Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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Chasse of Champagnat

Date:
ca. 1150
Geography:
Made in Limoges, France
Culture:
French
Medium:
Copper: engraved and gilt; champlevé enamel: blue-black, medium blue, turquoise, green, red, and white
Dimensions:
Overall (Chasse): 4 7/8 x 7 7/16 x 3 3/8 in. (12.4 x 18.9 x 8.5 cm) Overall (Plaque): 2 3/4 x 7 7/16 x 1/16 in. (7 x 18.9 x 0.2 cm)
Classification:
Enamels-Champlevé
Credit Line:
Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917
Accession Number:
17.190.685–87, .695, .710–.711
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 304
Christ appears in the center of the principal face of the reliquary beneath the roof plaque, which depicts the hand of God flanked by two angels swinging censers. Distinguished by his cruciform nimbus, he holds a book in his left hand and raises his right hand in blessing; the Greek letters alpha and omega, symbolizing the eternity of God, are at either side. At his right is a female saint identified as "Maria" (Mary Magdalene), who clasps an unguent jar and a palm frond. To Christ's left is a bearded male saint identified as "Marcialis" (Martial), the first bishop of Limoges, who also raises his right hand in blessing. Saint Peter, holding the red-enameled keys to the kingdom of heaven, and another saint, probably Paul, appear on the end panels. At the upper and lower corners of the reverse stand the four symbols of the Evangelists, clasping their Gospel texts (or, in the case of the eagle of Saint John, a scroll) in hooves, talons, claws, or veiled hands. Each of the symbolic figures turns his head to the center of the panels, which have richly worked foliate decoration springing, in the case of the lower panel, from fantastic beasts with human faces.

The chasse comes from the church of Saint-Martial, Champagnat in the diocese of Limoges, where Martial was considered the thirteenth apostle of Christ.
Inscription: Inscribed: (principal face): MARIA/A/W (Alpha/omega)/MARCIALIS (Saint Martial).
Édouard Laforge, Lyon (sold 1868); Art Market, Paris (1891); Sigismond Bardac, Paris; Georges Hoentschel (French, Paris 1855–1915 Paris)(after 1900); Jacques SeligmannParis and New York (in January 1912); J. Pierpont Morgan, London and New York
Objets d'art et d'antiquités composant la collection de M. E. Laforge. Lyon: Jean-Baptiste Carrand, November 16–26, 1868. no. 56, pp. 8–9.

Molinier, Émile. L'émaillerie. Paris: Hachette, 1891. pp. 132–33.

Catalogue officiel illustré de l'exposition retrospective de l'art français des origines à 1800. Exposition universelle de 1900. Paris: Lemercier & Cie., 1900. no. 2408, p. 292, only plaques 17.190.685–.687; ill. p. 77.

Molinier, Émile. "Les Arts à L'Exposition Universelle de 1900. L'Exposition Rétrospective de l'art français. Les émaux des peintres.." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 24, 3e période (1900). p. 349.

Guibert, Louis. Les Vieux Émaux de Limoges à l'Exposition de 1900. Limoges: Veuve H. Ducourtieux, 1901. pp. 13-15, ill. across from p. 21 (17.190.685 only).

Pératé, André. Collections Georges Hoentschel: Émaux du XIIe au XVe siècle. Paris: Librairie Centrale des Beaux-Arts, 1911. no. 35–40, fig. XVII-XVIII.

Breck, Joseph, and Meyric R. Rogers. The Pierpont Morgan Wing: A Handbook. 1st ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1925. p. 32, 58, fig. 32-33, ill. p. 59 (17.190.685 and .695).

Breck, Joseph, and Meyric R. Rogers. The Pierpont Morgan Wing: A Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1929. p. 32, 58, fig. 32-33, ill. p. 59 (17.190.685 and .695).

Hildburgh, Walter L. Dr. Medieval Spanish Enamels and Their Relation to the Origin and the Development of Copper Champlevé Enamels of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. London: Oxford University Press, 1936. pp. 57-58, 77, 89, fig. 8b.

Ross, Marvin Chauncey. "An Enameled Reliquary from Champagnat." In Medieval Studies in Memory of A. Kingsley Porter. Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1939. pp. 467-477, fig. 1-6.

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Hildburgh, Walter L. Dr. "Varieties of Circumstantial Evidence in the Study of Mediaeval Enameling." Speculum 17, no. 3 (July 1942). pp. 394–95.

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Rorimer, James J., and William Holmes Forsyth. "The Medieval Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 12, no. 6 (February 1954). p. 140.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Guide to the Collections: Medieval Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1962. fig. 24.

Hoving, Thomas. "The Thread of Patronage: The Medieval Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters." Apollo 82, no. 43 (September 1965). p. 188, fig. 12.

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Hoffmann, Konrad, ed. The Year 1200: A Centennial Exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. no. 140, pp. 136-137.

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