Art/ Collection/ Art Object

Young Lady in 1866

Artist:
Édouard Manet (French, Paris 1832–1883 Paris)
Date:
1866
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
72 7/8 x 50 5/8 in. (185.1 x 128.6 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Gift of Erwin Davis, 1889
Accession Number:
89.21.3
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 810
Manet’s model, Victorine Meurent, had recently posed as the brazen nudes in Olympia and Luncheon on the Grass (both Musée d’Orsay, Paris). Here, appearing relatively demure, she flaunts an intimate silk dressing gown. Critics eyed the painting as a rejoinder to Courbet’s Woman with a Parrot (29.100.57) and as indicative of Manet’s "current vice" of failing to "value a head more than a slipper." Recent scholars have interpreted it as an allegory of the five senses: the nosegay (smell), the orange (taste), the parrot-confidant (hearing), and the man’s monocle she fingers (sight and touch). 
Inscription: Signed (lower left): Manet
the artist, Paris (1866–72; sold in January 1872 for Fr 1,500 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1872–77, stock no. 958; sold for Fr 2,000 or 2,500 to Hoschedé]; Ernest Hoschedé, Paris (1877–78; his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, June 6, 1878, no. 44, as "Femme au Perroquet," for Fr 700 to Hecht); Henri Hecht, Paris (from 1878); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, until 1881; sold to J. Alden Weir for Davis]; Erwin Davis, New York (1881–89; sale, Ortgies, New York, March 19–20, 1889, no. 99, as "Feeding the Parrot," for $1,350, bought in)
Paris. Manet's studio. spring 1866, no catalogue [see Tabarant 1947].

Paris. Avenue de l'Alma. "Tableaux de M. Édouard Manet," May 1867, no. 15 (as "Jeune dame en 1866").

Paris. Salon. May 1–June 20, 1868, no. 1659.

London. Durand-Ruel. "Fifth Exhibition of the Society of French Artists," Winter 1872, no. 49 [see Cooper 1954].

New York. National Academy of Design. "Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition," December 3, 1883–January 1, 1884, no. 182 (lent by Erwin Davis).

Paris. École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. "Exposition des œuvres de Édouard Manet," January 6–28, 1884, no. 39 (possibly this picture) [see Distel 1981].

Paris. Palais National des Arts. "Chefs d'œuvre de l'art français," July–September 1937, no. 356.

Paris. Musée de l'Orangerie. "De David à Toulouse-Lautrec: Chefs-d'œuvre des collections américaines," Spring 1955, no. 38.

Haus der Kunst München. "Französische Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts von David bis Cézanne," October 7, 1964–January 6, 1965, no. 161.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 373.

New York. Wildenstein. "From Realism to Symbolism: Whistler and His World," March 4–April 3, 1971, no. 96.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "From Realism to Symbolism: Whistler and His World," April 15–May 23, 1971, no. 96.

Paris. Grand Palais. "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," September 21–November 24, 1974, no. 19.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, no. 19.

Leningrad [St. Petersburg]. State Hermitage Museum. "100 Paintings from the Metropolitan Museum," May 22–July 27, 1975, no. 63.

Moscow. State Pushkin Museum. "100 Paintings from the Metropolitan Museum," August 28–November 2, 1975, no. 63.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Manet, 1832–1883," April 22–August 1, 1983, no. 96.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet, 1832–1883," September 10–November 27, 1983, no. 96.

Copenhagen. Ordrupgaard. "Manet," September 15–November 26, 1989, no. 15.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," April 19–August 8, 1994, no. 103.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Origins of Impressionism," September 27, 1994–January 8, 1995, no. 103.

Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet, Monet: La Gare Saint-Lazare," February 9–May 17, 1998, no. 15.

Washington. National Gallery of Art. "Manet, Monet, and the Gare Saint-Lazare," June 14–September 20, 1998, no. 15.

Kunsthalle Bremen. "Monet und "Camille": Frauenportraits im Impressionismus," October 15, 2005–February 26, 2006, no. 19.

Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "L'Impressionnisme et la Mode," September 25, 2012–January 20, 2013, no. 24.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity," February 26–May 7, 2013, no. 9.

Art Institute of Chicago. "Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity," June 26–September 29, 2013, no. 9.

