Art/ Collection/ Art Object

The Lighthouse at Two Lights

Artist:
Edward Hopper (American, Nyack, New York 1882–1967 New York)
Date:
1929
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
29 1/2 x 43 1/4 in. (74.9 x 109.9 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Hugo Kastor Fund, 1962
Accession Number:
62.95
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 900
In this work, Hopper isolates the dramatic silhouette of a lighthouse against an open expanse of blue sky. Set on a rocky promontory in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, the architecture is bathed in bright sunlight offset by dark shadows. Standing proudly upright and seen from below, the lighthouse at Two Lights seems to symbolize a resolute resistance, even refusal, to submit to change or nature. For Hopper, who had been summering in Maine since 1914, the lighthouse also signified a pleasurable reprieve from life in New York.
Inscription: Signed (lower right): Edward Hopper
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Tucker, New York (1929–at least 1933); Mr. and Mrs. Richard D. Tucker, New York (by 1950–at least 1959); Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A. Fleischman, Detroit (in 1960); [Frank K.M. Rehn Galleries, New York, until 1962; sold to MMA]

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Paintings by 19 Living Americans," December 13, 1929–January 12, 1930, no. 36 (lent by Mrs. Samuel A. Tucker).

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "American Painting and Sculpture, 1862–1932," October 31, 1932–February 11, 1933, no. 53 (as "Lighthouse," lent by Mrs. Samuel Tucker, New York).

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition," October 30–December 8, 1933, no. 14 (lent by Mrs. Samuel A. Tucker, New York).

Arts Club of Chicago. "Exhibition of Paintings by Edward Hopper," January 2–16, 1934, no. 21 (lent by Mrs. Samuel A. Tucker, New York).

Arts Club of Chicago. "Exhibition of Paintings by Edward Hopper," January 2–16, 1934, no. 21 (as "Lighthouse at Two Lights," lent by Mrs. Samuel A. Tucker, New York).

Pittsburgh, Pa. Carnegie Museum of Art. "Edward Hopper: An Exhibition of Paintings, Water Colors and Etchings," March 11–April 25, 1937, no. 21 (as "Lighthouse at Two Lights," lent by Mr. and Mrs. Sam A. Tucker).

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition," February 11–March 26, 1950, no. 33 (as "Lighthouse at Two Lights," lent by Mr. and Mrs. Richard D. Tucker).

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition," April 13–May 14, 1950, no. 33.

Detroit Institute of Arts. "Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition," June 4–July 2, 1950, no. 33.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Painting and Sculpture from the American National Exhibition in Moscow," October 28–November 15, 1959, unnumbered cat. (p. 10; lent by Richard D. Tucker).

Milwaukee Art Center. "American Painting 1760–1960: A Selection of 125 Paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A. Fleischman, Detroit," March 3–April 3, 1960, unnumbered cat. (p. 84).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Three Centuries of American Painting," April 9–October 17, 1965, unnum. checklist.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 14, 1970–June 1, 1971, no. 392.

Moscow. State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. "Representations of America," December 15, 1977–February 15, 1978, no catalogue.

Leningrad. State Hermitage Museum. "Representations of America," March 15–May 15, 1978, no catalogue.

Minsk, Belarus. Palace of Art. "Representations of America," June 15–August 15, 1978, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Tribute to a Curator: Robert Beverly Hale," November 16, 1978–March 4, 1979, extended to March 18, 1979, unnum. checklist.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist," September 16, 1980–January 25, 1981, unnumbered cat. (pl. 194).

London. Hayward Gallery. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist," February 11–March 29, 1981, unnumbered cat.

Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist," April 22–June 17, 1981, unnumbered cat.

Städtische Kunsthalle Düsseldorf. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist," July 10–September 6, 1981, unnumbered cat.

Art Institute of Chicago. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist," October 3–November 29, 1981, unnumbered cat.

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist," December 16, 1981–February 10, 1982, unnumbered cat.

Canberra. Australian National Gallery. "20th Century Masters from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," March 1–April 27, 1986, unnumbered cat. (p. 55).

Brisbane. Queensland Art Gallery. "20th Century Masters from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," May 7–July 1, 1986, unnumbered cat.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "14 Americans," July 16, 1990–January 2, 1991, unnum. checklist.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Edward Hopper," May 6–August 19, 2007, no. 52.

