Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object

Young Man in the Costume of a Majo

Artist:
Édouard Manet (French, Paris 1832–1883 Paris)
Date:
1863
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
74 x 49 1/8 in. (188 x 124.8 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
29.100.54
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 810
For this image of one of the dashing young Spaniards known as majos, Manet's younger brother Gustave donned the same trousers and bolero jacket worn by model Victorine Meurent in Mademoiselle V. . . in the Costume of an Espada (29.100.53). Rejected from the Salon of 1863, both paintings were included in the Salon des Refusés that same year. Manet's robust brushwork and bold color were admired by most critics, but some complained that the majo lacked psychological characterization, the artist having rendered his face and hands with no more attention than the details of his costume.
Inscription: Signed and dated (lower right): éd. Manet. 1863
the artist, Paris (1863–72; sold in January 1872 for Fr 1,500 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1872–77; stock nos. 960 and 1363, both as "L'Espagnol"; sold on January 29, 1877, with 28 other works, for Fr 18,500; to Hoschedé]; Ernest Hoschedé, Paris (1877–78; his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, June 6, 1878, no. 43, for Fr 650 to Faure); Jean-Baptiste Faure, Paris (1878–98; on deposit [deposit no. 9183] with Durand-Ruel, November 11, 1896–January 9, 1897; sold on December 31, 1898 for Fr 20,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1898–99; stock no. 4933, as "Portrait de son frère, costume de majo"; sold on January 24, 1899 (Paris stock book), or February 9, 1899 (New York stock book) to Durand-Ruel]; [Durand-Ruel, New York, 1899; stock no. 2107; sold on February 24, 1899, for $10,000 as "Le majo" to Havemeyer]; Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York (1899–his d. 1907); Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1907–d. 1929; cat., 1931, pp. 142–43, ill.)
Paris. Palais des Champs-Élysées. "Salon des 'refusés'," May 15–?, 1863, no. 364.

Paris. Avenue de l'Alma. "Tableaux de M. Édouard Manet," May 1867, no. 13.

London. Durand-Ruel. "Society of French Artists: Eighth Exhibition," Spring 1874, no. 4 (as "A Spaniard," probably this picture).

Paris. École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. "Exposition des œuvres de Édouard Manet," January 6–28, 1884, no. 11 (lent by M. Faure).

Paris. Durand-Ruel. 1896, no catalogue [see Natanson 1896].

New York. Durand-Ruel. "Loan Exhibition: Paintings by Édouard Manet, 1832–1883," November 29–December 13, 1913, no. 4.

New York. Durand-Ruel. "Loan Exhibition of French Masterpieces of the Late XIX Century," March 20–April 10, 1928, no. 9 (lent anonymously).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H. O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10–November 2, 1930, no. 77 [2nd ed., 1958, no. 161].

Paris. Musée de l'Orangerie. "Exposition Manet, 1832–1883," June–July 1932, no. 9.

Toledo Museum of Art. "French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists," November 1934, no. 6 [see Sterling and Salinger 1967].

Springfield, Mass. George Walter Vincent Smith Gallery. "French Painting from David to Cézanne," 1935, no catalogue? [see Sterling and Salinger 1967].

New York. Wildenstein. "Manet," February 26–April 3, 1948, no. 11.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Manet, 1832–1883," April 22–August 1, 1983, no. 72.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet, 1832–1883," September 10–November 27, 1983, no. 72.

Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh. "Franse meesters uit het Metropolitan Museum of Art: Realisten en Impressionisten," March 15–May 31, 1987, no. 12.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection," March 27–June 20, 1993, no. A345.

Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme...," October 20, 1997–January 18, 1998, no. 23.

Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," September 16, 2002–January 12, 2003, no. 81.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting," March 4–June 8, 2003, no. 140.

Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. "Manet en el Prado," October 13, 2003–February 8, 2004, no. 41.

