Relación y inventario de las alhajas que hay en la casa y fortaleza de la villa de Batres [Inventory of the possessions of Pedro Laso de la Vega, II Conde de Arcos y IV Conde de Añover]. 1639 [Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan, Madrid; see Ref. Caviro 1985, pp. 220–21], lists "dos medianos [cuadros] de Domenico Greco, el un retrato de un pedazo de Toledo, el otro retrato del monasterio de la gran Camáldula," which were appraised at 300 reales apiece, and sold together for 400 reales [the "pedazo de Toledo" may be the MMA picture].
Antonio Ponz. "Trata de Madrid." Viage de España. 5, Madrid, 1776, p. 54, reports seeing "dos quadritos del Greco, que son una vista de Toledo, y la Oracion del Huerto" in the Convent of Agustinos Recoletos, Madrid (possibly our picture).
D. Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. Diccionario histórico de los más ilustres profesores de las bellas artes en España. Madrid, 1800, vol. 6, p. 12, cites a "View of Toledo" (possibly our picture) in the antechamber of the Chapel of Our Lady of Copocavana in the Church of the Recoletos, Madrid.
Paul Lafond. "Domenikos Theotokopuli, dit Le Greco." Les arts 5 (October 1906), pp. 19, 26–27, ill., as in the Oñate collection, Madrid.
Manuel B. Cossío. El Greco. Madrid, 1908, vol. 1, pp. 451–56, 565, no. 83; vol. 2, pl. 137, dates it from El Greco's "last period, 1604–14"; notes that he discovered it in the collection of the Condesas de Añover y de Castañeda in the Palacio de Oñate, Madrid; compares the landscape to a drawing by Giorgione in the Uffizi (Florence).
Albert F. Calvert and C. Gasquoine Hartley. El Greco: An Account of His Life and Works. London, 1909, pp. 156–57, pl. 60.
Maurice Barrès and Paul Lafond. Le Greco. Paris, , p. 160, as in the collection of Durand-Ruel, Paris.
August L. Mayer. El Greco: Eine Enführung in das Leben und Wirken des Domenico Theotocopuli gennant El Greco. Munich, 1911, pp. 58, 60, pl. 75.
Paul Lafond. Le Greco: Essai sur sa vie et sur son oeuvre. Paris, n.d. [after 1911], pp. 75–76.
Maurice Barrès. Greco, ou le secret de Tolède. Paris, 1912, pp. 41, 131, ill. (frontispiece).
Hugo Kehrer. Die Kunst des Greco. Munich, 1914, pp. 83–84, 94, pl. 53, dates it 1614; calls it "Toledo in a Storm".
"Pictures Lent for the Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 15 (August 1920), p. 189, notes that El Greco reverses the positions of the Alcázar and the cathedral "for the sake of greater intensity".
Max Dvorák. "Über Greco und den Manierismus." Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 1 (1921–22), p. 38, fig. 14.
August L. Mayer. Geschichte der spanischen Malerei. Leipzig, 1922, pp. 250–51, fig. 192.
Elizabeth du Gué Trapier. El Greco. New York, 1925, pp. 129–30, pl. 35, states that landscapes of this kind are not uncommon in contemporary Flemish art, but very unusual in Spanish art.
C. Nasse. "Tintoretto und Greco." Die Kunst für Alle 41 (1925–26), p. 182.
August L. Mayer. Dominico Theotocopuli, El Greco. Munich, 1926, pp. xxxii, 50, no. 315, pl. 68, as a late work; calls it "Toledo in a Storm" and describes it as "a paraphrase of the city".
Hugo Kehrer. Spanische Kunst von Greco bis Goya. Munich, 1926, pp. 97–99, ill., calls it "Toledo in a Lightning Storm".
F. de B. San Román. "De la vida del Greco (Nueva serie de documentos inéditos)." Archivo español de arte y arqueología 3 (1927), p. 300, identifies it with nos. 137 and 138 from Jorge Manuel's 1621 inventory: "Dos paises de Toledo, de bara y terzia en quadrado" [about 44 in.]; states that only one such landscape survives.
J.-F. Willumsen. La jeunesse du peintre El Greco: Essai sur la transformation de l'artiste byzantin en peintre européen. Paris, 1927, pp. 669–72, pl. 102, calls it "Toledo with the Bridge of Alcantara"; dates it about 1604–14; notes that the tower on the bridge on the town side is "an invention of El Greco's" noting that the tower there, "is square, not octagonal".
