Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, the neo-classical French artist par excellence, painted this masterpiece toward the end of his life when his reputation as a portraitist to prominent citizens and Orléanist aristocrats had been long established. Pauline de Broglie sat for the artist’s final commission. Ingres captures the shy reserve of his subject while illuminating through seamless brushwork the material quality of her many fine attributes: her rich blue satin and lace ball gown, the gold embroidered shawl, and silk damask chair, together with finely tooled jewels of pearl, enamel, and gold. The portrait was commissioned by the sitter’s husband, Albert de Broglie, a few years after their ill-fated marriage. Pauline was stricken with tuberculosis soon after completion of the exquisite portrait, leaving five sons and a grieving husband. Through Albert’s lifetime, it was draped in fabric on the walls of the family residence. The portrait remained in the de Broglie family until shortly before Robert Lehman acquired it.
Although the French neo-classical artist Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres often confessed reluctance to paint portraits, his many splendid paintings of French aristocrats and powerful personalities ultimately glorified his persona, and assured his social ascendancy in the royal circles of Louis-Philippe d’Orléans (r. 1830-48). Ingres returned to France from his years at the Villa Medici in Rome to a steady stream of commissions, and a growing reputation unsurpassed in the genre of portraiture.
Prompted by the success of the beguiling portrait of his sister Louise-Albertine de Broglie, later Comtesse d’Haussonville (The Frick Collection), Albert de Broglie commissioned Ingres to paint his beloved young wife, Joséphine-Éléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn. A pious Catholic and the author of several volumes on the Christian virtues of Saints, the shy Princesse de Broglie was woefully ill-starred. Afflicted with tuberculosis in her early 30s, she died in 1860 at the age of thirty-five, leaving five sons and a grieving husband. Albert never remarried. While it is said that he drew curtains over the portrait in his Paris residence, he did lend the picture to exhibitions in 1867, 1885, and 1900.
Louis d’Haussonville’s tutor reported in January 1849 that Ingres had dined with the d’Haussonvilles “so that he might see in profile a princess whom he would paint in the month of March, when the days were clear and long.” The tutor further stated, “He seems very pleased with his model.” A faint pencil sketch of Pauline de Broglie seated in an armchair suggests that Ingres was at work on the portrait sometime in 1850. In it the artist has already captured the oval of her face, the arch of her eyebrows, the straight line of her nose, and the gesture of folded arms, with one hand disappearing into the folds of a sleeve.
As Ingres developed his imagery, working up Pauline’s pose, and her relationship to the interior setting, he relied on professional models. For it was his belief that in order to better understand the body’s relationship to its clothing, an artist must first know the contours of the figure in the nude. Ingres was first introduced to this working technique as a student of Jacques Louis David.
Ingres notes his progress on the portrait in several letters to his friend Charles Marcotte. He wrote of having “so much trouble painting from life because of the sun. I am killing my eyes on the background of the Princesse de Broglie, which I am painting at her house, and that helps me advance a great deal; but, alas, how these portraits make me suffer, and this will surely be the last one, excepting, however, the portrait of Delphine.” (Delphine was the artist’s second wife, and indeed the subject of his final portrait.) Ingres mentions painting the shy Pauline de Broglie from life, and confirms that he laid in the background at the de Broglie residence in Paris, 90 rue de l’Université. The walls of the painted interior at first appear neutral in soft grey tones, but they are curiously marked by a fictive heraldic device --an imagined coat of arms uniting the arms of the de Broglie and Galard de Bressac de Bearn families –emblematic of Pauline’s aristocratic heritage while underscoring her marital path.
In December 1854, at his studio on the Quai Voltaire, Ingres unveiled his ravishing portrait. “Voilà,” he wrote, “the painting is finished and finished indeed to the applause of everyone. It is, to tell the truth, really beautiful.” Although not embraced by every critic, the portrait was warmly reviewed at the Exposition Universelle in 1855. Duly noted was the extraordinary materiality and luster of surface effects. “He attended equally to the costume and to the furniture…The satin of the gown, the jewels, the lace, and the marabou feathers of her coiffure have a Chinese precision and an English elegance.”
