catalogue (checklist no. 56).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "20th Century Painters: A Special Exhibition of Oils, Water Colors and Drawings Selected from the Collections of American Art in the Metropolitan Museum," June 16–October 29, 1950, unnum. brochure (p. 6).

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "From the Alfred Stieglitz Collection: An Extended Loan from the Metropolitan Museum of Art," May 22–August 12, 1951, no catalogue (checklist no. E.L.51.662; loan extended to November 16, 1953).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "American Painting, 1754–1954," December 18, 1953–September 1954, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Columbia Bicentennial Exhibition," October 28, 1954–April 18, 1955, no catalogue.

Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. "Marsden Hartley," February 3–March 6, 1961, no. 13.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Marsden Hartley," February 20–March 25, 1962, no. 13.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Three Centuries of American Painting," April 9–October 17, 1965, unnum. checklist.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 114).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 14, 1970–June 1, 1971, not in catalogue.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Marsden Hartley," March 4–May 25, 1980, no. 32.

Art Institute of Chicago. "Marsden Hartley," June 10–August 3, 1980, no. 32.

Fort Worth. Amon Carter Museum of Western Art. "Marsden Hartley," September 5–October 26, 1980, no. 32.

University Art Museum, University of California at Berkeley. "Marsden Hartley," November 12, 1980–January 4, 1981, no. 32.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "14 Americans," July 16, 1990–January 2, 1991, unnum. checklist.

Berlin. Martin-Gropius-Bau. "Amerikanische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert: Malerei und Plastik; 1913–1993," May 8–July 25, 1993, no. 1.

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "American Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1913–1993," September 16–December 12, 1993, no. 1.

National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries," January 28–April 22, 2001, unnumbered cat. (pl. 75).

Hartford. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. "Marsden Hartley," January 17–April 20, 2003, no. 19.

Washington, D. C. Phillips Collection. "Marsden Hartley," June 7–September 7, 2003, no. 19.

Kansas City, Mo. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. "Marsden Hartley," October 11, 2003–January 11, 2004, no. 19.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keeffe," October 13, 2011–January 2, 2012, no. 99.

Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. "Marsden Hartley - Die deutschen Bilder / The German Paintings, 1913–1915," April 5–June 29, 2014, unnumbered cat. (p. 85).

Magazine of Art 37 (March 1944), p. 86, ill., as "Prussian Officer".

Oliver Larkin. "Alfred Stieglitz and '291'." Magazine of Art 40, no. 5 (1947), p. 183, ill., as "My Friend, 1913".

Howard Devree. "Over A Generation: Two Current Exhibitions That Emphasize the Expansion of American Art." New York Times (May 27, 1951), p. 78.

Elizabeth McCausland. "The Return of the Native: Marsden Hartley." Art in America 40 (Spring 1952), pp. 61-62.

Henry Geldzahler. American Painting in the Twentieth Century. New York, 1965, pp. 58-60, ill.

A. L. Chanin. Art Guide/ New York. New York, 1965, p. 98, no. 145, ill.

Barbara Rose. American Painting: The 20th Century. [Lausanne], [1969], pp. 12, 21, ill.

Barbara Novak. American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience. New York, 1969, p. 267, fig. 15-5.

Peter Plagens. "Marsden Hartley Revisited; or, Were We Really Ever There?" Artforum 7 (May 1969), p. 41.

George M. Cohen. A History of American Art. New York, 1971, p. 174.

Nora B. Beeson. Guide to The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1972, p. 278, fig. 6.

Sam Hunter and John Jacobus. American Art of the Twentieth Century: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. New York, 1973, p. 130, fig. 220.

Henry Geldzahler. "A Bicentennial Treasury: American Masterpieces from the Metropolitan." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 33 (Winter 1975–76), p. 235, ill.

Douglas Davis and Mary Rourke. "American Art 200 Years On." Newsweek 78, no. 6 (February 9, 1976), ill. facing p. 67.

Gail Levin. "Hidden Symbolism in Marsden Hartley's Military Pictures." Arts Magazine 54 (October 1979), pp. 154-56, 158, fig. 1.

