Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object

Young Sailor II

Artist:
Henri Matisse (French, Le Cateau-Cambrésis 1869–1954 Nice)
Date:
1906
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
39 7/8 x 32 5/8 in. (101.3 x 82.9 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection, 1998
Accession Number:
1999.363.41
Rights and Reproduction:
© 2016 Succession H. Matisse / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 904
During his short career as a clerk in a law office, Henri Matisse secretly took painting classes, eventually devoting himself to the pursuit of art full-time. He went to study in Paris, first at the Académie Julian and then at the École des Beaux-Arts, where he trained in the traditional academic style of his teachers Adolphe-William Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau. Under the influence of painters such as the Impressionists and Cézanne, as well as the light-filled landscapes of the French Riviera, Matisse forsook these conservative roots and developed a new style based on flat shapes of vivid color. In 1905, he exhibited work at the Salon d'Automne in Paris as the leader of the Fauves (French for "wild beasts"). This was an avant-garde movement that reduced painting to a bright palette, simple forms, and exuberant brushwork in order to communicate the fundamental elements of reality and sensation.


Matisse painted "The Young Sailor" in 1906, at the height of his involvement with the Fauves. The sitter of this picture is an eighteen-year-old fisherman, Germain Augustin Barthélémy Montargès, from the small Mediterranean village of Collioure, near the Spanish border. Against the flat, bright pink background, Germain wears typical fisherman's garb: a navy blue cap, a pullover over a white undershirt and blue-and-pink striped jersey, baggy green pants, green-and-white checked socks, and sturdy, laced-up shoes with rubber soles. His broad face is flat and mask-like, and the contours of his rounded limbs are crisp and defined, creating a sharp contrast to the loose brushstrokes that constitute them. Germain's rather theatrical looks and the work's bold palette, in which the figure's green and blue outfit is set against the pink, candy-colored ground, combine to make this painting one of Matisse's most decorative portraits in the Fauve manner.

Inscription: Signed and dated (lower left): Henri-Matisse /1906
the artist (1906–13; sold on October 9, 1913 to Bernheim-Jeune); [Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1913–22; stock no. 20027]; [Leopold Zborowski, Paris, 1922]; [J. B. Neumann, New York]; Hans Seligman-Schürch, Berlin and Basel (1923–52; sold on February 4, 1952, for $25,000, to Matisse); [Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, 1952; stock no. SP3, sold on March 22, 1952, partly by exchange, for $35,000, to Block]; Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block, Chicago (1952–69); [Marlborough Gallery, New York, 1969; sold to Gelman]; Jacques and Natasha Gelman, Mexico City and New York (1969–his d. 1986); Natasha Gelman, Mexico City and New York (1986–d. 1998; her bequest to MMA)

Paris. Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées. "Salon d'Automne," October 1–November 8, 1908, no. 902 (as "Jeune marin").

Odessa. Location unknown. "International Exhibition of Paintings, Sculpture, Prints and Drawing (Izdebsky Salon)," December 17, 1909–February 6, 1910, no. 396.

Kiev. Location unknown. "International Exhibition of Paintings, Sculpture, Prints and Drawing (Izdebsky Salon)," February 25–March 27, 1910, no. 396.

St. Petersburg. Location unknown. "International Exhibition of Paintings, Sculpture, Prints and Drawing (Izdebsky Salon)," May 2–June 7, 1910, no. 396.

Riga. Location unknown. "International Exhibition of Paintings, Sculpture, Prints and Drawing (Izdebsky Salon)," June 25–July 20, 1910, no. 396.

London. Grafton Galleries. "Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition," October 5–December 31, 1912, no. 36 (as "Jeune Marin").

New York. Armory of the Sixty-ninth Regiment. "International Exhibition of Modern Art (The Armory Show)," February 17–March 15, 1913, no. 405 (as "Jeune Marin").

Art Institute of Chicago. "International Exhibition of Modern Art (The Armory Show)," March 24–April 16, 1913, no. 241 (as "Young sailor").

Copley Hall, Copley Society of Boston. "International Exhibition of Modern Art (The Armory Show)," April 28–May 19, 1913, no. 122 (as "Young Sailor").