Zacharie Astruc. Le salon de 1863 (May 20, 1863) [reprinted in Ref. Moreau-Nélaton 1926, vol. 1, pp. 51–52], calls it "Portrait de son frère en Espagnol".

Castagnary. "Salon des refusés." L'Artiste 2 (August 15, 1863), p. 76, calls it a good sketch.

Théophile Thoré. Salon de 1863: Les réprouvés. 1863 [reprinted in Ref. Tabarant 1931, p. 84].

J[ohn]. Graham. "Un Etranger au Salon." Le Figaro (July 16, 1863), p. 3.

H. de la Madelène. Le salon des refusés. Paris, 1863, p. 41 [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Paul de Saint-Victor. "Beaux-Arts. Société des aqua-fortistes." La Presse (April 27, 1863), p. 1 [see Ref. Wilson-Bareau 2003].

Jules Castagnary. "Salon de 1863." Le courrier du dimanche (June 14, 1863) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Arthur Stevens. Le Salon de 1863. Paris, 1866, pp. 196–97.

Émile Zola. "Une nouvelle manière en peinture: Édouard Manet." Revue du XIXe siècle, 8e sér., 4 (January 1, 1867), pp. 53, 56, praises the composition.

E. Spuller. "M. Édouard Manet et sa peinture." Le nain jaune (June 9, 1867) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Édouard Manet. Memorandum of Paintings Sold to Durand-Ruel. [January–February 1872] [published and translated in Ref. Wilson-Bareau 1991, p. 163], records that it was sold as "Majo" to Durand-Ruel for Fr 1,500.

Jules Claretie. "Salon de 1872." Le soir (May 25, 1872) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Émile Zola. Mes haines. Paris, 1880 [reprinted in "Manet: Raconté par lui-même et par ses amis," Geneva, 1945, p. 93].

Edmond Bazire. Manet. Paris, 1884, p. 54.

Jacques de Biez. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1884, p. 30.

Joséphin Péladan. "Le procédé de Manet d'après l'exposition de l'École des Beaux-Arts." L'Artiste 1 (February 1884), p. 106, calls it the least interesting of the three pictures that Manet submitted to the Salon des réfuses in 1863.

Émile Zola. Exposition des œuvres de Édouard Manet. Exh. cat., École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Paris, 1884, p. 12.

Paul Mantz. "Les Œuvres de Manet." Le Temps (January 16, 1884), p. 3.

Thadée Natanson. "A propos de MM. Charles Cottet, Gauguin, Edouard Vuillard, et d'Edouard Manet." La revue blanche 11 (December 1, 1896), p. 518, dates it 1861; notes that it was exhibited by Durand-Ruel in 1896.

Julie Manet. Journal entry. March 19, 1898 [published in Julie Manet, "Journal (1893–1899): Sa jeunesse parmi les peintres impressionnistes et les hommes de lettres," Paris, 1979, pp. 156–57], describes this picture, then on exhibition at Durand-Ruel's.

Jul. Meier-Graefe. Manet und sein Kreis. Berlin, 1902, p. 65, dates it 1862.

Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, pp. 200–201, no. 32 [German ed., "Édouard Manet: Sein Leben und Seine Kunst," Berlin, 1910, p. 255, no. 32], lists it with works from 1861–62; identifies the man as Manet's brother Eugène.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manuscrit de l'œuvre d'Édouard Manet, peinture et pastels. [1906], unpaginated, no. 49 [Département des Estampes, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris].

Paul Durand-Ruel. Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel. 1911–12 [published in Lionello Venturi, Les archives de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1939, vol. 2, p. 190].

Julius Meier-Graefe. Édouard Manet. Munich, 1912, p. 64 n. 1, p. 312, pl. 42, provides provenance information.

Théodore Duret. Manet and the French Impressionists. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1910]. London, 1912, pp. 223–24, no. 32.

Antonin Proust. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1913, p. 165, no. 11, erroneously dates it 1861.

