Giovanni Rosini. Storia della pittura italiana esposta coi monumenti. Supplement, Pisa, 1847, pl. 198 (engraving), as in the Vallardi collection, Milan; attributes it to an unknown fourteenth-century painter.
Antonio Muñoz. "Moyen-Âge—Renaissance—Époque Moderne." Pièces de choix de la collection du comte Grégoire Stroganoff. 2, Rome, 1911, p. 15, pl. VIII, ascribes it to Giottino.
Raimond van Marle. "The Florentine School of the 14th Century." The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 3, The Hague, 1924, p. 421 n. 1.
Raimond van Marle. Letter. February 1, 1926, attributes it to Pietro Lorenzetti or perhaps Ambrogio Lorenzetti painting under Pietro's influence.
Lionello Venturi. "Contributi a Masolino, a Lorenzo Salimbeni e a Jacopo Bellini." L'arte 33 (March 1930), pp. 165–66, fig. 1, considers it an early work of Masolino and notes the influence of Lorenzo Monaco.
Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. CLV, as by Masolino.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 494, lists it as by Rossello di Jacopo Franchi.
Bernard Berenson. "Quadri senza casa: Il Trecento fiorentino, V." Dedalo 12 (1932), p. 192, ill. p. 191 (detail), tentatively ascribes it to Rossello di Jacopo Franchi.
Mario Salmi. Masaccio. Rome, , p. 134, rejects the attribution to Masolino and attributes it an anonymous Florentine painter close to Masolino and Arcangelo di Cola da Camerino.
Richard Offner. "The Mostra del Tesoro di Firenze Sacra—II." Burlington Magazine 63 (October 1933), p. 173, pl. II C, attributes it to an anonymous Florentine painter, calling him the Master of the Griggs Crucifixion and reconstructing his oeuvre and activity.
Lionello Venturi. "Fifteenth Century Renaissance." Italian Paintings in America. 2, New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 185.
Mario Salmi. "Aggiunte al Tre e al Quattrocento fiorentino." Rivista d'arte 16 (1934), pp. 178, 180, accepts Offner's [see Ref. 1933] attribution to the Master of the Griggs Crucifixion.
Hans Tietze. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935, p. 326, pl. 41 [English ed., "Masterpieces of European Painting in America," New York, 1939, p. 310, pl. 41], attributes it to Masolino.
Alfred M. Frankfurter. "The Maitland F. Griggs Collection." Art News 35 (May 1, 1937), p. 30, ill. p. 39.
Georg Pudelko. "The Maestro del Bambino Vispo." Art in America 26 (April 1938), p. 63 n. 31, accepts Offner's grouping of pictures ascribed to the Master of the Griggs Crucifixion.
Charles Sterling. La peinture française: Les primitifs. Paris, 1938, p. 151 n. 50, observes its relationship to the work of the Limbourg brothers; dates it about 1400–1410.
Roberto Longhi. "Fatti di Masolino e di Masaccio." Critica d'arte, part 2, 25–26 (July–December 1940), p. 185 n. 22, accepts Offner's grouping of pictures ascribed to the Master of the Griggs Crucifixion.
Francis Henry Taylor. "The Maitland F. Griggs Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 2 (January 1944), ill. p. 157, as from the workshop of Masolino.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School. London, 1963, vol. 1, p. 193, pl. 547, tentatively attributes it to Rossello di Jacopo.
M[iklós]. Boskovits, M[iklós]. Mojzer, and A[ndrás]. Mucsi. Das Christliche Museum von Esztergom (Gran). Budapest, 1965, p. 28, under no. 4, note similarities between the style of Rossello di Jacopo and the Master of the Griggs Crucifixion, suggesting the two may have worked in the same shop.
Luciano Bellosi. "Il Maestro della Crocifissione Griggs: Giovanni Toscani." Paragone 17 (March 1966), pp. 44, 57, identifies the Master of the Griggs Crucifixion as Giovanni Toscani and dates this work to his late period, observing the influence of both Gentile da Fabriano and Fra Angelico.
Bernard Berenson. Homeless Paintings of the Renaissance. Bloomington, 1970, pp. 150–51, 250, fig. 266 (detail) [same text as Ref. Berenson 1932 (Dedalo)].
Everett Fahy. "Florentine Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum: An Exhibition and a Catalogue." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 29 (June 1971), p. 433, ill., attributes it to Giovanni Toscani.
Edmund P. Pillsbury. Florence and the Arts: Five Centuries of Patronage. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1971, unpaginated, under no. 4, attributes it to Giovanni Toscani.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Florentine School. New York, 1971, pp. 75–77, ill., attribute it to Giovanni Toscani, finding elements reminiscent of Masolino, Lorenzo Monaco, and late Gothic sculpture.
Marvin Eisenberg. "'The Penitent St Jerome' by Giovanni Toscani." Burlington Magazine 118 (May 1976), pp. 276, 279–80, figs. 13, 14, 17, 19 (overall and details), compares it to a panel of Saint Jerome in the Princeton University Art Museum, attributing both works to Giovanni Toscani.