New York. Montross Gallery. "Henri Matisse Exhibition," January 20–February 27, 1915, no. 63 (as "The Young Sailor").

Barcelona. Galeries Dalmau. "Exposició d'Art francès d'Avantguarda," October 26–November 15, 1920, no. 51 (as "Jeune marin").

Berlin. Galerien Thannhauser. "Henri Matisse," February 15–March 19, 1930, no. 18 (as "Sitzender Matrose") [either this picture or "The Young Sailor I"; see Ref. Rewald 1989].

Kunsthalle Basel. "Henri-Matisse," August 9–September 15, 1931, no. 14 (as "Le Marin," lent by Hans Seligmann [sic], Berlin).

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Henri Matisse: Retrospective Exhibition," November 3–December 6, 1931, no. 14 (as "The Young Sailor," lent by Hans Seligman, Berlin).

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Henri Matisse: Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture," April 3–May 9, 1948, no. 10 (as "The Young Sailor," lent by Hans Seligman, Basel).

Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lucerne. "Henri Matisse," July 9–October 22, 1949, no. 34 (as "Le marin").

Kunsthalle Bern. "Les Fauves: Braque, Derain, Dufy, Friesz, Manguin, Marquet, Matisse, Valtat, van Dongen, Vlaminck," April 29–May 29, 1950, no. 97 (as "Le marin," lent by a private collection, Basel).

Venice. Biennale. "XXV Biennale di Venezia," June 8–October 15, 1950, Sala IV, no. 45 (as "Il marinaio," lent by a private collection, Basel).

Milan. Palazzo Reale. "Mostra di Matisse," November 1–21, 1950, no. 16 (as "Il marinaio," lent by a private collection, Basel).

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Henri Matisse," November 13, 1951–January 13, 1952, no. 15 (as "The Young Sailor, II," lent by Hans Seligman-Schürch, Basel).

Cleveland Museum of Art. "Henri Matisse," February 5–March 16, 1952, no. 15.

Art Institute of Chicago. "Henri Matisse," April 1–May 4, 1952, no. 15.

San Francisco Museum of Art. "Henri Matisse," May 22–July 6, 1952, no. 15.

Los Angeles. UCLA Art Galleries. "Henri Matisse: Retrospective 1966," January 5–February 27, 1966, no. 24 (as "The Young Sailor, II," lent by Mr. and Mrs. Leigh Block, Chicago).

Art Institute of Chicago. "Henri Matisse: Retrospective 1966," March 11–April 24, 1966, no. 24.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Henri Matisse: Retrospective 1966," May 11–June 26, 1966, no. 24.

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Henri Matisse: 64 Paintings," July 19–September 25, 1966, no. 12 (as "The Young Sailor, II," lent by Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block, Chicago).

Washington, D.C. National Gallery of Art. "100 European Paintings & Drawings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block," May 4–June 11, 1967, no. 31 (as "Young Sailor [version II]").

Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "100 European Paintings & Drawings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block," September 21–November 2, 1967, no. 31.

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. "One Hundred European Paintings & Drawings from the Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Leigh B. Block," February 2–April 14, 1968, no. 32 (as "Young Sailor [version II]").

Paris. Grand Palais. "Henri Matisse: Exposition du centenaire," April 21–September 21, 1970, no. 82 (as "Marin II," lent by M. et Mme Jacques Gelman, Mexico).

New York. Acquavella Galleries, Inc. "Henri Matisse," November 2–December 1, 1973, no. 5 (as "Jeune marin II," lent by Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman).

Sydney. Art Gallery of New South Wales. "Modern Masters: Manet to Matisse," April 10–May 11, 1975, no. 64 (as "The Young Sailor," lent by Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman, Mexico City).

Melbourne. National Gallery of Victoria. "Modern Masters: Manet to Matisse," May 28–June 22, 1975, no. 64.

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Modern Masters: Manet to Matisse," August 4–September 1, 1975, no. 64.

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "The 'Wild Beasts': Fauvism and Its Affinities," March 26–June 1, 1976, unnumbered cat. (p. 96; lent by Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman, Mexico City).

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "The 'Wild Beasts': Fauvism and Its Affinities," June 29–August 15, 1976, unnumbered cat.

