Art/ Collection/ Art Object

The Dead Christ with Angels

Édouard Manet (French, Paris 1832–1883 Paris)
Oil on canvas
70 5/8 x 59 in. (179.4 x 149.9 cm)
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 810
Manet identified the source for this painting, the first of several religious scenes, in the inscription on the rock: the Gospel according to Saint John. However, in the passage cited, Christ’s tomb is empty except for two angels. After Manet sent the canvas to the 1864 Salon, he realized that he had made an even greater departure from the text, depicting Christ’s wound on the wrong side. Despite Charles Baudelaire’s warning that he would "give the malicious something to laugh at," the artist did not correct his mistake. Critics indeed denounced the picture, particularly the realism of Christ’s cadaverous body.
Inscription: Signed and inscribed: (lower left) Manet; (lower right, on rock) évang[ile]. sel[on]. St. Jean / chap[ître]. XXv.XII (Gospel according to Saint John, chapter 20, verse 12)
the artist, Paris (1864–72; sold in January for Fr 3,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, from 1872; stock no. 959, as "Le Christ"]; private collection, ?Paris (in 1877; sold for Fr 7,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, from 1877; stock no. 1046]; private collection, ?Paris (until 1881; sold June 4 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1881–1900; stock no. 19, as "Le Christ aux anges"; deposited at Durand-Ruel, New York, on February 27, 1895, deposit no. 5253; sold on November 16 (Paris stock book), or November 17 (New York stock book, no. 2411), for Fr 4,050 to Durand-Ruel]; [Durand-Ruel, New York, 1900–1903; sold on February 7 for $17,000 to Havemeyer]; Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York (1903–his d. 1907); Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1907–d. 1929; cat., 1931, pp. 140–41, ill.)
Paris. Salon. May 1–?, 1864, no. 1281 (as "Les anges au tombeau du Christ").

Paris. Avenue de l'Alma. "Tableaux de M. Édouard Manet," May 1867, no. 7 (as "Le Christ mort et les anges").

London. Durand-Ruel. "Fourth Exhibition of the Society of French Artists," Summer 1872, no. 91 (as "Christ in the Sepulchre") [see Cooper 1954].

Boston. location unknown. "American Exhibition of the Products, Arts, and Manufactures of Foreign Nations," September 3–?, 1883, no. 1 (as "The Entombment").

New York. Durand-Ruel. "Paintings by Édouard Manet," 1895, no. 8 [see Sterling and Salinger 1967].

Pittsburgh. Carnegie Institute. "Loan Exhibition of Paintings at the Carnegie Institute," November 6, 1902–January 1, 1903, no. 94 (lent by Durand-Ruel).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H. O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10–November 2, 1930, no. 75 [2nd ed., 1958, no. 158].

Paris. Musée de l'Orangerie. "Exposition Manet, 1832–1883," June–July 1932, no. 20.

Cleveland Museum of Art. "Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition," June 26–October 4, 1936, no. 285.

New York. World's Fair. "Masterpieces of Art: European & American Paintings, 1500–1900," May–October 1940, no. 281.

New York. Durand-Ruel Galleries. "'What They Said'—Postscript to Art Criticism," November 28–December 17, 1949, no. 2.

Paris. Petit Palais. "Baudelaire," November 23, 1968–March 17, 1969, no. 581.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Manet, 1832–1883," April 22–August 1, 1983, no. 74.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet, 1832–1883," September 10–November 27, 1983, no. 74.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection," March 27–June 20, 1993, no. A346.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," April 19–August 8, 1994, no. 96.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Origins of Impressionism," September 27, 1994–January 8, 1995, no. 96.

Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," September 16, 2002–January 12, 2003, no. 85.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting," March 4–June 8, 2003, no. 142.

Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. "Manet en el Prado," October 13, 2003–February 8, 2004, no. 63.

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Manet and the Execution of Maximilian," November 5, 2006–January 29, 2007, unnumbered cat. (fig. 18, as "The Dead Christ and the Angels") (fig. 18).