The portrait of the Princess de Broglie was completed the year that Napoleon III married the Empress Eugenie. Their re-establishment of the Imperial court encouraged a growing opulence in fashion – styles either praised or ridiculed in the press. Ingres has dressed his muse in a blue satin two-piece ball gown, such as one might have seen at the winter ball in the Tuileries or at the Opera’s first masked ball of the season. For evening affairs, ladies of privilege wore lace-edged décolleté necklines and wide, feathery sleeves of ribbon and lace arranged in pagoda fashion from shoulder to elbow, culminating in a crinoline skirt, such as we find in Pauline’s exquisite attire.
We know from Pauline’s writings and from her family history that she was deeply religious . Her necklace pendant clearly alludes to her piety. Historically, this cross called a Cross Pattée or Spire Cross could be found surmounting a spear, where it symbolized the Cross of the Resurrection. The pendant, or bulla, may have been made by a Roman jeweler, Fortunato Pio Castellani, who is credited with reviving taste for such Byzantine jewelry, or by the French jewelry house, Mellerio dits Meller, founded in the seventeenth century. Along with the pendant, Pauline’s pearl drop earrings, ruby and diamond bracelet, rings, and pearl necklace – wrapped informally around her left arm—remained in the family for generations.
Ingres has created the impression that the Princess has just laid her belongings on a chair prior to leaving the house for a soirée. This “still life” of luxuriant materials enabled the artist to expand his repertoire – adding cashmere, silk thread, velvet, leather, and ivory to the portrait’s inventory of textures and textiles. The portrait’s material detail amply describes a social milieu. But for all the finery that accessorized the princess, we have very little understanding of the woman herself. Framing her bodice and head in the spare rectangle of the wall’s moldings, the artist preserves her privacy, idealizing her facial expression. She is, in the end, inscrutable. It is only because history reminds us of her extreme reserve that we read the portrait as we do, inferring a shy demeanor. Pauline exists as the object of her painter’s gaze.
The ravishing portrait remained in the de Broglie family until the mid-twentieth century when it was acquired by Robert Lehman. Today it has pride of place in the Lehman Wing of the Metropolitan Museum, only a few blocks from the equally splendid likeness of Pauline de Broglie’s sister-in-law, La Comtesse d’Haussonville, in The Frick Collection.
[Dita Amory 2016]
Inscription: Signed and dated (left center): J. INGRES. pit 1853
Albert, Prince de Broglie, 1853; by descent, to the subsequent ducs de Broglie; purchased, through Wildenstein & Co., Inc., by Robert Lehman, New York, January 1958.
A. de G. "L’atelier de M. Ingres." L’Athénaeum Français, 3 (December 16, 1854), pp. 1188-89.
Maxime Du Camp. Les Beaux-Arts á l’Exposition Universelle de 1855: Peinture, sculpture. Paris, 1855, p. 83.
Théophile Gautier. "L’Exposition Universelle de 1855." Les Beaux-Arts en Europe. Vol. 1, Paris, 1855, pp. 165-66.
Paul Mantz. "Salon de 1855." Revue Française. Vol. 2, Paris, 1855, p. 224.
Charles Perrier. "Exposition Universelle des Beaux-Arts. II. La peinture française—M. Ingres.” ." L’Artiste , 15 (May 27, 1855), p. 45.
Guyot de Fère. "Travaux des Lettres, des Sciences et des Arts." Journal des arts, des sciences, et des lettres, 6 (July 6, 1855), p. 68.
Pierre Petroz. "Exposition Universelle des Beaux-Arts." La Presse (May 30, 1855).
Paul Lacroix. "M. Ingres à l’Exposition Universelle." Revue Universelle des Arts . Vol. 2, Paris, 1855, p. 207.