Fort Worth. Kimbell Art Museum. "The 'Wild Beasts': Fauvism and Its Affinities," September 11–October 31, 1976, unnumbered cat.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection," December 12, 1989–April 1, 1990, unnumbered cat. (p. 88).

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection," April 19–July 15, 1990, unnumbered cat.

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Henri Matisse: A Retrospective," September 24, 1992–January 12, 1993, no. 90 (as "The Young Sailor [II]").

Paris. Centre Georges Pompidou. "Henri Matisse 1904–1917," February 25–June 21, 1993, no. 45bis.

Martigny. Fondation Pierre Gianadda. "De Matisse à Picasso: Collection Jacques et Natasha Gelman," June 18–November 1, 1994, unnumbered cat. (p. 113).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Painters in Paris: 1895–1950," March 8–December 31, 2000, extended to January 14, 2001, unnumbered cat. (p. 64).

Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art. "Picasso and the School of Paris: Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," September 14–November 24, 2002, no. 9.

Tokyo. Bunkamura Museum of Art. "Picasso and the School of Paris: Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," December 7, 2002–March 9, 2003, no. 9.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Philippe de Montebello Years: Curators Celebrate Three Decades of Acquisitions," October 24, 2008–February 1, 2009, online catalogue.

Copenhagen. Statens Museum for Kunst. "Matisse—fordobling og variation," July 14–October 28, 2012, no. 11.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Matisse: In Search of True Painting," December 4, 2012–March 17, 2013, no. 11.

André Derain. Letter to Henri Matisse. end April 1907 [published in Ref. Labrusse and Munck 2005, pp. 343–45], criticizes the decorativeness of this picture.

Nikolai Breshko-Breshkovskii. "The Salon." Birzhevye vedomosti [Stock Exchange Gazette] (April 21, 1910) [English transl. published in Ilia Dorontchenkov, ed., "Russian and Soviet Views of Modern Western Art: 1890s to Mid-1930s," Berkeley, 2009, p. 100].

Alexander Benois. "The 'Salon' and Bakst's School." Rech' [Speech] (May 1, 1910) [English transl. published in Ilia Dorontchenkov, ed., "Russian and Soviet Views of Modern Western Art: 1890s to Mid-1930s," Berkeley, 2009, p. 100].

Henri Matisse. Letter to Walter Pach. December 6, 1912 [reproduced and published in English transl. in Ref. Cauman 1991, pp. 3, 5], lists this picture among those that he will lend to the Armory Show, and notes that it is for sale.

W. D. MacColl. "The International Exhibition of Modern Art: An Impression." Forum 1 (July 1913), p. 34.

Charles Henry Dorr. "Cubists and Futurists Have Reached America." World (February 23, 1913), section 2, p. 2.

[Charles H. Caffin]. "The International—Yes—But Matisse and Picabia? Work of Leading Spirits in Modern Movement is Discussed in Contrast." New York American (March 3, 1913), p. 8.

Charles H. Caffin. "Matisse's Career Is Shown in Representative Exhibition." New York American (January 25, 1915), p. 8.

Walter Pach. "Why Matisse?" Century Magazine (February 1915), pp. 633–36, ill.

Marcel Sembat. Henri Matisse. Paris, 1920, ill. p. 31, dates it 1907.

"Originals of the Dial Folio of Living Art at Montross." Brooklyn Daily Eagle (February 3, 1924), p. 26, calls it "Sailor Boy".

Jan Gordon. Modern French Painters. London, 1929, ill. opp. p. 86 (color), erroneously as in the collection of James Rosenberg, Esq.

A[lfred]. H. B[arr]., Jr. Henri Matisse: Retrospective Exhibition. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1931, pp. 13–14, 38, 46, no. 14, ill.

Christian Zervos. "Henri-Matisse. Notes on the Formation and Development of His Work." Henri Matisse. Paris, 1931, ill. between pp. 14 and 15.

Virginia Nirdlinger. "The Matisse Way. Forty Years in the Evolution of an Individualist." Parnassus 3 (November 1931), p. 6.

Roger Fry. Henri-Matisse. New York, 1935, pl. 7, as "The Young Sailor".