Étienne-Joseph-Théophile Thoré. Salon de 1866. 1866 [reprinted in "Salons de W. Bürger, 1861 à 1868," Paris, 1870, vol. 2, p. 318], praises the color of this painting, which he saw in Manet's studio as a sketch, but predicts that it will be refused by the Salon of 1867.

G. Randon. "L'exposition d'Édouard Manet." Le Journal amusant no. 600 (June 29, 1867), p. 8, illustrates a caricature with the caption "Jeune Dame en 1866. Manque de tenue et de distinction; mais si vous l'aviez vue ce matin déjeunant sur l'herbe, sans chemise et sans façons, avec des camarades, vous diriez comme moi que c'est une bonne fille, et surtout pas bégueule," no. 15 in the 1867 Alma exhibition.

Émile Zola. "Une nouvelle manière en peinture: Édouard Manet." Revue du XIXe siècle, 8e sér., 4 (January 1, 1867), p. 59, speaks of the elegance of this picture.

E. Spuller. "M. Édouard Manet et sa peinture." Le nain jaune (June 9, 1867), p. 5 [see Ref. Loyrette 1994].

Claude Monet. Letter to Frédéric Bazille. June 25, 1867 [published in Gaston Poulain, "Bazille et ses amis," Paris, 1932, p. 94], calls it "mauvais" and asserts that Manet has painted better pictures.

Émile Zola. Éd. Manet: Étude biographique et critique, accompagnée d'un portrait d'Éd. Manet par Bracquemond, et d'une eau-forte d'Éd. Manet, d'après "Olympia". Paris, 1867, pp. 37–38.

Hippolyte Babou. "Les dissidents de l'exposition." La revue liberale 2 (1867), p. 288 [see Ref. Loyrette 1994].

Paul Mantz. "Salon de 1868, II." L'illustration (June 6, 1868), p. 362 [translated and reprinted in George Heard Hamilton, "Manet and His Critics," New Haven, 1954, p. 121], finds it unsuccessful in its treatment of flesh tones and untrue to nature.

J. Grangedor. "Le Salon de 1868." Gazette des beaux-arts 24 (June 1, 1868), p. 520.

[André Gill]. Gill-revue: Le salon pour rire (1868), p. 11, satirizes it in a cartoon.

Émile Zola. "Mon salon." L'evènement illustré (May 10, 1868) [reprinted in F. W. J. Hemmings and Robert J. Niess, "Émile Zola Salons," Paris, 1959, p. 124], expresses admiration for the handling of the costume.

Théophile Gautier. "Salon de 1868." Le moniteur universel (May 11, 1868) [reprinted in A. Tabarant, "Manet, histoire catalographique," Paris 1931, p. 150], criticizes it harshly.

Marius Chaumelin. "Salon de 1868." La Presse (1868) [reprinted in Chaumelin, "L'Art contemporain," Paris, 1873, pp. 136–37], dislikes the inclusion of the parrot in the composition.

B. de Renjarde. "Salon de 1868. VII. L'Ecole du laid." Le Petit journal (May 28, 1868), p. 3.

P. Véron. Le monde illustré (August 1, 1868), p. 67 [reprinted in A. Tabarant, "Manet et ses œuvres," Paris, 1947, p. 147], alludes to this picture in expounding the theme that Manet exploited ugliness.

Louis Auvray. Exposition des Beaux-Arts: Salon de 1868. Paris, 1868, pp. 73–74.

Durand-Brager. "Le salon de 1868." Le pays (June 4, 1868) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

E. Roger de Tranoir. "Salon de 1868." Le figaro-programme (June 12, 1868) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

T. Révillon. "Salon de 1868." La petite presse (May 9, 1868) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Henri Fouquier. "Salon de 1868." L'avenir national (May 20, 1868) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Louis Leroy. "La session de Salon de 1868." Le Charivari (June 4, 1868), p. 3 [see Ref. Loyrette 1994].

G. de Varennes. "Salon de 1868." La gazette de France (May 18, 1868) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

T. Thoré. Salon de 1868 (1868) [reprinted in T. Thoré, "Salons de W. Bürger, 1861 à 1868," vol. 2, Paris, 1870, pp. 461, 532–33].