Emil Waldmann. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1923, pp. 17–18.

J.-E. Blanche. Manet. London, 1925, pl. 11, calls it "Youn Man in National Costume" and dates it 1867.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, vol. 1, p. 48, fig. 52; vol. 2, p. 47, fig. 341 (illustrates it hanging in the 1884 posthumous exhibition).

Patrick Hoyan. "La collection Havemeyer au Metropolitan Museum." Beaux-arts, chronique des arts et de la curiosité 7 (January 1929), p. 6, ill. p. 1.

A. Tabarant. "Les Manet de la collection Havemeyer." La Renaissance 13 (February 1930), pp. 60–61, ill. p. 57, dates it 1862 and identifies the model as Eugène Manet in Andalusian costume; provides ex-collection information.

A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 83–85, no. 53, erroneously states that the date on the canvas is 1862.

Charles Léger. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1931, pl. 5, dates it 1862.

Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. 1, 25, 76, 121–22, no. 52; vol. 2, fig. 39, date it 1862 and mistakenly note that that is the date that appears on the canvas; identify the model as Gustave Manet, not Eugène.

Germain Bazin. "Manet et la tradition." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 160.

Paul Colin. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1932, p. 73, dates it 1862.

J. Meier-Graefe. "The Manet Centenary." Formes no. 24 (April 1932), ill.

Paul Valéry and Paul Jamot. Exposition Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., Musée de l'Orangerie. Paris, 1932, p. 8, no. 9, state that the model was Gustave Manet.

E. Lambert. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 9 (June 1933), p. 375, fig. 10.

Robert Rey. Manet. English ed. [French ed. 1938]. New York, 1938, pp. 12, 163, pl. 116, states that it was painted in 1862 and that the model was Eugène Manet.

Gotthard Jedlicka. Édouard Manet. Zürich, 1941, p. 85, compares it with Manet's "A Matador" (MMA 29.100.52).

John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, p. 72.

A. Tabarant. Manet et ses œuvres. 4th ed. (1st. ed. 1942). Paris, 1947, pp. 54, 62, 69, 73, 136, 195, 323, 491, 534, no. 54, fig. 54, erroneously states that it is dated 1862 on the canvas; accepts the identification of the model as Gustave rather than Eugène Manet.

Michel Florisoone. Manet. Monaco, 1947, pp. XXII, 100, pl. 21, dates it 1862 and mistakenly calls it "Jeune homme en costume de matador".

George Heard Hamilton. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954, pp. 43, 209, fig. 4.

Nils Gösta Sandblad. Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception. Lund, 1954, p. 83, notes that it was painted in the autumn of 1862.

Jacques Lethève. Impressionnistes et symbolistes devant la presse. Paris, 1959, p. 24.

Henri Perruchot. La vie de Manet. Paris, 1959, pp. 118, 121, ill.

François Daulte. "Le marchand des impressionnistes." L'Oeil no. 66 (June 1960), p. 58, reproduces the page from Durand-Ruel's account book where the purchase of this picture from Manet in January 1872 is recorded.

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, p. 224, identifies the costume as being from the province of Catalonia.

John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. rev., enl. ed. New York, 1961, p. 85.

Denis Rouart. Letter to Margaretta M. Salinger. May 9, 1961, states that Gustave Manet posed for the picture.

Theodore Reff. "The Symbolism of Manet's Frontispiece Etchings." Burlington Magazine 104 (May 1962), p. 183.

A. Tabarant. La Vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1942). [Paris], 1963, pp. 312, 415.

Denys Sutton. "The Discerning Eye of Louisine Havemeyer." Apollo 82 (September 1965), p. 232.

Anne Coffin Hanson. Édouard Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 30, 71.

Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, XIX–XX Centuries. New York, 1967, pp. 35–36, ill.

Joel Isaacson. "The Early Paintings of Claude Monet." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1967, pp. 80, 140, 290 n. 14, p. 296 n. 45, p. 310 n. 9.