Emilio H. del Villar. El Greco en España. Madrid, 1928, pp. 158–59, pl. 39, notes that this painting served as a model for Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo's "View of Zaragoza" [Prado, Madrid].
Frank Rutter. El Greco (1541–1614). New York, , pp. 17, 64–65, 99, no. 88, pl. 4, calls it "Toledo in a Storm" and dates it 1604–14; notes that he saw this painting in Paris at the "Salon d'Automne" in 1908; rejects Cossío's [Ref. 1908] suggestion that El Greco was influenced by Giorgione's "Tempest" in the Uffizi, and suggests that he may have gotten "his idea from one of those Byzantine topographical woodprints of holy places, which were treasured by the pious unable to make a pilgrimage"; erroneously calls it "the first pure landscape in European art, for the composition is not marred by the intrusion of a single human figure".
Frank Gray Griswold. El Greco. 1930, pp. 39–40.
Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "The Havemeyer Pictures." The Arts 16 (March 1930), pp. 458–62.
H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, pp. 52–53, ill., as "Landscape—View of Toledo".
August L. Mayer. El Greco. Berlin, 1931, pp. 138, 140, fig. 9, as a "very late work".
M. Seuphor. Greco: Considérations sur sa vie et sur quelques unes de ses oeuvres. Paris, 1931, pp. 12, 98, 103, dates it about 1610.
Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Masterpieces of Landscape Painting in American Collections." Fine Arts 18 (December 1931), pp. 22, 25, ill., calls it "the first impressionistic landscape...the first landscape not painted exactly as it seemed, or as well as the artist could render it"; notes that "for dramatic content [the picture] has remained unsurpassed among the landscapes of four centuries".
Jean Cassou. Le Gréco. Paris, 1931, p. 62.
Charles Sterling. "Cézanne et les maîtres d'autrefois." La Renaissance 19 (May–June 1936), pp. 11, 14, fig. 11, compares this picture with Cézanne's "Gardanne" (Dr. H.F. Hirschland collection, New York).
Raymond Escholier. Greco. Paris, 1937, p. 150.
M. Legendre and A. Hartmann. Domenikos Theotokopoulos, called El Greco. Paris, 1937, colorpl. 16, as from his "last period"; call it "View of Toledo under Storm".
Ludwig Goldscheider. El Greco. London, 1938, p. 223, ill. (color), dates it 1600–1610.
Hans Vollmer in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 33, Leipzig, 1939, p. 7.
Hugo Kehrer. Greco als Gestalt des Manierismus. Munich, 1939, pp. 97–98, 111–12, fig. 14, lists it with his late masterpieces as "Toledo in a Lightning Storm".
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 231–32, ill.
Kurt Pfister. El Greco. Zürich, 1941, pp. 118, 138, ill.
Margaret Breuning. "Metropolitan Re-Installs Its Treasures in Attractive Settings." Art Digest 18 (June 1, 1944), p. 6.
Ignacio de Beryes. Domenicos Theotocopoulos, El Greco. Barcelona, [1944?], p. 19.
Harry B. Wehle. "Notes on the Cover." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 3 (June 1945), ill. opp. p. 233 and on front cover (color).
Leo Bronstein. El Greco. New York, 1950, pp. 110–11, ill. (color).
José Camón Aznar. Dominico Greco. Madrid, 1950, vol. 2, pp. 969–70, 972, 1391, no. 699, fig. 753, dates it after 1605; compares the handling of the sky with that of a fragment by El Greco in the Hirsch collection, New York.
Lillian Ross. "Profiles: How do you like it now, gentlemen?" New Yorker (May 13, 1950), pp. 36, 58 [reprinted as "Portrait of Hemingway," New York, 1961, p. 58], records Ernest Hemingway's comments on this painting during a visit to the Museum, noting that he described it as "the best picture in the Museum for me, and Christ knows there are some lovely ones".
André Malraux. Les voix du silence. [Paris], 1951, pp. 433, 435, ill.
Lewis Mumford. "Standardization, Reproduction and Choice." Magazine of Art 45 (February 1952), pp. 55–56, ill.