Édouard Manet. Memorandum of Paintings Sold to Durand-Ruel. [January–February 1872] [published and translated in Ref. Wilson-Bareau 1991, p. 163], notes that he sold it to Durand-Ruel for Fr 1,500.

Edmond Bazire. Manet. Paris, 1884, p. 60, discusses reaction to this painting at the Salon of 1868.

William Sharp. "The Art Treasures of America (Concluded.)." Living Age, 7th ser., 1 (December 3, 1898), p. 606, as "Girl with a Parrot".

Arthur Hoeber. The Treasures of The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York. New York, 1899, p. 90.

Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, pp. 55–56, 214, no. 88, notes that it was poorly received by the public at the Salon of 1868 and that it was rudely called "Femme au perroquet".

Hugo v. Tschudi. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1902, p. 19.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manuscrit de l'œuvre d'Édouard Manet, peinture et pastels. [1906], unpaginated, no. 89 [Département des Estampes, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris], calls it "Jeune dame en 1866" or "La femme au perroquet".

Frank Fowler. "The Field of Art: Modern Foreign Paintings at the Metropolitan Museum, Some Examples of the French School." Scribner's Magazine 44 (September 1908), p. 381, discusses the use of color and notes the "marvellous painter-like quality of the half-peeled orange".

Erich Hancke. "Manet als Porträtmaler." Kunst und Künstler 8 (February 1910), pp. 247–48, ill., notes that the figure recalls silhouettes found in Japanese art.

Emil Waldmann. "Französische Bilder in amerikanischem Privatbesitz II." Kunst und Künstler 9 (December 1910), p. 137.

Paul Durand-Ruel. Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel. 1911–12 [published in Lionello Venturi, "Les archives de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1939, vol. 2, pp. 190, 206, no. 88].

Jean Laran and Georges Le Bas. Manet. Paris, 1912, pp. 51–52, pl. XVIII, mention that it was referred to as "La jeune Dame en 1866," "La femme en rose," and "La femme au perroquet"; cite contemporary criticism.

Julius Meier-Graefe. Édouard Manet. Munich, 1912, p. 312, pl. 91.

Théodore Duret. Manet and the French Impressionists. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1910]. London, 1912, pp. 58, 228, no. 88, ill. opp. p. 46.

Katharine Metcalf Roof. The Life and Art of William Merritt Chase. New York, 1917, p. 94, notes that Chase told Weir that Durand-Ruel had this painting and another by Manet for sale in their gallery.

Duncan Phillips. Julian Alden Weir: An Appreciation of His Life and Works. New York, 1921, p. 21, comments that Erwin Davis commissioned Weir to buy Impressionist paintings for him in Paris, including this one.

Emil Waldmann. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1923, pp. 46–47, 72, ill.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, vol. 1, pp. 86 n.1, 98–99, fig. 91; vol. 2, pp. 114, 128, cites contemporary criticism and identifies it as no. 39 in Manet's 1884 exhibition.

Paul Jamot. "Manet as Portrait Painter." Burlington Magazine 49 (December 1926), pp. 302, 306–9, fig. A, identifies the woman as Victorine Meurend, a model that Manet painted numerous times; declares it a masterpiece and comments on its delicacy, subtlety, and grandeur; notes its influence on Renoir's "Portrait of Mme Maître".

Paul Jamot. "Manet, 'Le fifre' et Victorine Meurend." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 51 (January–May 1927), pp. 36, 39–41, ill. (overall and detail), remarks that the model's proportions have been elongated.

Charles V. Wheeler. Manet, An Essay. Washington, 1930, pp. 39–40, ill.

A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 149–51, no. 111, provides provenance information and reprints contemporary criticism.

Charles Léger. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1931, pp. 10–11, pl. 8.

Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. 1, pp. 37–39, 42–43, 83, 107, 133, no. 132; vol. 2, fig. 38, suggest that it was no. 40, "Jeune fille en peignoir rose," in the inventory made of Manet's works after his death.

"Notes biographiques." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 146.

Paul Colin. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1932, pp. 33, 74, pl. XX.

Paul Jamot. "La poésie de Manet." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 151, calls it "baudelairien".

Introduction by René Huyghe. Cent trente chefs-d'œuvre de l'art français du moyen age au XXe siècle. Paris, 1937, pl. 101.