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 58.

Berlin. Neue Nationalgalerie. "Französische Meisterwerke des 19. Jahrhunderts aus dem Metropolitan Museum of Art," June 1–October 7, 2007, unnumbered cat.

Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet, inventeur du Moderne," April 5–July 17, 2011, no. 73.

Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. "El Greco y la pintura moderna," June 24–October 5, 2014, unnumbered cat.

Léon Lagrange. "Le Salon de 1864." Gazette des beaux-arts 16 (1864), p. 515, calls it "Pietà" and refers to it as a study.

Hector de Callias. "Salon de 1864." L'Artiste 1 (June 1, 1864), p. 242.

Edmond About. "Salon de 1864. XV." Le Petit journal (June 3, 1864), p. 3.

Raoul de Navery. "Salon de 1864." La gazette des étrangers (June 7, 1864) [reprinted in A. Tabarant, "Manet: Histoire catalographique," Paris, 1931, p. 118], criticizes it adversely.

Paul de Saint-Victor. "Salon de 1864. Septième article (1)." La Presse (June 19, 1864), p. 3.

Théophile Gautier. Le moniteur universel (June 25, 1864), p. 876 [reprinted and translated in George Heard Hamilton, "Manet and his Critics," New Haven, 1954, pp. 57–58], compares it to a painting of a similar religious subject by J. R. H. Lazerges (location unknown); criticizes it harshly.

Georges Barral. Salon de 1864, vingt-sept pages d'arret!!!. Paris, 1864 [see Ref. Tinterow 1994].

Le Hanneton. Journal des Toques (June 26, 1864) [reprinted in A. Tabarant, "Manet: Histoire catalographique," Paris, 1931, p. 118].

J. du Pays. "Salon de 1864." L'illustration (July 1, 1864) [reprinted in A. Tabarant, "Manet: Histoire catalographique," Paris, 1931, p. 117].

Charles Baudelaire. Letter to Philippe de Chennevières. March 1864 [published in Philippe de Chennevières, "Le comte Clément de Ris et les expositions du temps de l'empire," L'artiste 1 (May 1883), p. 323], praises it highly and asks the director of the Beaux-Arts to find a good place for it.

C. de Sault. "Salon de 1864. (2e article). Oedipe et le sphinx." Le Temps (May 12, 1864), p. 2, compares it unfavorably to Moreau's "Oedipus and the Sphinx" (MMA 21.134.1).

Vie parisienne (May 1, 1864) [reprinted in A. Tabarant, "Manet: Histoire catalographique," Paris, 1931, p. 118].

Étienne-Joseph-Théophile Thoré. "Au salon de 1864." L'indépendance belge (June 15, 1864) [reprinted in "Manet: Raconté par lui-même et par ses amis," Geneva, 1944, pp. 126–28], remarks that in this work Manet has imitated the work of El Greco; mentions that the modelling and the foreshortening of the legs remind him of Rubens' "Dead Christ" and "Christ on the Straw" (Antwerp Museum) and also some of the Christs of Annibale Carracci.

Charles Baudelaire. Letter to Thoré. June 1864 [published in Charles Baudelaire, "Lettres 1846–1866," Paris, 1907, pp. 361–62], writes in reply to Thore's article in L'independance belge [see Ref. 1864] thanking him for coming to the defense of Manet's work, but points out that Manet did not "imitate" El Greco, noting that Manet has never seen a work by that artist, nor has he been to the Pourtalès Collection, but mentions that the artist has seen the work of Velázquez.

Charles Baudelaire. Letter to Édouard Manet. [1864] [published in Edmond Bazire, "Manet," Paris, 1884, p. 41], advises Manet that the lance wound is on the wrong side and that he should switch it before sending the picture to the Salon.