R. H. Wilenski. Modern French Painters. New York, [1940], pp. 198, 201, 233.

Leo Swane. Henri Matisse. Stockholm, 1944, pp. 60–61, fig. 11.

Leo Stein. Appreciation: Painting, Poetry, and Prose. New York, 1947, p. 192, refers to this picture as a "free copy of ['Young Sailor I'] with extreme deformations"; recalls that Matisse pretended it was painted by the Collioure postman.

Frank Caspers. "Philadelphia Honors Henri Matisse with Impressive Retrospective." Art Digest 22, no. 14 (April 15, 1948), ill. p. 9.

Maurice Raynal et al. History of Modern Painting. Vol. 2, Matisse, Munch, Rouault: Fauvism, Expressionism. Geneva, 1950, ill. p. 30 (color).

Art News 49 (September 1950), p. 5, ill. and on cover (color).

Denys Sutton. "Aspects of the Venice Biennale. I. The Fauves." Burlington Magazine 92 (September 1950), p. 265.

Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Matisse: His Art and His Public. New York, 1951, pp. 82, 93–94, 97, 128–29, 149–50, 157, 163, 179, 194, 246, ill. p. 335, states that both versions of "The Young Sailor" were painted during the same month in 1906, at Collioure; notes that Walter Pach suggested omitting this picture from the Montross Gallery exhibition [Exh. New York 1915] since it was poorly received in the Armory Show, but that Matisse "insisted, arguing that the public should see the strongest pictures even though it was offended by them at first".

Bernard Myers. "Matisse and the Fauves." American Artist 15 (December 1951), pp. 71, 86, ill.

Frank Anderson Trapp. "The Paintings of Henri Matisse: Origins and Early Development (1890–1917)." PhD diss., Harvard University, 1951, pp. 118–19, fig. 88.

Henri Matisse. Portraits. Monte Carlo, 1954, ill. p. 91 (color), erroneously locates it as still in the collection of Hans Seligman [sic], Basel.

Georges Duthuit. Matisse, periode fauve. Paris, 1956, p. 15, colorpl. 5, as "Le Jeune marin à la casquette, Collioure," erroneously as still private collection, Basel.

Gaston Diehl with notices by Agnès Humbert. Henri Matisse. [Paris], 1958, pp. 41, 101, 106, 121, pl. 26, erroneously locates it as still in the Hans Seligmann collection, Basel.

Bernard Myers. Modern Art in the Making. New York, 1959, pp. 279–81, fig. 138.

Jacques Lassaigne. Matisse. Lausanne, 1959, p. 60.

Jean-Paul Crespelle. Les Fauves. Neuchâtel, 1962, colorpl. 8, as "Jeune homme à la casquette. Portrait de Pierre Matisse".

1913 Armory Show: 50th Anniversary Exhibition, 1963. Exh. cat., Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica. New York, 1963, p. 197.

Samuel Sachs, II. "Reconstructing the 'whirlwind of 26th Street'." Art News 61 (February 1963), ill. p. 26 (installation photo), reproduces this picture in an installation photo of the 1913 Armory Show in Chicago.

Charles Chassé. Les Fauves et leur temps. Paris, 1963, colorpl. 11, as "Jeune Homme à la Casquette—Portrait de Pierre Matisse".

Lawrence Gowing. Henri Matisse: 64 Paintings. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1966, pp. 12, 61, no. 12, ill. p. 26.

Henry J. Seldis. "The Magic of Matisse." Apollo 83 (April 1966), p. 250.

Joseph-Emile Muller. Fauvism. New York, 1967, p. 46, colorpl. 36.

Pierre Schneider Tamara Préaud, ed. Henri Matisse: Exposition du centenaire. Exh. cat., Grand Palais. Paris, 1970, p. 72, no. 82, ill. p. 155, date it 1907; erroneously list the Sonderbund, Cologne, 1912 in the exhibition history.

Jean-Louis Ferrier. "1907: The Painter of 'Intimate Immensity'." XXe Siècle: Homage to Henri Matisse (1970), ill. p. 40, dates it 1906–7.

Gaston Diehl. Henri Matisse. Paris, 1970, pp. 14, 35, 57, ill. p. 12.

Massimo Carrà. L'Opera di Matisse dall rivolta 'fauve' all'intimismo, 1904–1928. Milan, 1971, pp. 88–89, no. 86, ill. and colorpl. XIV.