John F. Matthews. El Greco (Domenicos Theotocopoulos), (1541–1614). New York, 1953, unpaginated, pl. 30 (color), dates it 1604–14.
Max Dvorák. "El Greco and Mannerism." Magazine of Art 46 (January 1953), p. 21.
Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), pp. 4, 28, ill.
Raymond Cogniat. Histoire de la peinture. 1, [Paris], 1954, vol. 1, p. 133, ill. (color).
Frederic Taubes. "Five New Masters." American Artist 18 (January 1954), p. 20.
Manuel B. Cossío with the assistance of Natalia Cossío de Jiménez in Dominico Theotocopuli, El Greco. Oxford, 1955, pp. 20, 40 n. 51, no. 11, pl. 11, as from his "last period".
Antonina Vallentin. El Greco. Garden City, N.Y., 1955, pp. 241, 246–47, pl. 83.
Paul Guinard. El Greco: Biographical and Critical Study. [Lausanne?], , pp. 106, 109.
G. Marañón. El Greco y Toledo. Madrid, 1956, pp. 255, 261, 269–70, ill. (overall and detail).
A. Hyatt Mayor. "The Gifts that Made the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 16 (November 1957), p. 100.
Halldor Soehner. "Greco in Spanien." Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst, 3rd ser., 8 (1957), pp. 158–59, 162–64, 167, dates it about 1600–1602.
Juan Antonio Gaya Nuño. La pintura española fuera de España. Madrid, 1958, p. 205, no. 1412.
Martin Soria in George Kubler and Martin Soria. Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal and their American Dominions, 1500 to 1800. Baltimore, 1959, p. 218, pl. 111A, dates it about 1604–10.
Theodore Rousseau Jr. "El Greco's 'Vision of Saint John'." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 17 (June 1959), pp. 241, 244–45, ill.
Ernest W. Watson. "Mood: A Chapter from the Author's New Book: "Composition in Landscape and Still Life"." American Artist 23 (October 1959), pp. 33–34.
Karl Ipser. El Greco, der Maler des christlichen Weltbildes. Braunschweig, 1960, pp. 267–71, ill. (overall and detail), calls it "Storm over Toledo" and dates it about 1605.
Hugo Kehrer. Greco in Toledo: Höhe und Vollendung, 1577–1614. Stuttgart, 1960, pp. 68–69, ill., dates it 1608.
Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, pp. 139, 141, 156.
Pál Kelemen. El Greco Revisited: Candia, Venice, Toledo. New York, 1961, pp. 142–44, pls. 104A, 105C (overall and detail), notes that it is thinly painted on loosely woven canvas and "wonders whether it was not executed for some temporary construction, eventually in combination with another, complementary landscape".
Harold E. Wethey. El Greco and His School. Princeton, 1962, vol. 1, pp. 63–64; vol. 2, pp. 85–86, no. 129, figs. 141–42 (overall and detail), dates it about 1595–1600; notes that the panoramic composition was typical of Flemish and German landscape paintings, which El Greco would have seen in Italy; refutes unpublished speculation that the picture is a fragment of a now lost Crucifixion, arguing that there is no evidence that the painting had ever been cut down; notes that this painting is generally assumed to be the picture in the Agustinos Recoletos, Madrid, in spite of Ponz's description of that work as diminutive ("cuadrito").
Gotthard Jedlicka. Spanish Painting. New York, 1964, pp. 23, 200, no. 36, pl. 36, dates it about 1600–1610.
Denys Sutton. "The Discerning Eye of Louisine Havemeyer." Apollo 82 (September 1965), p. 231.
Arnold Hauser. Mannerism: The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origin of Modern Art. London, 1965, vol. 1, pp. 268–69; vol. 2, pl. 299, dates this picture after 1600 and describes it as the most imporant of El Greco's two landscapes; compares it in theme and conception with the Lacoon in the National Gallery, Washington.
Ellis Waterhouse. El Greco. [London], 1965, pp. 5–6, no. 17, ill. on front cover (color), dates it about 1600.
Georg J. Reimann. El Greco. Leipzig, 1966, pp. 53–54, fig. 57 (color), dates it 1608–10.
Tiziana Frati. L'opera completa del Greco. Milan, 1969, p. 113, no. 121, ill., colorpl. 21, dates it 1595–1610.