Édouard Manet. Letter to Charles Baudelaire. March [25], 1865 [translated and published in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, "Correspondence & Conversation: Manet by Himself, Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings," London, 1991, p. 32], notes that the he will not paint another religious picture after "Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers" (Art Institute of Chicago).

Émile Zola. "Une nouvelle manière en peinture: Édouard Manet." Revue du XIXe siècle, 8e sér., 4 (January 1, 1867), p. 57, praises it for its vigor and freedom.

Émile Zola. Éd. Manet: Étude biographique et critique, accompagnée d'un portrait d'Éd. Manet par Bracquemond, et d'une eau-forte d'Éd. Manet, d'après "Olympia". Paris, 1867, p. 34.

Jules-Michel Godet. Œuvres de M. Ed. Manet (24 photographies). no. 189, Paris, April 20, 1872, no. 20, ill. [see Ref. Wilson-Bareau 2003].

Junius. "M. Édouard Manet." Le Gaulois (April 25, 1876) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

Edmond Bazire. Manet. Paris, 1884, pp. 40–41, discusses contemporary criticism; erroneously states that Manet corrected the placement of Christ's wounds as suggested by Baudelaire.

L'art français (November 15, 1890), ill. [see Ref. Jamot and Wildenstein 1932].

Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, pp. 27, 206, no 56.

Hugo v. Tschudi. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1902, p. 19, remarks that Manet relied on Venetian prototypes.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manuscrit de l'œuvre d'Édouard Manet, peinture et pastels. [1906], unpaginated, no. 51 [Département des Estampes, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris].

Paul Durand-Ruel. Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel. 1911–12 [published in Lionello Venturi, "Les archives de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1939, vol. 2, p. 191, no. 54].

Jean Laran and Georges Le Bas. Manet. Paris, 1912, pp. 37–38, pl. XI.

Julius Meier-Graefe. Édouard Manet. Munich, 1912, pp. 71–76, 312, fig. 39.

Théodore Duret. Manet and the French Impressionists. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1910]. London, 1912, pp. 35, 225, no. 56.

Willard Huntington Wright. Modern Painting: Its Tendency and Meaning. New York, 1915, p. 79, comments that its arrangement and lighting recall Ingres's "Jupiter and Thetis".

Kenyon Cox. "Academicism and the National Academy of Design." The Art World 2 (August 1917), p. 427, fig. 3.

F. Wellington Ruckstuhl. "Remarks by the Editors on Illustrations." The Art World 2 (August 1917), p. 430, ill., considers this work "stupid beyond measure" and agrees with Cox's [Ref. 1917] assessment of the painting.

Ambroise Vollard. Auguste Renoir (1841–1919). 5th ed. Paris, 1920, p. 44, confuses the comments of Renoir and Degas about this picture and their allusion to Courbet's ridicule of it.

Emil Waldmann. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1923, pp. 27, 37, ill., mentions this painting as an example of Manet's dependence on Titian.

Tabarant. "Manet, peintre religieux." Bulletin de la vie artistique 4e année, no. 12 (June 15, 1923), pp. 247, 249–50, ill.

Arsène Alexandre. "Manet, académicien sans fauteuil." La Renaissance 6 année, no. 9 (September 1923), p. 489, ill.

Camille Mauclair. Les maitres de l'impressionisme, leur histoire, leur esthétique, leurs œuvres. [1st ed. 1903; 2nd ed. 1904]. 1923, pp. 47, 58.

J.-E. Blanche. Manet. London, 1925, pp. 35–36, pl. 12, notes that the robes of the angels are similar to those in Velázquez's "Christ Bound" (National Gallery, London).

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, vol. 1, pp. 56–59, 133, fig. 58.

Ambroise Vollard. Degas, An Intimate Portrait. New York, 1927, pp. 99–100.

A. Tabarant. "Les Manet de la collection Havemeyer." La Renaissance 13 (February 1930), pp. 59, 64, 66, ill., remarks that it was begun in the last months of 1863 and finished in March 1864; notes that Baudelaire advised Manet to paint a reversed replica in watercolor, which was offered to Émile Zola and has been in the Louvre since 1925; comments that the picture was bought by Durand-Ruel in 1872 for Fr 3,000.