Auguste de Belloy. "Exposition Universelle." L’Assemblée Nationale (June 10, 1855).
Edmond About. Voyage à travers l’exposition des beaux-arts. Paris, 1855, p. 134.
Nadar. "Salon de 1855." Le Figaro (September 16, 1855), p. 5.
Arthur Ponroy. "Beaux-Arts. École française." Le Globe Industriel et Artistique (July 1, 1855), pp. 143-44.
Théophile Silvestre. Histoire des artistes vivants, français et étrangers: Études d’après nature. Paris, 1856, pp. 38-39.
Visites et études de S.A.I. le Prince Napoléon au Palais des Beaux-Arts. Paris, 1856, p. 116.
Nadar. Nadar jury au Salon de 1857. Paris , 1857, p. 68.
École des Beaux-Arts. Catalogue des tableaux, études peintes, dessins et croquis de J.-A.-D. Ingres, peintre d’histoire, sénateur, member de l’Institut. Exh. cat., Paris, 1867, cat. no. 436, p. 74.
Olivier Merson Émile Bellier de la Chavignerie. Ingres, sa vie et ses oeuvres. Paris, 1867, pp. 23, 119.
Amédée Cantaloube. "L’Exposition des Œuvres d’Ingres." Revue Libérale I. Vol. 4, Paris, 1867, pp. 532-33.
Charles Blanc. "Ingres, sa vie et ses ouvrages (pt. 7)." Gazette des Beaux-Arts , 24 (June 1, 1868), p. 537.
Charles Blanc. Ingres, sa vie et ses ouvrages. Paris, 1870, p.p. 168, 233.
Henri Delaborde. Ingres: Sa vie, ses travaux, sa doctrine, d’après les notes manuscrites et les lettres du maître. Paris, 1870, cat. no. 112, pp. 246-47.
Société Philanthropique. Catalogue de la deuxième exposition de portraits du siècle: Ouverte au profit de l’oeuvre à l’École des Beaux-Arts. Exh. cat., Paris, 1885, cat. no. 152, p. 48.
Exposition Internationale Universelle. Catalogue Général Officiel: œuvres d’art, exposition centennale de l’art français (1800-1889). Exh. cat., Paris, 1900, cat. no. 370, p. 48.
Exposition Universelle de 1900: Catalogue illustré officiel de l’exposition Centennale de l’Art Français, 1800 à 1889. Exh. cat., Paris, 1900, cat. no. 370, p. 207.
Henry Lapauze. Les dessins de J.-A.-D. Ingres du Musée de Montauban. Vol. 1, Paris, 1901, pp. 236 (folio 66, Cahier IX), 250 (folios 22-27, Cahier X).
J. Momméja. Ingres. Paris, 1904, p. 103.
Henry Lapauze. Le roman d’amour de M. Ingres. Paris, 1910, p. 328.
Henry Lapauze. Exposition Ingres. Exh. cat., Paris, 1911, cat. no. 53, p. 25.
Henry Lapauze. Ingres: Sa vie et son oeuvre (1780-1867). Paris, 1911, pp. 9, 440, 455, 457, 463-65, 526, ill. p. 459.
"The Masterpieces of Ingres (1780-1867)." Gowan's Art Books. Vol. 47, London, 1913, ill. p. 14.
Bissière. "La doctrine de Ingres." La Renaissance de l’Art Français , 4 (May 1921), ill. p. 268.
Lili Fröhlich-Bum. Ingres: Sein Leben und sein Stil. Vienna, 1924, p. 51, pl. 62.
Robert Allerton Parker. "Ingres: The Apostle of Draughtsmanship." International Studio , 83 (March 1926), p. 30, ill.
Louis Hourticq. Ingres: L’oeuvre du maître. Paris, 1928, p. 103, ill.
Charles Sterling. Exposition de portraits par Ingres et ses élèves. Exh. cat., Paris, 1934, cat. no. 7.