Enrique Lafuente Ferrari. El Greco: The Expressionism of His Final Years. New York, 1969, pp. 75–76, 133, 135, pl. 1 (color, overall and detail), calls it a "nocturnal vision" that has wrongly been described as "Toledo during a Tempest"; observes that it evokes the Fauves and Expressionists adding that it is "not perhaps a mere coincidence that this picture was 'discovered' or at any rate first appreciated" during a period of great interest in Cézanne.
Introduction by Kenneth Clark in Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, p. 221, no. 216, ill.
Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, p. 208 [rev., enl. ed., 1989].
Edith A. Standen in Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. New York, , p. 52, ill. (color).
José Gudiol. El Greco. Barcelona, 1971, p. 188, no. 143, figs. 172–73 (overall in color and detail), dates it before 1597.
J. G. Links. Townscape Painting and Drawing. New York, , pp. 116–17, 121, ill., calls it "the first 'pure' townscape painting"; erroneously claims there are no figures in the painting.
Manuel B. Cossío. El Greco. definitive ed. Barcelona, 1972, pp. 274–75, 309–10, 397, no. 384, fig. 110, dates it 1604–14.
Jacques Lassaigne. El Greco. London, 1973, pp. 180, 182, pl. 136, dates it 1595–1610.
David Davies. El Greco. Oxford, 1976, p. 15, no. 39, colorpl. 39, dates it about 1595–1600.
Lionello Puppi. "La citta del Greco." Actas del XXIII Congreso Internacional de Historia del Arte, España entre el Mediterraneo y El Atlántico. Granada, 1976–77, vol. 2, pp. 395, 399–401, ill. (detail).
Denys Sutton. Romance and Reality: Aspects of Landscape Painting. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, 1978, p. 6, notes the influence of Tintoretto's technique in this painting.
Kazimierz Zawanowski. El Greco. Warsaw, 1979, unpaginated, no. 21, ill. (color), dates it about 1610.
Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 285, 288, fig. 519 (color).
Katharine Baetjer. "El Greco." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 39 (Summer 1981), pp. 28, 44–47, ill. (color, overall and detail), observes that the Havemeyers, "like other adventurous collectors of the early twentieth century...may have recognized El Greco's sympathetic links with the early moderns".
Jonathan Brown. "In Detail: El Greco's 'View of Toledo'." Portfolio 3 (January–February 1981), pp. 34–39, ill. (color, overall and detail), dates it about 1595; notes that the "View of Toledo" gives "visual expression to the propaganda campaign" seeking to encourage Philip II to reinstate the court in Toledo after he abandoned it for Madrid in 1561; adds that our picture belongs to the tradition of the emblematic or symbolic city view as opposed to the more accurate, cartographic type of view, and that two thirds of Toledo has been eliminated in order to emphasize its most important attributes, such as the Alcázar, the Cathedral, the Alcántara Bridge, and the Tagus River, which would actually have been barely visible from the east; identifies the object one-third of the way up on the right side, as "a mechanical device called...the 'Artificio de Januelo'," an innovative water-pumping system; also states that in 1629 a painting of similar size, described as a "landscape of Toledo toward the Alcántara Bridge," was listed in the estate of Dr. Pedro de Salazar y Mendoza, who is known to have been a friend and patron of El Greco.
Denys Sutton. "The Aesthete of Toledo." Apollo, n.s., 116 (September 1982), p. 150, ill.
Edward J. Sullivan. "El Greco of Toledo." Art Journal 42 (Fall 1982), pp. 240–41, ill.
Jonathan Brown and Richard L. Kagan. "View of Toledo." Studies in the History of Art [Figures of Thought: El Greco as Interpreter of History, Tradition, and Ideas] 11 (1982), pp. 19–30, ill. (overall and detail) and colorpl. 7, give further information about Salazar y Mendoza and comment that his interest in local history, topography, and cartography suggests that he may have encouraged El Greco to undertake his two known essays in landscape painting—this painting and the "View and Plan of Toledo" (Casa del Greco, Toledo); observe that the landscape in Salazar's collection ("Toledo looking towards the Alcántara bridge") is generally thought to be identical with the MMA picture, presumably acquired after El Greco's death, as it seems to be the one mentioned in Jorge Manuel's posession in 1621: one of the "Dos paises de Toledo, de bara y terzia en quadrado" [about 43 3/4 x 43 3/4 in.]; note that the mysterious group of buildings at the lower left was invented by the artist and suggest that they may represent the Agaliense monastery where Saint Ildefonso, patron saint of Toledo, went on retreat.