The H.O. Havemeyer Collection: A Catalogue of the Temporary Exhibition. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1930, p. 13, no. 75, dates it 1863 or 1864.

Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "The Havemeyer Pictures." The Arts 16 (March 1930), pp. 444, 478, ill.

A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 116–19, 577, no. 72, reprints contemporary Salon criticism.

Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. 1, pp. 27, 126–27, no. 85; vol. 2, fig. 22.

"Notes biographiques." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 146.

Germain Bazin. "Manet et la tradition." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 155.

Paul Colin. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1932, pp. 24, 28, 74, comments on Courbet's dislike of this painting.

Daniel Catton Rich. "The Spanish Background for Manet's Early Work." Parnassus 4 (February 1932), p. 4, dates it 1863 and calls it unsuccessful as a religious composition.

Michel Florisoone. "Manet inspiré par Venise." L'Amour de l'art 18 (January 1937), pp. 26–27, ill., compares it to Tintoretto's painting of the same subject.

Walter Pach in Masterpieces of Art: Catalogue of European and American Paintings, 1500–1900. Exh. cat., World's Fair. New York, 1940, pp. 196–97, no. 281, ill.

Gotthard Jedlicka. Édouard Manet. Zürich, 1941, pp. 86–87, 313, 360, 397 n. 9, observes similarities to religious paintings by Velázquez and comments on the lack of religious emotion.

Marcel Guérin. L'œuvre gravé de Manet. Paris, 1944, unpaginated, under no. 34.

Louis Piérard. Manet l'incompris. Paris, 1944, pp. 75–76, 80, quotes Courbet's criticism.

Ima N. Ebin. "Manet and Zola." Gazette des beaux-arts 27 (June 1945), p. 362, fig. 2.

Hans Huth. "Impressionism Comes to America." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 29 (April 1946), pp. 230–31, fig. 5.

John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, p. 92.

A. Tabarant. Manet et ses œuvres. 4th ed. (1st. ed. 1942). Paris, 1947, pp. 81–84, 87, 136, 173, 195, 535, no. 71, fig. 71, states that Baudelaire informed Manet that Christ's wound is depicted on the wrong side in this picture, but that instead of repainting it, Manet made a watercolor replica with the wound on the right side (Musée du Louvre, Paris).

Michel Florisoone. Manet. Monaco, 1947, pp. XV, XXXI, 28, ill., notes John Feildel's suggestion that there is a relationship between this work and Mantegna's "Dead Christ" in Copenhagen.

Joseph C. Sloane. French Painting Between the Past and the Present: Artists, Critics, and Traditions, from 1848 to 1870. [reprint 1973]. Princeton, 1951, pp. xii, 186 n. 32, p. 192, fig. 65, cites contemporary reviews by Thoré and About.

Joseph C. Sloane. "Manet and History." Art Quarterly 14 (Summer 1951), p. 93, fig. 2.

Edgar Wind. "Traditional Religion and Modern Art." Art News 52 (May 1953), pp. 19–20, ill., calls it a "perfect illustration of Hegel's thesis: a religious picture, supremely well painted, but which does not force us to our knees".

George Heard Hamilton. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954, pp. 55–63, pl. 12, reprints and discusses contemporary criticism of this painting.

Nils Gösta Sandblad. Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception. Lund, 1954, pp. 101–2, 150, 157.

Milton W. Brown. American Painting from the Armory Show to the Depression. Princeton, 1955, p. 86, quotes from Ruckstuhl's negative assessment of the painting [see Ref. 1917] to indicate the tenor of American reaction to the European avant-garde.

J.-L. Vaudoyer. E. Manet. Paris, [1955], unpaginated, no. 14, ill. (overall and detail).