Charles Sterling. "Jan van Eyck avant 1432." Revue de l'art no. 33 (1976), p. 80 n. 116, accepts Berenson's [see Ref. 1932] attribution to Rossello di Jacopo.
Federico Zeri. Italian Paintings in the Walters Art Gallery. Baltimore, 1976, vol. 1, p. 29.
Hugh Brigstocke. Italian and Spanish Paintings in the National Gallery of Scotland. [Edinburgh], 1978, p. 172, finds the attribution to Giovanni Toscani convincing.
Luciano Bellosi in Arte in Lombardia tra Gotico e Rinascimento. Exh. cat., Palazzo Reale. Milan, 1988, p. 196, relates this work and the Princeton Saint Jerome to the early activity of Fra Angelico, rejecting the attribution to Giovanni Toscani.
Andrea De Marchi in Pittura di luce: Giovanni di Francesco e l'arte fiorentina di metà Quattrocento. Exh. cat., Casa Buonarroti, Florence. Milan, 1990, p. 85, suggests that it may be an early work by Fra Angelico.
Miklós Boskovits. Immagini da meditare: ricerche su dipinti di tema religioso nei secoli XII-XV. Milan, 1994, p. 365 n. 46, figs. 266, 268 (overall and detail), accepts the attribution to Fra Angelico; dates it about 1415–20.
Carl Brandon Strehlke in Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence 1300–1450. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 31, 42, 324–26, no. 46, ill. (color), as attributed to Fra Angelico; dates it about 1424–25, when Angelico's style was closest to that of Gentile da Fabriano; states that the group of figures around the fainting Virgin may derive from a prototype by Arcangelo di Cola da Camerino; suggests it was the center of a triptych or part of a diptych, possibly opposite the Adoration of the Magi in the Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg.
John T. Spike. Angelico. Milan, 1996, p. 263, no. 137, ill., rejects the attribution to Fra Angelico.
Graham Hughes. Renaissance Cassoni, Masterpieces of Early Italian Art: Painted Marriage Chests 1400–1550. Alfriston, England, 1997, pp. 188, 208, 224.
Giorgio Bonsanti. Beato Angelico. Florence, 1998, pp. 115–16, no. 8, ill. pp. 23–24 (color, overall and detail), believes it was painted by two different artists, attributing the crucified Christ and background figures to Fra Angelico.
Laurence B. Kanter in Rediscovering Fra Angelico: A Fragmentary History. Exh. cat., Yale University Art Gallery. New Haven, 2001, pp. 19, 37 n. 6, fig. 3, calls it "one of Fra Angelico's earliest masterpieces".
Luciano Bellosi in Masaccio e le origini del Rinascimento. Exh. cat., Casa Masaccio, San Giovanni Valdarno. Milan, 2002, p. 46, fig. 43 (detail).
Giorgio Bonsanti in Masaccio e le origini del Rinascimento. Exh. cat., Casa Masaccio, San Giovanni Valdarno. Milan, 2002, p. 172.
Carl Brandon Strehlke. "The Princeton 'Penitent Saint Jerome,' the Gaddi Family, and Early Fra Angelico." Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University 62 (2003), pp. 21, 23–24 nn. 110–11, figs. 22, 24 (overall and detail), attributes it to Fra Angelico and dates it about 1420–22; relates the figure of Christ to that in a "Crucifixion with Saints Dominic and Thomas Aquinas" (Santa Maria Novella, Florence) and a "Crucifix" (Saibene collection, Milan), both of which he attributes to Angelico and dates slightly earlier than the MMA work; publishes the inscription on the horse's bridle reading "frater Johannes", noting that it could be either the artist's signature or a reference to the owner; remarks that the painting is the right size and subject matter to have been made as a devotional picture for a monastic cell and that it may be one of Angelico's first surviving works for a Dominican patron.
Carl Brandon Strehlke. Italian Paintings 1250–1450 in the John G. Johnson Collection and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2004, p. 417.
Laurence Kanter in Fra Angelico. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 11–12, 50, 52–54, 56, 77, no. 8, ill. (color), attributes it to Fra Angelico and relates it to the artist's high altarpiece for San Domenico, which he dates 1420–21; believes it probably originally served as the central pinnacle of an altarpiece.
Pia Palladino in Fra Angelico. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, p. 34, includes it among works "now almost unanimously regarded as autograph products of Angelico's early years".
Lorenzo Sbaraglio in Gentile da Fabriano and the Other Renaissance. Exh. cat., Spedale di Santa Maria del Buon Gesù, Fabriano. Milan, 2006, p. 278 [Italian ed., "Gentile da Fabriano e l'altro Rinascimento"], mentions it as "today recognized as the work of the young Fra Angelico".
Giorgio Bonsanti in Beato Angelico: L'alba del Rinascimento. Exh. cat., Musei Capitolini, Rome. Milan, 2009, p. 27, fig. 4 (color), reiterates his attribution [see Ref. 1998] to Fra Angelico and his belief that the five foreground figures are by a different hand; dates it about 1423.
Mara Minasi in Beato Angelico: L'alba del Rinascimento. Exh. cat., Musei Capitolini, Rome. Milan, 2009, p. 148, under no. 2, mentions that it is now attributed to Fra Angelico.