Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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Pyxis (Cylindrical Container)

Object Name:
Pyxis
Date:
late 11th–early 12th century
Geography:
Attributed to Syria
Culture:
Islamic
Medium:
Stonepaste; luster-painted on incised, opaque white glaze
Dimensions:
Bowl: H. 8 in. (20.3 cm) Diam. 5 1/2 in. (14 cm) Lid: H. 3 5/8 in. (9.2 cm) Diam. 5 1/2 in. (14 cm) Wt. 8.5 oz. (241 g)
Classification:
Ceramics
Credit Line:
Purchase, Lila Acheson Wallace Gift, Harvey and Elizabeth Plotnick Gift, and Louis E. and Theresa S. Seley Purchase Fund for Islamic Art, 1998
Accession Number:
1998.298a, b
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 451
This type of copper‑toned lusterware known as Tell Minis ware is named after a village in central Syria where such pieces were found. Syrian potters used minimal amounts of silver and greater amounts of copper in creating luster glazes, thus endowing the luster with a distinct dark coppery hue. A shortage of silver in the region at the time may have caused a change in the luster glaze recipe.
By the late eleventh century, a new type of ware had emerged in Syria that represented the transfer of two technologies pivotal for ceramic development in the region: stonepaste and overglaze luster painting. These ceramics relate so closely to the lusterware produced in Fatimid Egypt that they have often been misclassified. Only gradually, over the course of the first half of the last century, was the group identified as a type distinct both from the Egyptian material and from the Syrian material classified as Raqqa ware. This type has come to be known as Tell Minis ware, based on the putative findspot of a cache in the eponymous village, located between Hama and Aleppo. However, there is no evidence to suggest that it was manufactured in that village, and the exact place of production is still undetermined. In fact, recent analyses suggest that this type of ware was produced in multiple centers in Syria rather than in a single workshop or town.

The body of this container is composed of the fine white stonepaste typical of Tell Minis ware and distinguishable from the coarser, darker fabric of Raqqa ware. It also has the characteristic thin walls, chiseled foot, crackling glaze, and copper-red monochrome luster paint with a tendency to iridesce. Two registers decorate the exterior: above, a narrow band with a thick white scrolling motif created in reserve; below, a broad calligraphic band of kufic lettering interspersed with slender vine scrolls, all luster painted against white. On the lid is a row of partridges, with the details etched through the luster to reveal the white of the stonepaste beneath. The inner surface is also glazed and luster painted, with a starburst motif on the bottom and alternating pseudo-calligraphic panels and composite scrolls on the sides.

The pyxis shares a number of specific characteristics with pieces in other collections. For example, the decoration on a bowl in the Robert Mouawad Private Museum, Beirut, corresponds to that on the calligraphic band here, with similar proportions expressed between the kufic lettering and surrounding scrolls. The reserve painting employed in the upper register of the pyxis and the etched details found on its lid compare closely with the decoration on a bowl in the David Collection, Copenhagen. However, in one respect, this pyxis is unique: its form does not appear among other Tell Minis pieces, which most often take the shape of conical bowls.

Ellen Kenney (author) in [Ekhtiar, Soucek, Canby, and Haidar 2011]
Inscription: On exterior of body in Arabic in kufic script:
توکل تکفا الصبر عز من صبر قدر
Trust [in God] suffices. Perseverance becomes glory.
[He] who is patient possesses strength.

The second proverb is one of the sayings of Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A. Ghouchani, 2012).
[ Phoenix Ancient Art S.A., Geneva, until 1998; sold to MMA]
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Balcony Calligraphy Exhibition," June 1, 2009–October 26, 2009, no catalogue.

Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin vol. 57, no. 2 (1998–1999). p. 10, ill. (color).

Carboni, Stefano. "The Arts of the Fatimid Period at the Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Ismaili (2008). p. 8, ill. fig. 10 (color).

Ekhtiar, Maryam, Sheila R. Canby, Navina Haidar, and Priscilla P. Soucek, ed. Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1st ed. ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. no. 95, pp. 146-147, ill. p. 147 (color).



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