Vladimir Gurewich. "Observations on the Iconography of the Wound in Christ's Side, with Special Reference to its Position." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 20 (July 1957), pp. 358, 362, pl. 26-a, publishes this picture in a detailed study of the iconography of the wound in Christ's side and concludes that Manet's placement of the wound is not entirely wrong.

John Richardson. Édouard Manet: Paintings and Drawings. London, 1958, p. 121, no. 22, colorpl. 22.

Alain De Leiris. "Manet's 'Christ Scourged' and the Problem of His Religious Paintings." Art Bulletin 61 (March 1959), pp. 198–99 n. 7, suggests Ribalta's "Dead Christ with Angels" (Prado, Madrid) as a source, noting that both wood engravings and lithographs of it were known in France at the time.

François Daulte. "Le marchand des impressionnistes." L'Oeil no. 66 (June 1960), p. 58, reproduces the page from Durand-Ruel's account book where the purchase of this picture from Manet in January 1872 is recorded.

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, pp. 236–37, remarks that they bought this picture to ensure that it would not leave the country; notes that she tried to hang the painting in various places in the house, but that it "crushed everything beside it and crushed me as well," and decided to put it away.

John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. rev., enl. ed. New York, 1961, pp. 106, 136 n. 22.

Pierre Courthion. Édouard Manet. New York, 1962, pp. 34, 78–79, ill. (color).

A. Tabarant. La Vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1942). [Paris], 1963, pp. 335–36, 345, 415.

Denys Sutton. "The Discerning Eye of Louisine Havemeyer." Apollo 82 (September 1965), p. 232.

Anne Coffin Hanson. Édouard Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 88–89, 91, under no. 70, reproduces the etching; observes that the flesh coloring in the painting is probably influenced more by Murillo than any other Spanish painter; argues that the Gospels do not describe the location of the wound and that traditional imagery is not fixed on this point.

George Heard Hamilton. "Is Manet Still 'Modern'?" Art News Annual 31 (1966), pp. 119, 159–60, ill., remarks that this picture seems to be "totally lacking in religious conviction".

Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, XIX–XX Centuries. New York, 1967, pp. 36–40, ill., suggest that it was probably begun in the late fall of 1863 and completed in March 1864, in time to be sent to the Salon of that year; note that this and "The Mocking of Christ" (Art Institute of Chicago) are the most important of the rare religious pictures by Manet; mention that the arrangement of the composition recalls Veronese's paintings of the dead Christ, a work formerly attributed to Tinterotto of the same subject in the Louvre, and Mantegna's "Dead Christ" in Copenhagen, and comment on the striking formal relationship between this work and the "Jupiter and Thetis" by Ingres (Musée Granet, Aix).

Sandra Orienti in The Complete Paintings of Manet. New York, 1967, p. 93, no. 64, ill., notes that Manet may have been inspired by Mantegna's "Pietá" (Statens Museum, Copenhagen).

Robert Caby. "Études inédites de Manet pour le 'Christ aux anges'." Bulletin de la société d'études pour la connaissance d'Édouard Manet no. 1 (June 1967), pp. 22–24, figs. 1–5 (related studies), publishes related studies for it and provides detailed provenance information.

Joel Isaacson. Manet and Spain, Prints and Drawings. Exh. cat., The Museum of Art, The University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1969, pp. 12, 36–37, under no. 26, lists all suggestions for possible sources for this picture.

Alain De Leiris. The Drawings of Édouard Manet. Berkeley, 1969, p. 64.

Michael Fried. "Manet's Sources." Artforum 7 (March 1969), pp. 29, 54–57, 64, 66–67, 69 n. 19, p. 76 nn. 163–64a, ill., regards Veronese's "Descent from the Cross" (Hermitage, St. Petersburg) and Tinterotto's "Dead Christ with Two Angels" (Louvre, Paris) as the most convincing possibilities for Italian sources of this work and illustrates Gaspard Duchange's etching after Veronese's work, suggesting that Manet would have been familiar with it; argues that Manet was also inspired by Gericault's "Raft of the Medusa" (Louvre, Paris) and David's "The Death of Marat" (Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels).