Charles Sterling in Chefs d'œuvre de l'art français. Exh. cat., Palais National des Arts. Paris, 1937, pp. 176–77, no. 356.

Robert Rey. Manet. English ed. [French ed. 1938]. New York, 1938, pp. 14, 75, ill.

Ernst Scheyer. "Far Eastern Art and French Impressionism." The Art Quarterly 6 (Spring 1943), p. 125, dates it 1868 and notes the influence of Japanese art.

Louis Piérard. Manet l'incompris. Paris, 1944, p. 73, finds the composition similar to works by Alfred Stevens.

Ima N. Ebin. "Manet and Zola." Gazette des beaux-arts 27 (June 1945), pp. 361–63, fig. 3, notes that Zola was the first to criticize this work.

Hans Huth. "Impressionism Comes to America." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 29 (April 1946), p. 233.

A. Tabarant. Manet et ses œuvres. 4th ed. (1st. ed. 1942). Paris, 1947, pp. 119, 124, 146–47, 149–50, 195, 323, 492, 516, 536, no. 115, fig. 115, notes that it was included in a private exhibition held in Manet's studio on the rue de Guyot in 1866.

Michel Florisoone. Manet. Monaco, 1947, pp. xxi, 38, ill., includes it among the pictures reflecting Manet's study of Velázquez at the Prado.

George Heard Hamilton. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954, pp. 101, 114–16, 118–20, 124, 130, 209, 276, 279, pl. 18, reprints and discusses contemporary criticism.

Nils Gösta Sandblad. Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception. Lund, 1954, pp. 83, 104, 150.

J.-L. Vaudoyer. E. Manet. Paris, [1955], unpaginated, no. 22, ill. (overall and detail).

A. Hyatt Mayor. "The Gifts that Made the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 16 (November 1957), p. 100.

Henri Perruchot. La vie de Manet. Paris, 1959, pp. 193–94.

François Daulte. "Le marchand des impressionnistes." L'Oeil no. 66 (June 1960), p. 58, reproduces the page from Durand-Ruel's account book where the purchase of this picture from Manet in January 1872 is recorded.

Jean Sutherland Boggs. Portraits by Degas. Berkeley, 1962, p. 33, fig. 47, suggests that while Manet was working on this picture, Degas may also have been using Victorine Meurent as a model for his painting "Girl in a Red Peignoir" (Chester Dale collection, New York).

Pierre Courthion. Édouard Manet. New York, 1962, pp. 88–89, ill. (color), notes that Manet seems to return to an "earlier manner" in this picture; identifies the violets as Parma violets.

A. Tabarant. La Vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1942). [Paris], 1963, p. 376.

George Heard Hamilton. "Is Manet Still 'Modern'?" Art News Annual 31 (1966), pp. 160, erroneously calls it "Young Lady in 1868".

Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, XIX–XX Centuries. New York, 1967, pp. 40–43, ill., note that this could not have been the picture lent by Gérard to Manet's posthumous exhibition of 1884 as "Une jeune femme, 1867" because it had already been acquired by J. Alden Weir, probably in 1881, for Erwin Davis.

Joel Isaacson. "The Early Paintings of Claude Monet." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1967, pp. 190–91, 311 n. 11, p. 313 n. 22, p. 319 n. 27.

Sandra Orienti in The Complete Paintings of Manet. New York, 1967, p. 96, no. 103, ill.

Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill.

Merete Bodelsen. "Early Impressionist Sales 1874–94 in the Light of some Unpublished 'procès verbaux'." Burlington Magazine 110 (June 1968), pp. 339–40, publishes excerpts from the original record of the Hoschedé sale of 1878.

Joel Isaacson. Manet and Spain, Prints and Drawings. Exh. cat., The Museum of Art, The University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1969, p. 11, relates it to Velázquez's full-length figure compositions.

Michael Fried. "Manet's Sources." Artforum 7 (March 1969), p. 57, notes the influence Watteau.

William S. Talbot. "Henri Fantin-Latour: Madame Henri Lerolle." Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 56 (November 1969), p. 313, fig. 4.

Sharon Flescher in From Realism to Symbolism: Whistler and His World. Ed. Allen Staley. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, 1971, p. 98, no. 96, pl. 16, suggests that Manet could have been influenced by Whistler's "White Girl".