William B. Jordan et al. El Greco of Toledo. Exh. cat., Toledo Museum of Art. Boston, 1982, pp. 167, 244–45, no. 35, ill., colorpl. 4, dates it about 1600.
George R. Allen. El Greco: Two Studies. Philadelphia, 1984, pp. 11, 21–25, 44, pl. 7A, sees this landscape as derived from the views of Toledo El Greco used in paintings of the Crucifixion, where a stormy or night sky would be appropriate, and asserts that the stormy sky here reflects the subject's origin; suggests the painting be titled "Toledo in the Midday Darkness that Shrouded the Crucifixion".
Balbina M. Caviro. "Los Grecos de don Pedro Laso de la Vega." Goya (January–February 1985), pp. 216, 220–22, ill., discusses Pedro Laso de la Vega's 1639 inventory of paintings from the castle of Batres and identifies our picture as one of "dos medianos de Domenico Greco, el un retrato de un pedazo de Toledo, el otro retrato del monasterio de la gran Camáldula," then hanging in the Sala del Cierzo and valued at 300 reales each, but which sold for 400 reales for both; agrees with Wethey [Ref. 1962] that ours is probably not the painting from the Agustinos Recoletos, Madrid, which Ponz described as a small painting "cuadrito".
John Rewald. "Durand-Ruel: 140 Years, One Man's Faith." Studies in Impressionism. New York, 1985, pp. 200–201 [reprinted from Art News, December 1, 1943, p. 50].
Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 190–91, 206, 245, 254, colorpl. 141.
Jeannine Baticle and Alain Roy. L'age Baroque en Espagne et en Europe septentrionale. Geneva, [1986?], p. 45.
Carlo L. Ragghianti. Periplo del Greco. Milan, 1987, pp. 45, 84, 107–8, fig. 57 (color).
David Davies in El Greco: Mystery and Illumination. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1989, pp. 62–63, no. 18, ill. (color), dates it 1595–1600; believes the artist is "clearly responding to the tradition established by Giorgione in his 'Tempest' [Uffizi, Florence]" and that "El Greco has extended Giorgione's image by fusing the two traditions of the topographical city view and the emotive landscapes of the Venetian school"; suggests the concept of painting Toledo in a storm may derive from Pliny's "Natural History," where he recounts how Apelles "even painted things that can not be represented in pictures—thunder, lightning and thunderbolts".
Helen Mullaly. "Around the Galleries: Fact and Fancy." Apollo, n.s., 130 (August 1989), p. 131.
Monique de Beaucorps. La peinture espagnole. Paris, 1990, pp. 36–37, ill. (color).
Jane Lee. Derain. Oxford, 1990, p. 33, mentions this painting in relation to Derain's "Landscape at Cadaquès" (Rudolf Staechelin Family Foundation, Basel).
Nina Ayala Mallory. Del Greco a Murillo: La pintura española del Siglo de Oro, 1556–1700. Madrid, 1991, p. 38.
Jonathan Brown. The Golden Age of Painting in Spain. New Haven, 1991, p. 80.
Helmut Feld. Mutmaßungen zur religiösen Bildaussage in Manierismus und Barock: Tintoretto—El Greco—Bernini. Tübingen, 1992, p. 41.
Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. xv, 132, 139, 141, 153, 156, 291, 302, 323 n. 180, p. 324 nn. 197, 205, p. 345, n. 464.
Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 17.
José Álvarez Lopera. El Greco: La obra esencial. [Madrid], , pp. 194, 226–230, 291, no. 244, ill. (color), dates it 1597–1607.
Fernando Marías. Los paisajes del Prado. Madrid, 1993, pp. 100–102, 104 n. 21, ill., notes that the painting passed from the collection of Salazar de Mendoza to Andrés Martínez de Heredia in 1629 and then passed to the collection of Pedro Lasso de la Vega before 1632.
Katharine Baetjer in "A Portrait and a Landscape by El Greco of Toledo." Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 58, 60–61, colorpl. 60.
Albert Boime. "The Americanization of El Greco." El Greco of Crete: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 450th Anniversary of the Artist's Birth. Iráklion, Crete, 1995, pp. 621, 649.