Sandra Orienti in The Complete Paintings of Manet. New York, 1967, p. 91, no. 50, ill., dates it 1862.

Merete Bodelsen. "Early Impressionist Sales 1874–94 in the Light of some Unpublished 'procès verbaux'." Burlington Magazine 110 (June 1968), pp. 339–40.

Beatrice Farwell. "Manet's 'Espada' and Marcantonio." Metropolitan Museum Journal 2 (1969), p. 206, notes that the bolero worn by the model in this picture also appears in "The Spanish Singer" (MMA 49.58.2) and in "Mlle V . . . in the Costume of an Espada" (MMA 29.100.53).

Michael Fried. "Manet's Sources." Artforum 7 (March 1969), p. 37, suggests that this picture may have been adapted from various figures in Watteau's paintings.

Anthea Callen. "Jean-Baptiste Faure, 1830–1914: A Study of a Patron and Collector of the Impressionists and their Contemporaries." Master's thesis, University of Leicester, 1971, pp. 235–36, 624, 628, no. 362, includes excerpts from Manet documents in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, mentioning its original sale to Durand-Ruel in 1872, and excerpts from Durand-Ruel records listing its number in their stock book and its sale to Hoschedé in 1877.

Germain Bazin. Édouard Manet. Milan, 1972, p. 8 [French ed., 1974].

Carl R. Baldwin. The Impressionist Epoch. Exh. brochure, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [New York], 1974, pp. 11–12, 27.

Anthea Callen. "Faure and Manet." Gazette des beaux-arts 83 (March 1974), pp. 163, 167, 176 n. 40, gives information about the provenance.

Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 4, 12, 17, 20, 80, no. 70, ill. p. 81.

Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, p. 80.

Sharon Flescher. Zacharie Astruc: Critic, Artist and Japoniste. PhD diss., Columbia University. New York, 1978, p. 101.

Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 64, 94, 109–10, 112, 192–94, no. 72, ill. (color) [French ed., Paris, 1983].

Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 165–66 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

Pierre Daix. La vie de peintre d'Édouard Manet. Paris, 1983, pp. 87, 165–66.

Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 30–31, ill. (color).

Elizabeth Anne McCauley. A. A. E. Disdéri and the Carte de visite Portrait Photograph. New Haven, 1985, pp. 181, 185, fig. 178, notes that Manet could have been "inspired by operas with Spanish male dancers and by the photographic cartes . . . made of them".

Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 129, 256, pl. 83.

Maureen C. O'Brien in Maureen C. O'Brien. In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat., Parrish Art Museum. Southampton, N.Y., 1986, p. 162 n. 6.

Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 45, 52.

Sjraar van Heutgen et al. in Franse meesters uit het Metropolitan Museum of Art: Realisten en Impressionisten. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1987, pp. 17, 50–51, 66, no. 12, ill. (color, overall and detail).

Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1989, pp. 76, 84, 88–89.

Anne Distel. Impressionism: The First Collectors. New York, 1990, pp. 83, 104, fig. 57 (color).

Françoise Cachin. Manet. [Paris], 1990, pp. 15, 149, no. 14, ill.

T. A. Gronberg. Manet: A Retrospective. New York, 1990, colorpl. 19, translates and reprints contemporary criticism.

Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1991, pp. 119, 130, 132, 212, 275, 377, fig. 65 (color).

Juliet Wilson-Bareau. Manet by Himself, Correspondance & Conversation: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings. Boston, 1991, p. 308, no. 60, colorpl. 60, dates it 1862.

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. Ed. Susan Alyson Stein. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 7, 224, 307–8 n. 10, p. 333 n. 322.

Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 226.

Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 30, 50.

Vivien Perutz. Édouard Manet. Lewisburg, Pa., 1993, pp. 28, 86–88, colorpls. 12 and 13 (overall and detail).

Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 352–53, no. A345, ill.

Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 308, 399, 402, fig. 375 [French ed., Paris, 1994, pp. 308, 396, 399, fig. 375].

Françoise Cachin. Manet: "J'ai fait ce que j'ai vu". Paris, 1994, pp. 48–50, ill. (color) [English ed., 1995, pp. 49–50, ill. (color)].

Michael Fried. Manet's Modernism: or, The Face of Painting in the 1860s. Chicago, 1996, pp. 1, 44, 284, 329, 331, 338, fig. 155, discusses and quotes from the critical response to the painting at the Salon des refusés of 1863.

Hans Körner. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996, p. 64, fig. 50.

Beth Archer Brombert. Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. Boston, 1996, pp. 130, 398.

Alan Krell. Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life. London, 1996, p. 42, fig. 36, dates it 1862.

Carol Armstrong. "To Paint, to Point, to Pose: Manet's 'Le déjeuner sur l'herbe'." Manet's "Le déjeuner sur l'herbe". Ed. Paul Hayes Tucker. Cambridge, 1998, pp. 93.

Paul Hayes Tucker. "Making Sense of Édouard Manet's 'Le déjeuner sur l'herbe'." Manet's "Le déjeuner sur l'herbe". Ed. Paul Hayes Tucker. Cambridge, 1998, p. 18.

Nancy Locke. "Manet's 'Le déjeuner sur l'herbe' as a Family Romance." Manet's "Le déjeuner sur l'herbe". Ed. Paul Hayes Tucker. Cambridge, 1998, pp. 119–20, 136, 138.

Nancy Locke. Manet and the Family Romance. Princeton, 2001, pp. 56, 101, fig. 22, dates it 1862.

Peter Meller. "Manet in Italy: Some Newly Identified Sources for his Early Sketchbooks." Burlington Magazine 144 (February 2002), p. 81 n. 67, states that the pose is based on the Lysippean "Flute-playing faun" in the Louvre and on Couture's "Romans of the Decadence" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

Carol Armstrong. Manet Manette. New Haven, 2002, pp. 11, 15, 20, 40, 72, 86, 99, 112, 139, 150, 344 n. 4, ill. p. 28, fig. 45.

Deborah L. Roldán in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 390, 403.

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 224, 236, 486, 491–92, no. 140, fig. 9.37 (color), ill. [French ed., "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," Paris, 2002, pp. 190, 377, 380–81, no. 81, fig. 99 (color)], suggests that the pose is based on the Farnese Hercules.

Trevor Fairbrother in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, p. 521.

Manuela B. Mena Marqués in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 20, 24–25, 190, 196–98, 218, 225–26, 252, 371, 373, 445–45, 455, no. 41, ill. (color and black and white).

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 50, 61 n. 64, p. 385, 391 n. 64.

Gudrun Mühle-Maurer in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 353, 495.

Françoise Cachin in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 32, 376.

Dorothee Hansen in Monet und "Camille": Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Ed. Dorothee Hansen and Wulf Herzogenrath. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bremen. Munich, 2005, pp. 66, 185, under no. 5, n. 7, ill. (color), asserts that Monet's "Man with a Pipe" (about 1864; private collection) was influenced by this picture, which Monet would have seen in the Salon des Refusés of 1863.

Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, pp. 50, 325.

Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, p. 82, fig. 9 (installation photo).

Simon Kelly in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 68 n. 38.

Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 31.

Louis van Tilborgh in Ella Hendriks et al. Vincent van Gogh: Paintings. Vol. 2, Antwerp & Paris, 1885–1888: Van Gogh Museum. Amsterdam, 2011, p.53 n. 5, notes that Van Gogh may have known the painting.



The painter's younger brother, Gustave Manet, served as the model for this picture [see Ref. Jamot and Wildenstein 1932].

A sticker removed from the back of the stretcher stated that the painting had been relined, cleaned, and retouched by Marcel J. Rougeron, March 1, 1925.
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