Denys Sutton, ed. Letters of Roger Fry. New York, 1972, p. 24.

John L. Connolly Jr. "Ingres and the Erotic Intellect." Art News Annual Ed. Linda Nochlin and Thomas B. Hess., Woman as Sex Object, Studies in Erotic Art, 1730–1970, 38 (1972), pp. 25–27, ill., calls this an "essay" on the five senses.

Joel Isaacson. Monet: Le déjeuner sur l'herbe. New York, 1972, pp. 84, 114 n. 96.

Mona Hadler. "Manet's 'Woman with a Parrot' of 1866." Metropolitan Museum Journal 7 (1973), pp. 115–22, fig. 1, identifies the parrot as a Jaco, a type indigenous to Africa; discusses the relationship between the woman and the parrot.

Richard J. Boyle. American Impressionism. Boston, 1974, pp. 159–60.

Carl R. Baldwin. The Impressionist Epoch. Exh. brochure, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [New York], 1974, p. 12.

Charles S. Moffett in Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1974, pp. 110–14, 124, 126, no. 19, ill. (color, overall and detail) [French ed., "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1974].

George Mauner. Manet, Peintre-Philosophe: A Study of the Painter's Themes. University Park, Pa., 1975, pp. 136–37, 140, fig. 81, interprets it as a study of the five senses.

Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 5, 15, 17, 20, 112–13, no. 115, ill.

Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, pp. 75–76.

Sharon Flescher. Zacharie Astruc: Critic, Artist and Japoniste. PhD diss., Columbia University. New York, 1978, p. 189.

Bertrand Marret in Phaidon Encyclopedia of Impressionism. Ed. Maurice Sérullaz. Oxford, 1978, p. 231, ill., incorrectly dates it 1868.

Theodore Reff. "Courbet and Manet." Arts Magazine 54 (March 1980), pp. 101, 103, fig. 14.

Frances Weitzenhoffer. "First Manet Paintings to Enter an American Museum." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 97 (March 1981), pp. 125, 127–28, describes in detail Erwin Davis's acquisition, attempted sale, and donation of this picture.

Novelene Ross. Manet's 'Bar at the Folies-Bergère' and the Myths of Popular Illustration. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1982, p. 49, pl. 29.

Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 58, 109, 201, 254–58, no. 96, ill. (color, overall and detail) [French ed., Paris, 1983, pp. 109, 201, 254–58, no. 96, ill. (color, overall and detail)].

Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 58, 318 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

Anne Distel. "Albert Hecht, collectionneur (1842–1889)." Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art Français, année 1981, (1983), pp. 271, 273 n. 21, believes that it was probably Henri, and not his brother Albert, who bought this picture at the Hoschedé sale in 1878; refutes that Durand-Ruel sold it through J. Alden Weir to Erwin Davis in 1881, suggesting that it was included in the Manet retrospective of 1884 as no. 39, "Une jeune femme," Salon de 1868, as in the collection of Gérard.

Pierre Daix. La vie de peintre d'Édouard Manet. Paris, 1983, pp. 151, 156, 176, fig. 23.

Charles F. Stuckey. Manet. Mount Vernon, N.Y., 1983, p. 11, colorpl. 8, notes that the parrot on its stand suggests a courtesan's bedroom.

Peter Hecht. "Manet et les Hollandais, ou la tradition du 'contemporain'." Septentrion 13 (April 1984), pp. 47–48, comments that attempts to interpret this painting as an allegory of the five senses are misplaced, asserting that the hidden symbolism in seventeenth-century Dutch painting was largely unrecognized in the nineteenth century.

John Pope-Hennessy. "Roger Fry and The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Oxford, China, and Italy: Writings in Honour of Sir Harold Acton on his Eightieth Birthday. Ed. Edward Chaney and Neil Ritchie. London, 1984, pp. 231, 235–36, notes that Roger Fry "fancied himself a restorer" and identifies this painting as the most important picture he treated in New York.

Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 36–37, ill. (color, overall and detail).

Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, p. 35, pl. 7.