John Ashbery. "The Unquiet American." New York Magazine (March 31, 1980), p. 74.

A. T. Baker. "Art: The Return of an Errant Native." Time 116 (July 14, 1980), pp. 68, 70, ill.

Avis Berman. "Marsden Hartley: The Wretched Genius." Sunday Sun (April 27, 1980), pp. D1, D8, ill.

Mark Stevens. "Art: An American Visionary." Newsweek (April 14, 1980), p. 109, ill.

Kathleen Howard, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New York, 1983, p. 430, no. 10, ill.

Anne Harrell and Ellen Mahoney. The Forum Exhibition: Selections and Additions. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art at Philip Morris. New York, 1983, p. 9.

William S. Lieberman. 20th Century Art: Selections from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Vol. 1, Painting: 1905–1945. New York, 1986, pp. 26-27, ill. (overall and detail).

Gail R. Scott. Marsden Hartley. New York, 1988, pp. 53-54, pl. 38.

Townsend Ludington. Marsden Hartley: The Biography of an American Artist. Boston, 1992, pp. 126-27.

Barbara Burn, ed. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 294–95, ill. (color).

Jonathan Weinberg. Speaking for Vice: Homosexuality in the Art of Charles Demuth, Marsden Hartley, and the First American Avant-Garde. New Haven and London, 1993, pp. 3-4, 31-33, 133, 151-52, 154, 157-59, 161-62, 167, fig. 2, pl. 1.

John Russell. "Art View: American Art through European Eyes." New York Times (May 30, 1993), p. H29, ill.

Richard Cork. A Bitter Truth: Avant-Garde Art and the Great War. New Haven and London, 1994, pp. 91-93, pl. 110.

Kathleen Howard, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1983). New York, 1994, p. 437, no. 12, ill. (color).

Patricia McDonnell. Dictated by Life: Marsden Hartley's German Paintings and Robert Indiana's Hartley Elegies. Exh. cat., Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, University of Minnesota. Minneapolis, 1995, pp. 11, 28-29, 44, 82-83, ill.

Bruce Robertson. Marsden Hartley. New York, 1995, pp. 56, 58-59, 64, 98, ill.

Richard Martin. "Warrior's Wardrobe." New York Times (September 22, 1996), p. 76, ill.

Lowery S. Sims and Sabine Rewald. Still Life: The Object in American Art, 1915-1995, Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., Marsh Art Gallery, Richmond, Va. New York, 1997, pp. 16, 18, fig. 9.

Marsden Hartley. Somehow a Past: The Autobiography of Marsden Hartley. Ed. Susan Elizabeth Ryan. Cambridge, Mass., 1997, p. 11, ill.

H. W. Janson. History of Art. 5th ed. New York, 1997, p. 788, fig. 1032.

Sarah Greenough in Sarah Greenough. Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, D. C., 2000, p. 267.

Bruce Robertson in Sarah Greenough. Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, D. C., 2000, pp. 233, 235, 242, colorpl. 75 and ill. frontispiece (color).

Hilton Kramer. "Majestic Stieglitz Show Charts Modernist Course." New York Observer (February 5, 2001), p. 16, ill.

James Aulich and John Lynch, ed. Critical Kitaj: Essays on the Work of R. B. Kitaj. New Brunswick, 2001, p. 9.

Michael Kimmelman. "Art Review: Proselytizing for Modernism." New York Times (February 2, 2001), p. E33, ill.

Erika Doss. Twentieth–Century American Art. Oxford, 2002, pp. 66–67, fig. 28 (color).

James Timothy Voorhies, ed. My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Marsden Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915. Columbia, S. C., 2002, p. ix, pl. 5.

Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser in Marsden Hartley. Ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser. Exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. New Haven, 2002, pp. 12, 18, 30 n. 28.

Donna M. Cassidy in Marsden Hartley. Ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser. Exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. New Haven, 2002, p. 183.

Kristina Wilson in Marsden Hartley. Ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser. Exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. New Haven, 2002, pp. 295–96, no. 19, ill. p. 89 (color).