National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "Edward Hopper," September 16, 2007–January 21, 2008, no. 52.

Art Institute of Chicago. "Edward Hopper," February 16–May 11, 2008, no. 52.

Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum. "Earth, Sea, and Sky. Nature in Western Art: Masterpieces from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 6, 2012–January 4, 2013, no. 110.

Beijing. National Museum of China. "Earth, Sea, and Sky. Nature in Western Art: Masterpieces from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," February 1–May 9, 2013, no. 110.

Courtney Graham Donnell. "Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist." Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 75 (October - December 1981), p. 2, ill. on cover.

"The Stories Behind 8 Famous Paintings." Design 59 (March-April 1958), p. 174, ill., calls it "Lighthouse at Two Points" and notes that the feeling of isolation in this work is achieved by removing visual references to both people and the ocean.

Benjamin Forgey. "Hopper's America." Portfolio 2 (September-October 1980), ill. (cover, color).

Edward Alden Jewell. Modern Art: Americans. New York, 1930, pl. 41.

Guy Pène du Bois. Edward Hopper. New York, 1931, pp. 28–29, ill.

Edward Alden Jewell. "American Painting." Creative Art 9 (November 1931), ill. p. 364.

F. C. "A Series of American Artists, No. 3: Edward Hopper." Vanity Fair 38 (June 1932), p. 30, ill. p. 31, calls it "The Lighthouse at Twin Lights, Maine".

Helen Appleton Read. "Racial Quality of Hopper Pictures at Modern Museum Agrees with Nationalistic Mood." Brooklyn Daily Eagle (November 5, 1933), ill. p. 12B-C, calls it "Lighthouse at Two Lights".

"Hopper's One-Man Show." The Sun (November 4, 1933), ill. p. 11.

"Modern Museum Holds Hopper Exhibition." Art Digest 8 (November 1, 1933), p. 19.

Holger Cahill. "American Painting 1856-1934: The Impact of Modern Art." Art in America in Modern Times. Ed. Holger Cahill Alfred H. Barr, Jr. New York, 1934, p. 40, colorpl. 2.

"Hopper is a Realist." Life 2 (May 3, 1937), ill. p. 46 (color), calls it "Light House at Two Lights" and notes that it was painted in Cape Elizabeth, Maine.

"A Portfolio of Prize Paintings." Fortune (December 1937), p. 137.

American Artists Group. Edward Hopper. New York, 1945, unpaginated, ill.

"Ten Years of American Art: LIFE Reviews the Record of a Lively, Important Decade." LIFE 21 (November 25, 1946), ill. p. 74 (color).

Lloyd Goodrich. Edward Hopper. London, 1949, p. 15, pl. 11.

Andrew Heiskell. "speaking of LIFE . . ." LIFE 26 (May 30, 1949), ill. p. 6.

Carlyle Burrows. "Hopper: A Steady Climb to Eminence." New York Herald Tribune (February 12, 1950), sec. 5, p. 6, calls this work one of the artist's most striking achievements.

Francis Henry Taylor. Fifty Centuries of Art. New York, 1954, ill. p. 182 (color).

Suzanne Burrey. "Edward Hopper: The Emptying Spaces." Arts Digest 29 (April 1, 1955), p. 8, notes to ubiquity of this work in reproduction and how it represents the artist's attraction to recurrent themes.

Sanka Knox. "Moscow Fair Art To Be Seen Here: Whitney Museum to Show Controversial Collection of American Works." New York Times (July 22, 1959), ill. p. 29.

Dorothy Adlow. "American Art in Moscow." Christian Science Monitor (June 18, 1959), ill. p. 9, calls it "Lighthouse in Truro".

"The Art in America Annual Award: Edward Hopper." Art in America no. 4 (1960), p. 3, notes that this is one of the artist's most famous works and calls it "Light House at Two Lights".

John D. Morse. "Edward Hopper." Art in America 48 (1960), p. 62.

Robert Beverly Hale. "American Paintings and Sculpture." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 21 (October 1962), pp.. 58–59, ill.

Henry Geldzahler. "Edward Hopper." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 21 (November 1962), pp. 113, 115, fig. 1.