Maureen C. O'Brien in Maureen C. O'Brien. In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat., Parrish Art Museum. Southampton, N.Y., 1986, pp. 25, 35, 37–38, 96, 146, 154, 160–61, fig. 28, colorpl. XVIII, reproduces the 1883 exhibition catalogue; discusses the "show-stopper" status of this picture and Manet's "Boy with a Sword" (MMA 89.21.2) due to preferential hanging in the place of honor, the south wall of the paintings gallery, which they shared with Degas at the exhibition of 1883.

Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 87–88, 92, 101, 230 nn. 12 and 13, colorpl. 76, remarks that the fruit in this picture is the shape and size of an orange, but the color of a lemon, and that it appears to be a "citron," which were grown in orangeries in the nineteenth century "and so, particularly appropriate in connection with the exoticism of the parrot"; notes that radiography has revealed that Manet repainted the head extensively, "perhaps in response to criticism it received at the Salon".

Ronald G. Pisano in Maureen C. O'Brien. In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat., Parrish Art Museum. Southampton, N.Y., 1986, pp. 63, 69.

Sjraar van Heutgen et al. in Franse meesters uit het Metropolitan Museum of Art: Realisten en Impressionisten. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1987, pp. 11, 13, fig. 1.

Gary Tinterow et al. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 8, Modern Europe. New York, 1987, pp. 6, 14–15, colorpls. 3 (overall and detail), agree with the spelling "Meurent".

Gary Tinterow et al. Capolavori impressionisti dei musei americani. Exh. cat., Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. Milan, 1987, p. 54, notes that this and the "Boy with a Sword" (MMA 89.21.2) were the first of Manet's pictures to enter a public collection in the United States.

Larry L. Ligo. "Baudelaire's Mistress Reclining and Young Woman Reclining in Spanish Costume: Manet's Pendant Portraits of his Acknowledged 'Mistresses,' Baudelairian Aesthetics and Photography." Arts Magazine 62 (January 1988), 77–78, 84 nn. 14–15, fig. 4, discusses the iconography of the picture to support his theory that the woman portrayed is intended to represent a courtesan.

Horst Keller. Edouard Manet. Munich, 1989, pp. 34, 39, 81, 173, colorpl. 59.

Mikael Wivel, Juliet Wilson-Bareau, and Hanne Finsen. Manet. Exh. cat., Ordrupgaard. Copenhagen, 1989, pp. 35, 50, 66, 90–93, 95, 98, 140, no. 15, ill. (color).

Anne Distel. Impressionism: The First Collectors. New York, 1990, pp. 104, 240–42, colorpl. 210.

Françoise Cachin. Manet. [Paris], 1990, pp. 66–67, 158, colorpl. 3.

Martine Bacherich. Je regarde Manet. Paris, 1990, pp. 103, 130.

Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1991, pp. 178, 180, 183–84, 212, 275, 280, 381, 398, fig. 106 (color).

John House. "Degas' 'Tableaux de Genre'." Dealing with Degas: Representations of Women and the Politics of Vision. Ed. Richard Kendall and Griselda Pollock. London, 1992, p. 89.

Eunice Lipton. Alias Olympia: A Woman's Search for Manet's Notorious Model & Her Own Desire. New York, 1992, pp. 50, 90, 132.

Margaret Fitzgerald Farr. "Impressionist Portraiture: A Study in Context and Meaning." PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1992, pp. 167–70, p. 175 n. 31, pl. 28.

Vivien Perutz. Édouard Manet. Lewisburg, Pa., 1993, pp. 89–90, colorpl. 15, remarks that the monocle and the violets are Manet's revival of the seventeenth-century theme of the five senses and the that "trailing orange peel is . . . a playful reference to a Dutch image of time and so to the 'vanitas' warnings that frequently accompany depictions of the senses".

H. Barbara Weinberg in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 76.

Brigitte Le Juez. "'La femme au perroquet': Un portrait de la femme au XIXe siècle." French Studies Bulletin 47 (Summer 1993), pp. 10–12.

Gary Tinterow and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. xiii, 296, 318 [French ed., "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," Paris, 1994, pp. XIII, 296, 319].

Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 197, 201, 207, 212, 362, 373, 408–10, no. 103, ill. (colorpl. 243 and black and white) [French ed., Paris, 1994, pp. 197, 200, 207, 210, 360, 372, 405–7, ill. (colorpl. 243 and black and white)], compares it to Monet's "Camille (La femme à la robe verte)" (Kunsthalle Bremen).