Charles Sterling. "Portraits d'Ingres et de ses élèves." Formes (April 1934), pp. 3-4, ill.
Martin Davies. "An Exhibition of Portraits by Ingres and His Pupils." Burlington Magazine, 64 (May 1934), p. 241, ill.
Jacques de Laprade. "Une exposition des portraits de M. Ingres et de ses plus brillants élèves." Beaux-Arts (March 30, 1934), p. 1, ill.
Waldemar George. "Portraits par Ingres et ses élèves." La Renaissance , 17 (October-November 1934), p. 194, ill. p. 193.
Académie française. Troisième centenaire de l’Académie française. Exh. cat., Paris, 1935, cat. no. 284, p. 57.
Clive Bell. Exhibition of Masters of French 19th Century Painting. Exh. cat., London, 1936, cat. no. 3, p. 11, pl. 1 p. 57.
James Laver. French Painting and the Nineteenth Century. New York and London, 1937, pl. 7 opp. p. 11.
Walter Pach. Ingres. New York, 1939, ill. opp. p. 226.
Maurice Malingue. Ingres. Monaco, 1943, p. 123, ill. p. 54.
Jean Cassou. Ingres. Brussels, 1947, pl. 20.
Claude Roger-Marx. Ingres. Lausanne, 1949, pl. 46.
Anthony Bertram. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. London and New York, 1949, pl. 36.
Karl Scheffler. Ingres. Bern, 1949, cat. no. 46, p. 23, pl. 46.
Jean Alazard. Ingres et l’ingrisme. Paris, 1950, pp. 105-7, pl. 96.
Georges Wildenstein. Ingres. London, 1956, cat. no. 272, p. 221, pl. 98.
Agnes Mongan. "Ingres et Madame Moitessier." Bulletin du Musée Ingres, 2 (July 1957), p. 4.
"The Last Ingres." Time (January 27, 1958), pp. 68, 71, ill.
Daniel Ternois. "L'Ingrisme dans le monde." Bulletin du Musée Ingres, 4 (July 1958), p. 20.
Agnes Mongan. "Un dessin inédit pour le portrait de la princesse de Broglie." Bulletin du Musée Ingres, 5 (December 1958), p. 6-7.
Robert Garrisson. "Ingres vu par X. Doudan (1842-50)." Bulletin du Musée Ingres, 17 (July 1965), pp. 10-11.
Robert Rosenblum. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. New York, 1967, pp. 158-59, colorpl. 44.
Emilio Radius Ettore Camesasca. L'opera completa di Ingres. Milan, 1968, cat. no. 150, p. 114, ill.
Michael Levey. "“Ingres for Ingres’ Sake.” Review of Ingres by Robert Rosenblum." ARTnews, 68 (April 1969), colorpl. p. 68.
Kenneth Clark. Masterpieces of Fifty centuries: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, cat. no. 357, p. 305, colorpl. 68 .
Kenneth Clark. "Ingres: Peintre de la vie modern." Apollo, 93 (May 1971), pp. 10-11, fig. 15, p. 15.
Ruth Davidson. "Museum Accessions." Antiques, 101 (March 1972), p. 459, ill.
Hans Naef. "Une exposition oubliée chez Ingres." Bulletin du Musée Ingres, 34 (December 1973), pp. 23-24.
George Szabo. The Robert Lehman Collection: A Guide. New York, 1975, p. 91, colorpl. 83, color detail.
Jon Whiteley. Ingres. London, 1977, p. 78, pl. 59.
William Hauptman. "Ingres and Photographic Vision." History of Photography, 1 (April 1977), pp. 122-23, fig. 6.
Hans Naef. Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A.-D. Ingres. Vol. 3, Bern, 1979, cat. no. 174, pp. 426-30.
Daniel Ternois. Ingres. Paris, 1980, pp. 103, 154, 155, color ill.
Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 396, 406-7, colorpl. 731.
Gaëtan Picon. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. New York, 1980, pp. 32, 109, colorpl. 93.
Katharine Baetjer. European Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art by Artists Born in or before 1865: A Summary Catalogue. New York, 1980, vol. 1, p. 90, vol. 3, ill. p. 544.
Margaret Vincent. "A Brief History of Flemish Lace." A Delicate Art: Flemish Lace, 1700-1940. Exh. cat., Bethlehem, P.A., 1986, fig. 7 p. 14.
Michael Kimmelman. "Ingres Show at the Met." New York Times (December 16, 1988), sec. c, p. 33.
Steven Henry Madoff. "Face to Face." ARTnews (February 1989), ill. cover, p. 106, detail.
Annalisa Zanni. Ingres: Catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1990, cat. no. 101, p. 131, color ill.
Richard Brilliant. Portraiture. Cambridge, Mass., 1991, pp. 108-9, pl. 47.
Sophie McConnell. Metropolitan Jewelry. New York, 1991, p. 38, color ill. p. 39.
H.R.H. Prince Michael of Greece. Portrait et seduction. Paris, 1992, p. 81, ill.
Paul Zelanski Mary Pat Fisher. "Visual Elements: Texture." The Art of Seeing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994, pp. 121-123, ill. p. 122.
Georges Vigne. Dessins d’Ingres: Catalogue raisonné des dessins du Musée du Montauban. Paris, 1995, pp. 276, 280-81, 324-25 (under Cahier IX), 329, 337 (no. 218, under Cahier X), color cover, color frontispiece (detail), fig. 238 (color), p. 281.
Marie Simon. "La toilette considérée comme un art." Mode et Peinture: Le Second Empire et l'impressionnisme. Paris, 1995, pp. 39-40, color ill. p. 35, color det. p. 38.
Katharine Baetjer. European Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art by Artists Born before 1865: A Summary Catalogue. New York, 1995, p. 400, ill.
Stéphane Bern. "Leurs aïeules ont pose pour Ingres." Le Figaro Madame (June 30, 1995), p. 13, ill. p. 14.
Alan Wintermute, Catalogue by Donald Garstang, Foreword by Charles Ryskamp. The French Portrait, 1550-1850. New York, 1996, p. 84, fig. 56.
Paul de Roux. Ingres. Paris, 1996, pp. 19, 76, pl. 24, color frontispiece (detail).
Introduction by Philippe de Montebello. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York and Boston, 1997, p. 218, color ill.
Lettres d’Ingres à Marcotte d’Argenteuil. Nogent-le-Roi, 1999, pp. 143 (under letter 70), 144-45 (under letter 72), 154 (under letter 87), 156-57 (under letter 89), and notes.
Aileen Ribeiro. Ingres in Fashion: Representations of Dress and Appearance in Ingres’s Images of Women. New Haven, 1999, pp. 10, 11, 39, 154, 156, 158-63, 176-78, 192, 226, 245-46 nn. 48-50, colorpls. 5 (detail) p. 11, 130 p. 159, 132 (detail) p. 161, 143 (detail) p. 177.
Valérie Bajou. "Paris: 1840-1867." Monsieur Ingres. Paris, 1999, pp. 319, 325, color det. p. 320, fig. 213 p. 325.
Drawings entries by Hans Naef With contributions by Rebecca A. Rabinow. Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch. Exh. cat., New York, 1999, cat. no. 145, pp. 447-454, colorpl. p. 448, color detail p. 450.
Gary Tinterow. "Elegant to the Tips of her Nails." ARTnews (September 1999), pp. 100, 102, fig. p. 100.
Uwe Fleckner. "Between Portrait and History." Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: 1780-1867. Cologne, 2000, pp. 110, 113-14, 119, fig. 114 p. 119.