Henry Geldzahler. American Painting in the Twentieth Century. New York, 1965, p. 78, ill.

Alfred Frankenstein. "Art: Hopper Makes Lies of Legends." San Francisco Sunday Chronicle (January 31, 1965), ill. p. 29.

Eric F. Goldman Tracy Atkinson. The Beauty of America in Great American Art. Waukesha, Wis., 1965, ill. p. 75 (color).

"Rare Realist." MD 17 (September 1973), ill. p. 141.

Shirley Glubok. The Art of America in the Early Twentieth Century. 1974, ill. p. 24-25.

Henry Geldzahler. "A Bicentennial Treasury: American Masterpieces from the Metropolitan." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 33 (Winter 1975–76), pp. 230, 237, fig. 90 (color).

Lloyd Goodrich. Edward Hopper. New York, 1978, ill. p. 73 (color).

"Exhibitions." Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (July 1, 1978 - June 30, 1979), p. 58.

Mark Stevens. "Hopper: The Artist as Voyeur." Newsweek (September 27, 1980), p. 91, ill. (color).

Gail Levin. Edward Hopper: The Art and Artist. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 1980, p. 43, colorpl. 194.

Allan Temko. "The Private Sorrow of Edward Hopper." San Francisco Chronicle Review (December 20, 1981), ill. p. 13.

Louise Bruner. "Edward Hopper Art Exhibited in Chicago." The Blade (November 22, 1981), sec. G, p. 2, calls it "Lighthouse of Two Lights" and mistakenly dates it to 1919.

Pamela Allara. "Books." Tufts Criterion 13 (July 1981), ill. p. 18 (detail).

Alan G. Artner. "Edward Hopper: The Personal Visions of an American Genius." Chicago Tribune Magazine (September 20, 1981), ill. p. 15.

"Wie im Theater." Der Spiegel 35 (July 6, 1981), ill. p. 147 (color).

Babbette Brandt Fromme. "Northeastern Edition." Curators' Choice: An Introduction to the Art Museum of the U.S. New York, 1981, p. 177.

Margaret Richards. "Tension in Stillness." Tribune 45 (February 27, 1981), p. 7, calls it "Light-house at Two Lights".

Mahonri Sharp Young. "Edward Hopper: The Ultimate Realist." Apollo 113 (March 1981), fig. 6.

Christopher Neve. "Early Sunday Morning." Country Life 170 (March 12, 1981), p. 648, fig. 1 (color).

Japanese Artists Who Studied in the U. S. A. and the American Scene. Exh. cat., National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, 1982, p. 120, ill.

Raymond L. Wilson. "Master of Poignancy and Mood." Artweek 13 (January 16, 1982), ill. p. 1.

John I. H. Baur. American Masters of the Twentieth Century. Exh. cat., Oklahoma Art Center. Oklahoma City, Okla., 1982, p. 60.

Gail Levin. Hopper's Places. New York, 1985, pp. 11-13.

J. A. Ward. American Silences: The Realism of James Agee, Walker Evans and Edward Hopper (1985), pp. 176-77, 181-82.

Barbara Burn, ed. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 300, ill. (color).

Kathleen Howard, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1983). New York, 1994, p. 444, no. 23, ill. (color).

Gail Levin. Edward Hopper: A Catalogue Raisonné. Vol. 3, Oils. New York, 1995, p. 192, no. O-266, ill. (color).

Mike O'Mahony. American Art. London, 2006, p. 188, ill. p. 189 (color).

Carol Troyen et al. Edward Hopper. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 2007, pp. 107, 248, no. 52, ill. p. 109.

Erica J. Waters. Images of America: Kittery to Bar Harbor, Touring Coastal Maine. Chicago, 2010, describes the history of the lighthouse on which this work is based.

Teresa Costa in Tourism and Visual Culture. Ed. Peter M. Burns, Cathy Palmer, Jo-Anne Lester. Vol. 1, Theories and Concepts. Cambridge, Mass., 2010, p. 47.

Tomàs Llorens in Hopper. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, 2012, p. 66, fig. 61 (color).

Rosalind Ormiston. Edward Hopper Masterpieces. London, 2012, p. 49, ill. pp. 49, 83 (color).



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