Marie Simon. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London, 1995, pp. 202, 205, ill. p. 204 (color).

Michael Fried. Manet's Modernism: or, The Face of Painting in the 1860s. Chicago, 1996, pp. 2, 103, 279, 303–4, 334, fig. 56, notes the inspiration of Watteau and of Velázquez.

Beth Archer Brombert. Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. Boston, 1996, pp. 119, 207–8, 306, 443, 471 n. 19, fig. 19, discusses the symbolism of the monocle.

Alan Krell. Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life. London, 1996, pp. 34, 49, 77, 81–82, 174, colorpl. 71, fig. 72 (detail), reproduces Randon's caricature (fig. 70), but misidentifies the artist as Bertall and mistakenly gives the publication date as May 19, 1867.

Colin B. Bailey in Colin B. Bailey. Renoir's Portraits: Impressions of an Age. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. New Haven, 1997, p. 114, cites its mood and technique as an influence on Renoir's "Rapha Maître" (private collection).

Juliet Wilson-Bareau. Manet, Monet, and the Gare Saint-Lazare. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. New Haven, 1998, pp. 1, 20–23, 25, 194, no. 15, colorpls. 13 and 14 (overall and detail) [French ed., "Manet, Monet: La Gare Saint-Lazare", 1998, pp. 20–23, 195, no. 15, colorpls. 13 and 14 (overall and detail)], remarks that it is the first time that Victorine appears as herself in one of Manet's paintings.

Carol Armstrong. "To Paint, to Point, to Pose: Manet's 'Le déjeuner sur l'herbe'." Manet's "Le déjeuner sur l'herbe". Ed. Paul Hayes Tucker. Cambridge, 1998, pp. 98–99, 101–2, fig. 29, compares it with the "The Fifer" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) and the "Street Singer" (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston).

Important Paintings and Sculpture formerly in the Auguste Pellerin Collection. Christie's, New York. November 8, 1999, p. 50.

Katharina Schmidt in Manet, Zola, Cézanne: Das Porträt des modernen Literaten. Ed. Katharina Schmidt. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany, 1999, pp. 30, 33, 45 n. 45, fig. 12.

George Mauner and Henri Loyrette. Manet: The Still-Life Paintings. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. New York, 2000, pp. 13, 17–19, 22, 60, 154, fig. 10 (color) [French ed., "Manet: Les natures mortes," Paris, 2000, pp. 33–34, fig. 9 (color)], compares it to a painting, "Girl with a Rose," from about 1643 by a Neapolitan artist known as The Master of the Annunciation (DeVito collection, Naples) to support his reading of this work as a representation of the theme of the five senses, noting that although Manet probably did not know this particular work he was familiar with the type.

Rebecca A. Rabinow. "Modern Art Comes to the Metropolitan: The 1921 Exhibition of 'Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings'." Apollo 152 (October 2000), pp. 4, 9 n. 13.

William H. Gerdts. American Impressionism. 2nd ed. New York, 2001, p. 105.

Nancy Locke. Manet and the Family Romance. Princeton, 2001, pp. 99–100, 157–58, 162, fig. 45.

Carol Armstrong. Manet Manette. New Haven, 2002, pp. 11, 15–16, 20, 28, 40–42, 49, 143–44, 159–60, 164–72, 179, 193, 324 n. 24, p. 355 n. 27, p. 356 nn. 40–41, p. 357 n. 48, ill. (overall: colorpl. pl. 68 and fig. 15; details [color]).

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 220, 222, 288, fig. 9.33 (color).

Manuela B. Mena Marqués in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 186, 276, 338, 472, 490, fig. 92.

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 50, 385.

Gudrun Mühle-Maurer in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 354, 496.

Arden Reed. Manet, Flaubert, and the Emergence of Modernism: Blurring Genre Boundaries. Cambridge, 2003, pp. 1–347, ill. (details), and colorpl. IX, quotes contemporary criticism, noting that it was mentioned in only 28 (of 134) reviews of the salon, mostly unfavorably; discusses it in relation to Flaubert's works.

Madeleine Korn. "Exhibitions of Modern French Art and Their Influence on Collectors in Britain 1870–1918: The Davies Sisters in Context." Journal of the History of Collections 16, no. 2 (2004), pp. 195, 208, fig. 4.