[Louis] Aragon. Henri Matisse: A Novel. [French ed., 1971]. New York, 1972, vol. 1, p. 301, colorpl. XLVI.

John Elderfield. The "Wild Beasts": Fauvism and Its Affinities. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1976, p. 81, ill. p. 96 (color), dates it winter 1906–7.

John Russell. "The Birth of a Wild Beast." Horizon 18 (Summer 1976), pp. 8–9, ill. (color).

H. H. Arnason. History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. Rev. ed. New York, 1977, p. 117, fig. 179.

Lawrence Gowing. Matisse. New York, 1979, pp. 59–60, 206, fig. 42, dates it 1907–8.

Catherine C. Bock. Henri Matisse and Neo-Impressionism, 1898–1908. PhD diss.Ann Arbor, 1981, p. 112.

Marcel Giry. Fauvism: Origins and Development. New York, 1982, p. 149, colorpl. 61.

Magdalena Dabrowski in John Elderfield. The Drawings of Henri Matisse. Exh. cat., Hayward Gallery. London, 1984, pp. 255–56, under no. 19, identifies the model as Pierre Matisse [see Ref. Rewald 1989].

Nicholas Watkins. Matisse. Oxford, 1984, p. 119, pl. 103, dates it 1906–7 and states that it is a portrait of Pierre Matisse [see Ref. Rewald 1989].

Jack Flam in "Primitivism" in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1984, vol. 1, pp. 221, 223, 238 n. 79, ill., observes that Matisse only dated this version of "The Young Sailor" "as if to imply that this is where he stood in 1906".

John Klein. "Book Reviews." Art Journal 45 (Winter 1985), pp. 360, 367 n. 3, questions Schneider's [Ref. 1984] date of 1906–7 for this picture.

Jack Flam. Matisse: The Man and His Art, 1869–1918. Ithaca, 1986, pp. 19, 148, 175, 178, 187, 190, 234, 296, 301, 321, 347, 396, fig. 167 (color), notes that it was painted from the first version, not from the model.

Bernard Noël. Matisse. 2nd rev. ed. Paris, 1987, p. 23, ill. p. 29, dates it 1907.

Roger Benjamin. Matisse's "Notes of a Painter": Criticism, Theory, and Context, 1891–1908. Ann Arbor, 1987, pp. 112, 165, 291 nn. 196, 198.

Milton W. Brown. The Story of the Armory Show. 2nd ed. [1st ed., 1963]. New York, 1988, pp. 127, 292, notes that this work was lent by the artist to the 1913 Armory Show, where it was for sale for $1,350.

Lawrence Gowing in Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, pp. 19–20.

Pierre Schneider in Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, pp. 24–26, 29–30.

Sabine Rewald in Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, pp. 86, 88–91, 304, ill. (color and bw), identifies the sitter as an eighteen-year-old Collioure fisherman, Germain Augustin Barthélémy Montargès [see Refs. Rewald 1999, Matamoros 2005].

William S. Lieberman in Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, pp. 2–3, fig. 3 (color, installation photo).

John Russell. "20th-Century Works Collected By a Couple With a Shared Vision." New York Times (December 12, 1989), p. C19, ill. (detail).

Yve-Alain Bois. Painting as Model. Cambridge, Mass., 1990, p. 266 n. 46.

John Cauman. "Henri Matisse's Letters to Walter Pach." Archives of American Art Journal 31, no. 3 (1991), pp. 3, 5, ill. p. 9.

Gilles Néret. Matisse. [Paris], 1991, pp. 44, 49, 51–52, 97, fig. 65.

John Elderfield. Henri Matisse: A Retrospective. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1992, pp. 133, 135, 165, no. 90, ill. (color), dates it Collioure or Paris, summer–winter 1906.

Dominique Fourcade and Isabelle Monod-Fontaine. Henri Matisse 1904–1917. Exh. cat., Centre Georges Pompidou. Paris, 1993, pp. 214–15, 440, no. 45bis, ill. (color and bw), date it Collioure, winter 1906–7 or spring 1907.

Walter Guadagnini. Matisse. Milan, 1993, pp. 14–16, 93, 101, ill.

