Like many early Qur'an folios, this one is written on parchment in black ink with a broad-nibbed reed pen. The horizontally elongated letters seen here are characteristic of early kufic Qur'ans on parchment, and are thought to be a response to the rectangular page format. The angular script is moderated by the roundness of several letters that look like large black dots, their inner blank spaces reduced almost to a needlepoint. Red and green dots indicate the vowel marks.
Rudolf M. Riefstahl, New York (until 1930; gifted to MMA)
Mexico City. Colegio de San Ildefonso. "Arte islamico del Museo Metropolitano de Arte de Nueva York," September 30, 1994–January 8, 1995.
Ettinghausen, Richard. "Islamic Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin vol. 33, no. 1 (Spring 1975). ill. p. 14 (b/w).
de Montebello, Philippe, and Kathleen Howard, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. 6th ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992. p. 312, ill. fig. 3 (color).
Schimmel, Annemarie. "Islamic Calligraphy." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin vol. (Summer 1992). p. 3, ill. fig. 1 (color).
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Daniel S. Walker, Arturo Ponce Guadián, Sussan Babaie, Stefano Carboni, Aimee Froom, Marie Lukens Swietochowski, Tomoko Masuya, Annie Christine Daskalakis-Matthews, Abdallah Kahil, and Rochelle Kessler. "Colegio de San Ildefonso, Septiembre de 1994-Enero de 1995." In Arte Islámico del Museo Metropolitano de Arte de Nueva York. Mexico City: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, 1994. no. 1, pp. 46-47, ill. p. 47 (color).