Dorothee Hansen in Monet und "Camille": Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Ed. Dorothee Hansen and Wulf Herzogenrath. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bremen. Munich, 2005, pp. 100, 103, 190, no. 19, ill. pp. 14, 101–2, 190 (color, overall and detail), compares it to Monet's "Camille" (Kunsthalle Bremen) of the same year.

Uwe Fleckner in Monet und "Camille": Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Ed. Dorothee Hansen and Wulf Herzogenrath. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bremen. Munich, 2005, p. 47.

Solfrid Söderlind in Monet und "Camille": Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Ed. Dorothee Hansen and Wulf Herzogenrath. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bremen. Munich, 2005, p. 248, compares it to Velázquez's portraits.

Birgit Haase in Monet und "Camille": Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Ed. Dorothee Hansen and Wulf Herzogenrath. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bremen. Munich, 2005, p. 103.

Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, pp. 222, 227, 243.

Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 6, 80, figs. 15, 16 (installation photos, color).

Kathryn Calley Galitz in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, p. 48.

19th Century European Paintings. Sotheby's, London. June 27, 2007, p. 243, under no. 222, fig. 6 (color).

Michèle Haddad. Gustave Courbet: Peinture et histoire. Sainte-Croix, 2007, pp. 138, 141–42.

Kathryn Calley Galitz in Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, p. 58.

Tamar Garb. The Painted Face: Portraits of Women in France 1814–1914. New Haven, 2007, pp. 66, 94, 257 n. 18, colorpls. 61 (overall), 94 (detail), discusses the relationship of the painting's parrot to that in Courbet's "Woman with a Parrot" (MMA 29.100.57) and the recurrence of its lemon peel as a signature element of the painter's in Manet's "Portrait of Zacharie Astruc" (Kunsthalle, Bremen) of the same year as well as in "Luncheon in the Studio" (Neue Pinakothek, Munich) and "Portrait of Théodore Duret" (1868, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris) two years later.

Laurence des Cars in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2008, p. 66, fig. 6 (color) [French ed., Paris, 2007].

Laurence des Cars in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 45.

Simon Kelly in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 63, 68 n. 38.

Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 37.

Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 284–85.

Gary Tinterow in Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity. Ed. Gloria Groom. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Chicago, 2012, pp. 21, 26, 29–31, 304– 5 nn. 1–9, ill. pp. 27 and 29 (color, overall and detail) [French ed., "L'Impressionnisme et la Mode," Paris, 2012, pp. 31, 41–44, ill. p. 40 (color)], compares it to Tissot's "Portrait of the Marquise de Miramon, née Thérèse Feuillant" (J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles) and to Gavarni's "Lorette in Dressing Gown with a Parrot" from Étienne de Neufville's "Physiologie de la femme" (1842); notes that critical attention at the exhibitions of 1867 and 1868 focused on the new pale salmon color of her peignoir, an aniline dye first produced for commercial textiles only after 1860; notes that an x-radiograph of the painting shows that the dress was originally two inches wider on each side and longer along the bottom and that these changes demonstrate Manet's concern over the peignoir's silhouette.

Gloria Groom in Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity. Ed. Gloria Groom. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Chicago, 2012, p. 38 [French ed., "L'Impressionnisme et la Mode," Paris, 2012, p. 78], notes that Victorine probably did not own the peignoir.

Justine De Young in Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity. Ed. Gloria Groom. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Chicago, 2012, p. 120 [French ed., "L'Impressionnisme et la Mode," Paris, 2012, p. 150].

Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity. Ed. Gloria Groom. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Chicago, 2012, p. 283, no. 9, ill. (color) [French ed., "L'Impressionnisme et la Mode," Paris, 2012, p. 299, no. 24].

Colin B. Bailey. "The Floating Studio." New York Review of Books 62 (April 23, 2015), p. 55.

Kathryn Calley Galitz. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Masterpiece Paintings. New York, 2016, pp. 437–38, no. 358, ill. pp. 367, 438 (color).



Victorine Meurent (died 1928) posed for this picture in 1866. The work could be a response to Courbet's Woman with a Parrot (MMA 29.100.57), exhibited in the Salon of 1866. This painting was shown in the Salon of 1868.
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