Sergio Marinelli. "Spazio e proporzione in Domenico Greco." El Greco of Crete: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 450th Anniversary of the Artist's Birth. Iráklion, Crete, 1995, pp. 351, 355, ill.
Enriqueta Harris-Frankfort. "El Greco's 'Fortuna Critica' in Britain." El Greco of Crete: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 450th Anniversary of the Artist's Birth. Iráklion, Crete, 1995, pp. 494–95.
María Margarita Cuyás in El Greco: Su revalorización por el Modernismo catalán. Exh. cat., Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Barcelona, 1996, p. 123, ill.
Fernando Marías in The Dictionary of Art. 13, New York, 1996, p. 344, ill., dates it about 1610; notes that in this picture and in his "View and Plan of Toledo" the artist is "preoccupied with the means of presenting what is perceived as well as an emblematic sense of the urban landscape . . .".
Jonathan Brown in Picasso and the Spanish Tradition. New Haven, 1996, p. 10, fig. 8.
John Richardson with the collaboration of Marilyn McCully. "1907–1917." A Life of Picasso. 2, New York, 1996, p. 456 n. 31.
Fernando Marías. Greco: Biographie d'un peintre extravagant. Paris, 1997, pp. 212, 269, 272–73, ill. (color), dates it about 1600; tentatively identifies it as a work appraised at 27 ducats in a 1632 inventory of Pedro Lasso [sic] de la Vega.
Gary Tinterow in La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 1997, pp. 40–41, 107, ill., dates it about 1600.
Brigitte Quack. Studien zu Zeitgestalt, Farbe und Helldunkel im Werk El Grecos. Saarbrücken, 1997, pp. 147–50, 189, ill. (color on cover), dates it 1600–1602.
Víctor I. Stoichita. The Self-Aware Image: An Insight into Early Modern Meta-Painting. Cambridge, 1997, pp. 174–76, fig. 79.
Jonathan Brown. Painting in Spain, 1500–1700. New Haven, 1998, p. 70.
Veronika Schroeder Universität München. El Greco im frühen deutschen Expressionismus: Von der Kunstgeschichte als Stilgeschichte zur Kunstgeschichte als Geistesgeschichte. Frankfurt am Main, 1998, pp. 86–87, 113, 125–26, fig. 2, as "Storm over Toledo/View of Toledo".
Richard L. Kagan. "'Urbs' and 'Civitas' in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-century Spain." Envisioning the City: Six Studies in Urban Cartography. Chicago, 1998, pp. 93, 107 n. 56, fig. 3.17.
Jean Louis Schefer. Sommeil du Greco. Paris, 1999, pp. 8–9, 35, 70, 94–95, 100, 110, 139, ill.
José Álvarez Lopera in El Greco: Identity and Transformation; Crete, Italy, Spain. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, 1999, pp. 157, 297, 409–11, no. 58, ill. (color), notes that of the three views of Toledo mentioned in his 1621 inventory, Jorge Manuel sold two of them, "a Toledo" and one of the "Two Landscapes of Toledo" to Salazar Mendoza and the remaining "Landscape" to Pedro Laso de la Vega; believes ours was the one sold to Laso de la Vega and described in his 1637 inventory as one of "dos cuadros de mano del Griego, que el uno es un pedaço de Toledo," of medium size.
Angela Tamvaki. "Lambert Sustris and El Greco." El Greco in Italy and Italian Art: Proceedings of the International Symposium. Rethymno, Crete, 1999, p. 406.
José Álvarez Lopera. El retablo del Colegio de Doña María de Aragón de El Greco. Madrid, 2000, p. 71.
Leticia Ruiz. El Greco. Madrid, 2000, p. 59.
Ana Vázquez de la Cueva. La ingeniería civil en la pintura. Madrid, , pp. 116–17, ill. (color).
Fernando Marías. El Greco in Toledo. London, 2001, pp. 7, 10–11, ill. (color, overall and detail on cover), dates it about 1600.
Dawson W. Carr in El Greco. Exh. cat., Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Milan, 2001, pp. 180–81, no. 27, ill. (color), dates it about 1600.
Véronique Gerard Powell in Écoles espagnole et portugaise. Paris, 2002, p. 120.