Stephen Kornhauser and Ulrich Birkmaier in Marsden Hartley. Ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser. Exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. New Haven, 2002, p. 270, fig. 9 (x-ray).

Patricia McDonnell in Marsden Hartley. Ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser. Exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. New Haven, 2002, pp. 53–54.

Jonathan Weinberg in Marsden Hartley. Ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser. Exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. New Haven, 2002, pp. 120–22, 125, 129–31, ill. (color detail).

Patricia McDonnell. Painting Berlin Stories: Marsden Hartley, Oscar Bluemner, and the First American Avant-Garde in Expressionist Berlin. New York, 2003, pp. 93, 96-97, fig. 9.

Vivien Green Fryd. Art and the Crisis of Marriage: Edward Hopper and Georgia O'Keeffe. Chicago, 2003, p. 158, fig. 95.

Robert Berlind. "Hartley's Indicative Objects." Art in America 91 (November 2003), p. 152, ill.

Phyllis A. S. Boros. "An Artist ahead of His Time." Sunday Connecticut Post (January 19, 2003), pp. G1, G3, ill.

Benjamin Genocchio. "Art Review: An Artist's Restless Search for Love, and a Place in the World." New York Times (February 2, 2003), p. 11, ill.

Stephen May. "Marsden Hartley, Four Decades as a Painter." Antiques and the Arts Weekly (February 21, 2003), p. 40, ill.

Phoebe Mitchell. "Art on View: At Last Marsden Hartley." Daily Hampshire Gazette (March 3, 2003).

Brendan O'Connell. "Art: The Awkward Passion of Marsden Hartley." Lakeville Journal (February 13, 2003), ill.

Tracey O'Shaughnessy. "Panorama: Marsden Hartley Earns His Keep on Modernism's Peak." Sunday Republican-American (January 26, 2003), p. 5H.

James Panero. "Marsden Hartley and American Modernism." New Criterion 21 (March 2003), pp. 51–52.

Chelsey Plemmons. "Maine and Mountains." News Times (February 7, 2003), p. D7.

Bruce Weber. The Heart of the Matter: The Still Lifes of Marsden Hartley. Exh. cat., Berry Hill Galleries. New York, 2003, pp. 25, 27, 145 n. 94, fig. 18.

Karen Wilkin. "View/The Gallery: Art Fierce and Gritty." Wall Street Journal (February 21, 2003), p. W14, ill.

Michael FitzGerald. Picasso and American Art. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 2006, p. 32.

Heather Hole. Marsden Hartley and the West: The Search for an American Modernism. Exh. cat., Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe. New Haven, 2007, pp. 4, 19-21, 103, 113, 115, fig. 42, ill. p. 4 (detail).

Joseph J. Rishel and Katherine Sachs, ed. Cézanne and Beyond. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2009, pp. 163–65, fig. 6.5.

Lisa Mintz Messinger in Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keeffe. The Alfred Stieglitz Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ed. Lisa Mintz Messinger. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2011, pp. 134–35, 263–64, no. 99, ill. (color), fig. 18 (installation photo of Exh. New York 1965).

Shawn Digney-Peer in Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keeffe. The Alfred Stieglitz Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ed. Lisa Mintz Messinger. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2011, p. 135.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New York, 2012, p. 406, ill. (color).

Dieter Scholz in Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings, 1913-1915. Ed. Dieter Scholz. Exh. cat., Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Berlin, 2014, pp. 52, 204, ill. p. 85 (color).

Ilene Susan Fort in Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings, 1913-1915. Ed. Dieter Scholz. Exh. cat., Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Berlin, 2014, p. 124.

Thomas Weißbrich in Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings, 1913-1915. Ed. Dieter Scholz. Exh. cat., Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Berlin, 2014, pp. 136–37, ill. pp. 138–39 (color detail; key to motifs).

Kaitlyn Hogue Mellini in Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings, 1913-1915. Ed. Dieter Scholz. Exh. cat., Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Berlin, 2014, pp. 181, 183–84.

Alexia Pooth in Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings, 1913-1915. Ed. Dieter Scholz. Exh. cat., Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Berlin, 2014, pp. 193, 202.



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