Sophie Monneret. Matisse. Paris, 1994, p. 92, no. 102, ill.

Isabelle de Wavrin. "L'Œil infaillible de Jacques Gelman." Beaux Arts no. 125 (July-August 1994), pp. 46–47, ill. (color).

Guy-Patrice and Michel Dauberville. Matisse: Henri Matisse chez Bernheim-Jeune. Paris, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 416–17, no. 73, ill., note that it was purchased by Bernheim-Jeune from the artist on October 9, 1913.

Jonathan Fineberg. "The Innocent Eye." Art News 94 (April 1995), pp. 118, 121, ill. (color).

Bernard Zürcher. Les Fauves. Paris, 1995, pp. 189–90, ill. (color).

Gilles Néret. Henri Matisse. Cologne, 1996, pp. 44–45, 54–55, 92, ill. (color).

Anna Gruetzner Robins. Modern Art in Britain 1910–1914. Exh. cat., Barbican Art Gallery. London, 1997, pp. 80–81, 191.

Jonathan Fineberg. The Innocent Eye: Children's Art and the Modern Artist. Princeton, 1997, pp. 15–16, 18, 228, fig. 1.10 (color).

Hilary Spurling. The Unknown Matisse. A Life of Henri Matisse: The Early Years, 1869–1908. New York, 1998, pp. 373, 378, fig. 30 (color).

Judith H. Dobrzynski. "20th Century Art Treasures Are Left to Met." New York Times (May 6, 1998), pp. A1, B6, ill.

William S. Lieberman. "Donation Gelman: l'École de Paris au Metropolitan." Connaissance des arts no. 554 (October 1998), pp. 104–5, fig. 3 (color).

Andrew Decker. "Metropolitan: Une Exceptionnelle donation." Beaux Arts no. 170 (July 1998), p. 24.

Sabine Rewald. "A Sailor's Yarn." Art in America 87 (October 1999), pp. 119–22, ill. (color), identifies the sitter as Germain Augustin Barthélémy Montargès (1888–1938), a Catalan fisherman, who posed for one day for this picture [see Ref. Matamoros 2005].

John H. Cauman. "Matisse and America, 1905–1933." PhD diss., City University of New York, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 27–28, 191, 193, 201, 204, 229, 258, 262, 271, 276–77, 494; vol. 2, fig. 1.12.

Christopher Green. Art in France 1900–1940. New Haven, 2000, pp. 237–38, fig. 281.

Grace Glueck. "When One City Was the Heart of Art's Youth." New York Times (March 10, 2000), p. E39.

William S. Lieberman. "Les Peintres de Paris à New York." Connaissance des arts no. 578 (December 2000), p. 129.

John Klein. Matisse Portraits. New Haven, 2001, pp. 13, 256 n. 28, comments that the two "paintings of the young sailor are no more portraits than the quasi-ethnographic generalizations Matisse made in his later depictions of Moroccans or Eskimos".

Werner Schnell. "Das rote Atelier" des Henri Matisse—ein Bild und seine Verwandten. Berlin, 2001, pp. 33, 70, 75, fig. 10.

Roberta Smith. "In a Brash Yet Refined School, Everyone Belongs Together." New York Times (June 15, 2001), p. E37.

Pierre Schneider. Matisse. Rev. ed. (English ed., 1984). Paris, 2002, pp. 281, 372, 393, 410, 414, 591, ill. p. 237 (color), dates it 1906–7.

Alastair Wright. Matisse and the Subject of Modernism. Princeton, 2004, pp. 150–52, 256 n. 80, considers the "insistent visibility of the colored outlines" in this picture to be analogous to the mechanical "reproductive technology of the woodcut".

Chika Amano in Henri Matisse: Processus / Variation. Exh. cat., National Museum of Western Art. Tokyo, 2004, p. 12, ill. p. 46.

Joséphine Matamoros in Matisse-Derain: Collioure 1905, un été fauve. Exh. cat., Musée départemental d'Art moderne, Céret. [Paris], 2005, pp. 22–23, 289 n. 68, identifies the sitter as Camille Calmon, who was sixteen years old at the time of this painting, based on information provided by Mme Matisse in the Archives Matisse.

