"Portraits of Fair Women: Social Leaders of Two Centuries Seen in the Academy." New York Times (November 2, 1894), p. 8, in a description of the opening reception for "Portraits of Women" [Exh. New York 1894], mentions this picture among those "which were at all times being discussed and admired, owing to the fact that their originals are leaders in the social world of today".
"Portraits of Women." Outlook (November 17, 1894), p. 820.
C. M. S. "Gallery and Studio: The Exhibition of Women's Portraits at the Academy." Brooklyn Eagle (November 4, 1894), p. 22.
Arsène Alexandre. Carolus-Duran. Paris, 1903, ill. p. 23, as "Portrait de Mme Astor".
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX Century." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, 1966, p. 195, ill., note the influence of Velázquez in the pose and costume.
Denys Sutton in Paris—New York: A Continuing Romance. Exh. cat., Wildenstein. New York, 1977, p. 54, under no. 56, pl. VIII.
Gary A. Reynolds. "John Singer Sargent's Portraits: Building a Cosmopolitan Career." Arts Magazine 62 (November 1987), p. 43, fig. 3, discusses this picture as an example of the artist's "tendency to add a veneer of academic finish to his important commissioned portraits," noting the tightened brushwork in the head and hands.
Marie Simon. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London, 1995, pp. 102–3, 246 n. 40, ill. (color), notes that Mrs. Astor's dress was designed by Worth and displays a combination of seventeenth-century elements, possibly inspired by van Dyck paintings.
Eleanor Dwight and Viola Hopkins Winner. Edith Wharton's World: Portraits of People and Places. Exh. cat., National Portrait Gallery. Washington, 1997, p. 6, ill. (color), remark that Mrs. Astor wears a masquerade costume representing Mary, Queen of Scots.
Monique Nonne in Carolus-Duran. Exh. cat., Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille. Paris, 2003, p. 38, notes the importance of this picture for Carolus-Duran's popularity among American high society.
Barbara Dayer Gallati in Barbara Dayer Gallati. High Society. American Portraits of the Gilded Age. Exh. cat., Bucerius Kunst Forum. Hamburg, 2008, p. 16, fig. 2 (color).
Eric Homberger in Barbara Dayer Gallati. High Society. American Portraits of the Gilded Age. Exh. cat., Bucerius Kunst Forum. Hamburg, 2008, p. 35.