Édouard Manet. Letter to Burty. July 20 or 21, 1864 [published in Ref. Moreau-Nélaton 1926, vol. 1, p. 61], writes from Boulogne-sur-mer that he went to see the Kearsarge docked in Boulogne.
Édouard Manet. Letter to M. Martinet. January 1865 [published in Ref. Moreau-Nélaton 1926, vol. 1, p. 62], includes it as no. 7, titled "La mer: la navire fédéral Kerseage [sic] en rade de Boulogne-sur-mer," in a list of works that he sent to the Martinet Gallery for the 1865 exhibition.
G. Randon. "L'exposition d'Édouard Manet." Le Journal amusant no. 600 (June 29, 1867), p. 6, illustrates a caricature with the caption, "Bateau de pêche arrivant vent arriére. Quel diable peut donc pousser l'artiste à faire et surtout à nous montrer des machines come ça, quand rien ne l'y oblige?", no. 45 in the 1867 Alma exhibition.
Émile Zola. Éd. Manet: Étude biographique et critique, accompagnée d'un portrait d'Éd. Manet par Bracquemond, et d'une eau-forte d'Éd. Manet, d'après "Olympia". Paris, 1867, p. 38, refers to the painting as "Bateau de pêche arrivant vent arrière" and notes that the magnificent waves testify to the artist's familiarity with and love of the ocean.
Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, p. 213, no. 83, erroneously calls it "L'Alabama au large de Cherbourg".
Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, pp. 61–62, fig. 61, reprints letters written by Manet.
Paul Jamot. "Études sur Manet: Manet peintre de marine et "Le combat du 'Kearsage' et de 'l'Alabama'." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 15 (June 1927), pp. 385, 387–89, ill., discusses the letter that Manet wrote to Burty [see Ref. Manet 1864], and proposes that Manet was not looking at the Kearsarge, but at the Alabama; explains the error in titling this picture "L'Alabama au large de Cherbourg" [see Ref. Duret 1902], noting the difference in the placement of the masts on the Kearsarge and Alabama.
A. Tabarant. "Les Manet de la collection Havemeyer." La Renaissance 13 (February 1930), pp. 60, 66–67, 69, ill., notes that it was exhibited at the special exhibition of 1867, at Avenue de l'Alma, under the title "Steamboat"; provides early provenance.
H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, pp. 390–91, ill., calls it "L'Alabama au large de Cherbourg", but notes that it is probably the Kearsarge and not the Alabama.
A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 112–13, no. 70, calls it "Le Kearsage au large de Boulogne".
Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. I, pp. 16–19, 79, 127, no. 88; vol. 2, fig. 293, call it "Le 'Kearsage' à Boulogne".
Marcel Guérin. L'œuvre gravé de Manet. Paris, 1944, unpaginated, under no. 35, notes that the boat in the engraving "Marine" was taken from this painting.
Joseph C. Sloane. "Manet and History." Art Quarterly 14 (Summer 1951), pp. 94–95, 98, fig. 5, remarks that Manet used practically the same design in this painting as in the "Battle of the Kearsarge and Alabama" (Rouart and Wildenstein no. 76; Philadlephia Museum of Art).
Anne Coffin Hanson. "A Group of Marine Paintings by Manet." Art Bulletin 64 (December 1962), p. 332–35, ill. opp. 331, discusses it in relation to "The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama" (Philadelphia Museum of Art) and to an etching "Marine" (Guérin no. 35) where the boat on the left has been reversed as if directly drawn on a plate from this picture.
John Rewald. "Théo van Gogh, Goupil, and the Impressionists." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 81 (January 1973), pp. 50–51, fig. 25, notes that Theo van Gogh sold this to Goùpy erroneously titled as "L'Alabama à l'ancre".
Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 13, 84–85, no. 75, ill.
Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 221–24, no. 84, ill. (color) [French ed., Paris, 1983], suggests that this painting was not no. 34, "Steamboat," in the 1867 Alma exhibition but rather no. 45, "Bateau de pêche arrivante vent arriére".
Françoise Cachin. Manet. [Paris], 1990, p. 149, no. 19, ill., erroneously as in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. Ed. Susan Alyson Stein. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 222–23, 333 n. 320.
Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 223, colorpl. 209.
Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 352–53, no. A347, ill.
Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 406–7, no. 100, ill. [French ed., Paris, 1994, pp. 403–4, no. 100, ill.].
Gary Tinterow in Gary Tinterow and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 235–36, 248, 426, 467, fig. 289 (color) [French ed., "Impressionnisme: les origines, 1859–1869," Paris, 1994, pp. 235–36, 248, 424, fig. 289 (color)].
Ronald Pickvance. Manet. Exh. cat., Fondation Pierre Gianadda. Martigny, 1996, pp. 74, 180–82, 222–23, no. 22, colorpl., remarks that the high horizon line suggests that Manet was drawing on design principles seen in Japanese woodblock prints.
Gary Tinterow in "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 1999–2000." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 58 (Fall 2000), pp. 5, 143, ill. (color).
Juliet Wilson-Bareau with David C. Degener. Manet and the American Civil War: The Battle of the U.S.S. "Kearsage" and C.S.S. "Alabama". Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2003, pp. 6–9, 55–59 nn. 11, 14, pp. 64–67, 69, 71, 74, 77–80, 82, fig. 30 (color) and front cover (color detail), date it late summer or fall 1864, adding that Manet probably painted it in his Paris studio in September of that year, using pencil sketches executed at the scene.
Juliet Wilson-Bareau and David Degener. Manet and the Sea. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Philadelphia, 2003, pp. 64–67, 105, 109, colorpl. 12, call it "U.S.S. 'Kearsage' off Boulogne—Fishing Boat Coming in before the Wind"; consider "The Steamboat, Seascape with Porpoises" (Philadelphia Museum of Art) a possible pendant.
Joseph J. Rishel and Douglas W. Druick in Juliet Wilson-Bareau and David Degener. Manet and the Sea. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Philadelphia, 2003, p. xv.
Bill Scott in Juliet Wilson-Bareau and David Degener. Manet and the Sea. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Philadelphia, 2003, p. 227.
Hugues Wilhelm in Women in Impressionism: From Mythical Feminine to Modern Woman. Ed. Sidsel Maria Søndergaard. Exh. cat., Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. Milan, 2006, pp. 282, 303 n. 25.
Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, pp. 138, 147.
Colin B. Bailey in Renoir Landscapes: 1865–1883. Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 2007, p. 102 n. 6.