With texts by Gary Tinterow, With texts by Charlotte Hale, With texts by Éric Bertin. ""Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch": Reflections, Technical Observations, Addenda, and Corrigenda." Metropolitan Museum Journal , 35 (2000), cat. no. 145, pp. 195, 206, 217, fig. 20 p. 205.
Daniel Ternois. Lettres d’Ingres à Marcotte d’Argenteuil: Dictionnaire. Nogent-le-Roi, 2001, pp. 55-56.
With texts by Kirsten Hoving Powell. Fingering Ingres. Oxford and Malden, MA, 2001, pp. 98, 122.
Heather McPherson. "Introduction: Likeness, Transfiguration, and Modern Identity. Portraiture and the Problematics of Representation." The Modern Portrait in Nineteenth-Century France. Cambridge, England, 2001, p. 3, fig. 1 p. 5.
Professor Solfrid Söderlind Görel Cavalli-Björkman. "Close to Reality." Face to Face: Portraits from Five Centuries. Exh. cat., Stockholm, 2001, p. 91, fig. 4 p. 92.
Viviane Rosé. Temps, affect, sensation: De Cézanne à Matisse. Vol. 2, Lille, 2004, p. 42.
Stefanie Walker. "Founders, Family Members, and The Firm." Castellani and Italian Archaeological Jewelry. Exh. cat., New Haven, 2004, fig. 2-45 p. 55.
Jean-Pierre Cuzin Dimitri Salmon. Ingres: regards croisés. Paris, 2006, pp. 74, 128, 188, 195, 230, 233, 248, 252, 265, 273 n. 109, 275 n. 90, 278 nn. 26, 32, 280 n. 56, 281 nn. 90, 171, 175.
Stéphane Guégan. "Haute société." Ingres, 1780-1867. Exh. cat., Paris, 2006, cat. no. 162, pp. 354, 356, colorpl. p. 355.
William Hauptman. Ingres. Milan, 2006, pp. 35-36, ill. p. 45, pl. 44.
Karin H. Grimme. "Faces and Fashions." Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: 1780-1867. Los Angeles, 2006, p. 61, color ill. p. 60.
Michael Leyton. "Smoothness-Breaking." The Structure of Paintings. Vienna, 2006, pp. 176-189.
Timothy J. Newbery. The Robert Lehman Collection: Frames. New York and Princeton, 2007, cat. no. 288, p. 344, ill. p. 345.
Gary Tinterow. Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800-1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 12, New Haven, 2007, pp. 14, 263-64, colorpl. p. 15, ill. p. 263.
Andrew Carrington Shelton. "Irresistible Beauties." Ingres. New York, 2008, pp. 186, 190, fig. 142 p. 187.
Paul Hayes Tucker, With texts by Richard R. Brettell, With texts by Natalie H. Lee. The Robert Lehman Collection: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Paintings in the Robert Lehman Collection. Vol. 3, New York, 2009, cat. no. 2, pp. 11-19, colorpl. p. 12.
Barthélémy Jobert. "Ingres en Grande-Bretagne et aux États-Unis." Ingres, un homme à part: entre carrière et mythe, la fabrique du personage: actes du colloque de l’École du Louvre 25-28 avril 2006. Paris, 2009, pp. 388, 395 n. 93, 396.
Susan L. Siegfried. "The "Imaginary" of the Female Nudes and Portraits." Ingres: Painting Reimagined. New Haven, 2009, pp. 121, 126, 140, 142.
Sarah Betzer. Ingres and the Studio: Women, Painting, History. University Park, 2012, cat. no. 28, pp. 44-51, colorpl. p. 45, n. 82 p. 240.
With texts by Louis-Antoine Prat. Ingres. Exh. cat., Madrid, 2015, pp. 66, 67, 84, 305, 306, fig. 120 p. 304.
Artist: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (French, Montauban 1780–1867 Paris)Date: between 1818–31Medium: Counterproof strengthened with graphite and white chalk on tracing paperAccession: 43.85.10On view in:Not on view