Théophile Silvestre. Histoire des artistes vivants: Français et étrangers. Paris, 1856, p. 278, calls it "Portrait de M. Gueymard, l'Opéra" and considers it unfinished.
Gustave Courbet. Letter to his father. [January–February 1857?] [Fondation Jacques Doucet, Paris; published in Ref. Chu 1992], mentions that he is working on a portrait of Gueymard.
Théophile Gautier. "Salon de 1857. XV." L'Artiste, 7ème sér., 2 (September 20, 1857), p. 34.
Gauthier Villars. Letter to Gustave Courbet. July 2, 1867 [ms., Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Cabinet des Estampes, Papiers Courbet, Boite 1], thanks Courbet for helping to arrange the purchase of a painting, probably this work, from Gueymard for 1,500 francs.
Émile Durand-Gréville. Entretiens avec J.-J. Henner (May 1882) [published in "Les Amis de Gustave Courbet," no. 37, 1967, p. 15], records Henner's comments about this painting when it was exhibited in 1882.
Alexandre Estignard. Courbet: sa vie, ses oeuvres. Besançon, 1896, p. 159, lists it under 1857; as in the collection of Adolphe Reignard.
Georges Riat. Gustave Courbet peintre. Paris, 1906, pp. 149, 360.
B[ryson]. B[urroughs]. "The Gift of a Courbet." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 14 (May 1919), pp. 112–13, ill., dates it 1856–57.
André Fontainas. Courbet. Paris, 1921, p. 71, dates it 1857.
Charles Léger. Courbet. Paris, 1925, p. 66, calls it "Le portrait du chanteur Gueymard dans le rôle de Robert le Diable".
Gustave Kahn. "Courbet." L'Art et les artistes, n.s., 15 (October 1927), p. 23, as the portrait of "le chanteur Gueynard, de l'Opèra".
Charles Léger. Courbet. Paris, 1929, p. 70.
An Exhibition of Paintings by Courbet. Exh. cat., Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore, 1938, unpaginated, no. 3, ill., dates it before 1857.
Charles Léger. Courbet et son temps (Lettres et documents inédits). Paris, 1948, pp. 62–63.
Gerstle Mack. Gustave Courbet. New York, 1951, p. 143.
Les amis de Gustave Courbet bulletin no. 31 (1964), pp. 13–14, ill.
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX Century." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, 1966, p. 113, ill.
Marie-Thérèse de Forges. Autoportraits de Courbet. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 1973, p. 43, suggests that "L'Homme au casque" (F212; private collection, Bergamo), a possible self portrait, was executed as a study for this picture.
Robert Fernier. "Peintures, 1819–1865." La vie et l'oeuvre de Gustave Courbet. 1, Lausanne, 1977, pp. 132–33, no. 213, ill., calls it "Portrait de M. Gueymard, de l'opéra"; reiterates Forges's [Ref. 1973] assertion that "L'Homme au casque" (F212) is a study for one of the background figures in this painting.
Marie-Thérèse de Forges in Gustave Courbet (1819–1877). Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Paris. London, 1978, p. 33 [French ed. 1977].
Hélène Toussaint in Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Paris. London, 1978, pp. 131–32, no. 51, ill. [French ed., 1977, 146–47, no. 54, ill.], remarks that this painting "shows great skill in distinguishing Gueymard's natural expression from the others who are merely 'acting'".
Pierre Courthion. L'opera completa di Courbet. Milan, 1985, pp. 84–85, no. 205, ill.
Ann Dumas in Sarah Faunce and Linda Nochlin. Courbet Reconsidered. Exh. cat., Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn, 1988, p. 109, compares it to "La Signora Adela Guerrero, Spanish Dancer" (1851; Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels), calling it the only other depiction of a theatrical performer in Courbet's work.
Rae Becker in Sarah Faunce and Linda Nochlin. Courbet Reconsidered. Exh. cat., Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn, 1988, p. 215, compares it to the drawing "Pierrot and the Black Arm" (1856; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa), made for the premiere of a verse-pantomime play called "Le Bras Noir".
Klaus Herding. Courbet: To Venture Independence. New Haven, 1991, pp. 241–42 n. 13, calls its bright colors "an isolated attempt to mimic Delacroix".
Gustave Courbet. Letters of Gustave Courbet. Chicago, 1992, pp. 153, 155 n. 4, fig. 30, publishes Ref. Courbet [1857?].
Kathryn Calley Galitz in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 42, 198–99, no. 22, ill. (color and black and white).
Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. The Most Arrogant Man in France: Gustave Courbet and the Nineteenth-Century Media Culture. Princeton, 2007, pp. 46, 60, 62, 180–81 n. 7, fig. 40 (color), calls it "Portrait of M. Gueymard, Tenor at the Opéra, in the Role of Robert le Diable, [Singing] 'Yes, Gold Is a Dream'" and dates it 1856–57; comments that it "is situated halfway between the traditional actor's portrait and popular pictures of theatrical scenes," noting its closeness to Romantic history painting and "degree of action and narrative content unusual for Courbet".
Kathryn Calley Galitz in Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 55, 233, no. 52, ill. (color and black and white).
Laurence des Cars in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. New York, 2008, p. 60 [French ed., Paris, 2007].
Kathryn Calley Galitz in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. New York, 2008, pp. 308–9, no. 142, ill. (color) [French ed., Paris, 2007].