Jack Flam in Matisse-Derain: Collioure 1905, un été fauve. Exh. cat., Musée départemental d'Art moderne, Céret. [Paris], 2005, pp. 39–41, 43, 231, no. 177, ill. (color and bw), dates it to the end of summer 1906.

Claudine Grammont in Matisse-Derain: Collioure 1905, un été fauve. Exh. cat., Musée départemental d'Art moderne, Céret. [Paris], 2005, pp. 278, 280, 282, 284.

Rémi Labrusse and Jacqueline Munck. Matisse-Derain: La Vérité du fauvisme. Paris, 2005, pp. 100, 105, 107–8, 110, 133, 200, 276, 285, 316, 343–45 n. 113, colorpl. 87, call it "Le Jeune Marin II (Camille Calmon)" and date it August–September 1906.

Yve-Alain Bois. "A De Luxe Experiment: Le Luxe, II." Matisse: Masterpieces at Statens Museum for Kunst. Copenhagen, 2005, pp. 113, 115, 130 n. 7.

Margaret Werth. "Nu à l'echarpe blanche: Une étoffe épaisse et chargée." Matisse: Masterpieces at Statens Museum for Kunst. Copenhagen, 2005, pp. 150, 153–54.

Claude Jeancolas. L'Art fauve. Paris, 2006, pp. 130–31, 137, 144, ill. (color).

Peter Kropmanns in Matisse: People, Masks, Models. Exh. cat., Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. Munich, 2008, pp. 60, 69 n. 9, fig. 5 (color), identifies the sitter as Germain Montargès.

Stephanie D'Alessandro in Stephanie D'Alessandro and John Elderfield. Matisse: Radical Invention 1913–1917. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 2010, p. 224.

Janet Bishop in The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde. Ed. Janet Bishop, Cécile Debray, and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. San Francisco, 2011, p. 141.

Janet Bishop, Cécile Debray, and Rebecca Rabinow, ed. The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. San Francisco, 2011, p. 200.

Dorthe Aagesen and Rebecca Rabinow in Matisse: In Search of True Painting. Ed. Dorthe Aagesen and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2012, pp. ix, 5.

Christel Hollevoet-Force and Mary Chan in Matisse: In Search of True Painting. Ed. Dorthe Aagesen and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2012, pp. 199–200.

Rebecca Rabinow and Isabelle Duvernois in Matisse: In Search of True Painting. Ed. Dorthe Aagesen and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2012, pp. 36–37, 40–41, 184 n. 7, no. 11, ill. (color), p. 39 and back cover.

Dorthe Aagesen and Kathrine Segel in Matisse: In Search of True Painting. Ed. Dorthe Aagesen and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2012, p. 42.

Kasper Monrad in Matisse: In Search of True Painting. Ed. Dorthe Aagesen and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2012, p. 52.

Cécile Debray in Matisse. Paires et séries. Exh. cat., Centre Pompidou. Paris, 2012, pp. 14, 16.

Rebecca Rabinow in Matisse. Paires et séries. Exh. cat., Centre Pompidou. Paris, 2012, pp. 39, 41–43, ill. (color), dates it winter 1906–7 or spring 1907.

Yve-Alain Bois in Matisse. Paires et séries. Exh. cat., Centre Pompidou. Paris, 2012, pp. 48, 53 n. 6.

Alastair Wright in Matisse. Paires et séries. Exh. cat., Centre Pompidou. Paris, 2012, pp. 63, 67.

Elsa Urtizverea in Matisse. Paires et séries. Exh. cat., Centre Pompidou. Paris, 2012, pp. 269–70.

Claudine Grammont in Matisse and the Fauves. Ed. Heinz Widauer and Claudine Grammont. Exh. cat., Albertina, Vienna. Cologne, 2013, p. 177.

Rémi Labrusse in Matisse and the Fauves. Ed. Heinz Widauer and Claudine Grammont. Exh. cat., Albertina, Vienna. Cologne, 2013, pp. 255–56, fig. 2 (color).

Jack Flam in Matisse and the Fauves. Ed. Heinz Widauer and Claudine Grammont. Exh. cat., Albertina, Vienna. Cologne, 2013, p. 277.



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