"Winter Exhibition at the French Gallery." Athenæum no. 2246 (November 12, 1870), p. 631, as "A Bachi-Bouzouck".
Samuel Putnam Avery Sr. Journal entry. July 21, 1873 [published in Madeleine Fidell Beaufort et al., eds., "The Diaries, 1871–1882, of Samuel P. Avery, Art Dealer," New York, 1979, p. 187], notes that he purchased this work from Wallis for £550.
"Opened: The Loan Exhibition for the Bartholdi Pedestal." Brooklyn Daily Eagle (January 10, 1884), p. 2.
"Propitious: The First Day of the Bartholdi Loan Exhibition." Brooklyn Daily Eagle (January 11, 1884), p. 2.
"The Bartholdi Statue: Brooklyn's Loan Exhibition of Paintings in Aid of the Pedestal Fund." New York Times (January 13, 1884), p. 6.
Fanny Field Hering. Gérôme: The Life and Works of Jean Léon Gérôme. New York, 1892, p. 211.
Gerald M. Ackerman. The Life and Work of Jean-Léon Gérôme, with a catalogue raisonné. London, 1986, p. 276, no. 193, ill. pp. 79 and 227 (color and bw), calls it "Black Bashi-Bazouk" and "Bachi-Bouzouk nègre," dates it 1869, and sates that it is an anonymous loan to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
19th Century European Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture. Sotheby's, New York. October 27, 1988, unpaginated, under no. 55, states that the painting is on loan to the National Gallery of Art, Washington.
Gerald M. Ackerman. Jean-Léon Gérôme: Monographie révisée, catalogue raisonné mis à jour. 2nd rev. ed. (1st ed., 1986). Paris, 2000, p. 272, no. 193, ill. pp. 84, 273 (color and black and white), calls it "Bachi-Bouzouk nègre" and dates it 1869.
Stephen R. Edidin in Gérôme & Goupil: Art and Enterprise. Exh. cat., Musée Goupil, Bordeaux. Paris, 2000, pp. 125–26, under no. 79, ill., p. 157 [French ed., Paris, 2000].
Gary Tinterow and Asher Ethan Miller in The Wrightsman Pictures. New York, 2005, pp. 390–92, no. 110, ill. (color and black and white), note that "Bashi-bazouk" is the transliteration of a Turkish term meaning "headless"; state that this picture was probably begun by the middle of 1868 and completed by March 1869.
Everett Fahy in Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977–2008. New York, 2009, p. 33.
Sophie Makariou and Charlotte Maury in The Spectacular Art of Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904). Exh. cat., J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Paris, 2010, p. 260, fig. 122 (color).
Gary Tinterow in "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 2008–2010." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 68 (Fall 2010), p. 58, ill. (color).