Keith Christiansen et al. in El Greco. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. London, 2003, pp. 100, 143, 156, 178, 233–34, 284, no. 66, ill. pp. 232, 235 (color, overall and detail), dates this picture about 1597–99, noting that it appears to have served as a model for the background of El Greco's altarpiece in the Capilla de San José, Toledo, commissioned in 1597; adds that the view also appears in the artist's Virgin of the Immaculate Conception (Museo de Santa Cruz, Toledo), commissioned in 1607.
José Álvarez Lopera et al. in El Greco / colaboraciones . . . Barcelona, 2003, pp. 183, 408, 424–25, 455–56, colorpl. XLI, mention that Ernest Hemingway [see Ref. Ross 1950] considered this the greatest painting in the Metropolitan Museum and assert that Hemingway was not responding to the painting's beauty, but saw the city as a powerful metaphor for the suffering of the Communists during the Spanish Civil War—the suffering of the individual in a hostile environment; add that Zuloaga refers to this painting in his "Portrait of Maurice Barrès with Toledo in the Background" (Musée Lorrain, Nancy) and in his two versions of "Toledo in Flames".
José Álvarez Lopera. "'El Greco' de Cossío: Gestación y primeras reacciones críticas." El Greco: The First Twenty Years in Spain. Rethymno, Crete, 2005, p. 269, notes that Cossío viewed the sale in the early twentieth century of this painting, the portrait of Cardinal Niño de Guevara (MMA 29.100.5), and other works by El Greco, as an affront to the Spanish nation.
Katharine Baetjer in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Chefs-d'œuvre de la peinture européenne. Exh. cat., Fondation Pierre Gianadda. Martigny, 2006, pp. 19–20, fig. 10 [Catalan ed., Barcelona, 2006, p. 16, fig. 10].
Pierre Rosenberg. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Milan, 2006, pp. 70–71, 231, ill. (color).
Eric Storm. De ontdekking van El Greco: Aartsvader van de moderne kunst. Amsterdam, 2006, pp. 125, 127 147, 160, 168–69, 222, fig. 14.
Richard L. Kagan. "The Artist's Clientele: El Greco as Businessman." El Greco's Studio. Iráklion, 2007, p. 44.
Sarah Schroth, and Ronni Baer, Sarah Schroth. El Greco to Velázquez: Art During the Reign of Philip III. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 2008, pp. 186, 322, no. 4, ill. pp. 193, 290–91 (color, overall and detail).
Keith Christiansen in Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977–2008. New York, 2009, p. 36.
Arturo Galansino in Titien, Tintoret, Véronèse . . . Rivalités à Venise. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 2009, p. 378, states that El Greco's skies in pictures such as this one have their genesis in Veronese's paintings such as his Crucifixion (San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti, Venice) that the artist would have seen during his second Venetian period.
Palma Martínez-Burgos García Promecal. El Greco en la Catedral. Exh. cat., Catedral de Burgos. [Burgos], , p. 96, ill. pp. 90–91, 97 (color, overall and details).
Daniel Joseph Polikoff. In the Image of Orpheus: Rilke, a Soul History. Wilmette, 2011, pp. 465–70, 475, 591, 664, 729 n. 831, ill.
Eric Storm. El descubrimiento del Greco: nacionalismo y arte moderno (1860–1914). Madrid, 2011, pp. 124, 127, 144, 156, 163–64, 215, fig. 32 (color) [Spanish translation of Storm 2006].
Takaoka Chikako in El Greco's Visual Poetics. Exh. cat., National Museum of Art, Osaka. [Tokyo], 2012, pp. 16, 19 n. 7, pp. 277, 279 n. 7, fig. 3.
Birgit Thiemann in El Greco and Modernism. Exh. cat., Museum Kunstpalast. Ostfildern, 2012, p. 378.
Fernando Marías. El Greco, Life and Work—A New History. London, 2013, pp. 257, 297 n. 299, p. 338, ill. pp. 259 and 338 (color).
Javier Barón in El Greco & la pintura moderna. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2014, pp. 23, 115, 120, 176, 178, 184.
Veronika Schroeder in El Greco & la pintura moderna. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2014, pp. 208, 211–12, fig. 129 (color).
Jeffrey Schrader in El Greco & la pintura moderna. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2014, pp. 242, 245–46, ill. p. 240 (color detail).
Javier Portús in El Greco & la pintura moderna. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2014, pp. 288, 296, 306.