Denys Sutton. "The Baudelaire Exhibition." Apollo 89 (March 1969), p. 181.

Theodore Reff. "'Manet's Sources': A Critical Evaluation." Artforum 8 (September 1969), pp. 42, 47, finds Fried's [see Ref. 1969] analysis of the sources for this painting implausible.

Anne Coffin Hanson. "Édouard Manet, 'Les Gitanos,' and the Cut Canvas." Burlington Magazine 112 (March 1970), p. 158.

Theodore Reff. "Manet and Blanc's 'Histoire des peintres'." Burlington Magazine 112 (July 1970), p. 457, suggests that Blanc's reproduction of Veronese's "Descent from the Cross" in his "École vénétienne" of 1868 is a more likely source for Manet than the eighteenth-century etching by Gaspard Duchange suggested by Fried [see Ref. 1969].

Jean C. Harris. Édouard Manet: Graphic Works, A Definitive Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1970, p. 145.

George Mauner. Manet, Peintre-Philosophe: A Study of the Painter's Themes. University Park, Pa., 1975, pp. 111–15, 140, 146, 159, figs. 58–59 (overall and detail), divides the painting vertically in two iconographic interpretations: "the left side speaks of Christ the man and of his physical death, while the right proclaims his spiritual rebirth and its significance for mankind"; argues that Manet intentionally put the lance wound on Christ's left side, "with the angel of the Resurrection and the symbol of spiritual triumph," and that is why he did not change it at the urging of Baudelaire.

Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 13, 17, 82–83, no. 74, ill.; vol. 2, p. 74.

Theodore Reff. "Review of Rouart and Wildenstein 1975." Art Bulletin 58 (December 1976), p. 637, states that the watercolor (RW 130) is directly related to the etching of 1867 (Guérin 34) rather than to this painting.

Bernard Dorival. "Quelques sources méconnues de divers ouvrages de Manet: De la sculpture gothique à la photographie." Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art Français, année 1975, (1976), pp. 320, 339, fig. 10, comments that it was influenced by a composition by Ribalta of the same subject.

Theodore Reff. Manet: Olympia. New York, 1976, p. 45.

Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, pp. 22–23, 25, 83 n. 133, pp. 104–10, 167, pl. 75, argues that the tradition for the placement of Christ's wound is not fixed; comments on the possible meaning of Manet's depicting Christ's body in a picture that he specifically connects to a passage in John describing angels at the empty tomb; discusses the possible meaning of the snake.

Seymour Howard. "Early Manet and Artful Error: Foundations of Anti-Illusion in Modern Painting." Art Journal 37 (Fall 1977), p. 15.

Maurice Sérullaz in Phaidon Encyclopedia of Impressionism. Oxford, 1978, p. 124, quotes Bertail [sic] in the "Journal amusant".

Sharon Flescher. Zacharie Astruc: Critic, Artist and Japoniste. PhD diss., Columbia University. New York, 1978, pp. 169–70, rejects Meier-Graefe's suggestion that this picture may have been inspired by sketches after El Greco that Astruc may have made during his trip to Spain, noting that the picture was exhibited before Astruc returned to France in late May 1864.

William Hauptman. "Manet's Portrait of Baudelaire: An Emblem of Melancholy." Art Quarterly 1 (1978), p. 232 figs. 14–15 (overall and detail), observes that the serpent, symbolizing evil and sin, "may also allude to immortality and triumph over evil forces, particularly in connection with the figure of Christ".

Piero Dini and Alba del Soldato. Diego Martelli. Florence, 1978, p. 175.

Alexandra R. Murphy in Corot to Braque: French Paintings from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 1979, p. xliii, notes that an engraving after this picture served as the frontispiece for the catalogue of the 1883 Foreign Exhibition in Boston.

Albert Boime. Thomas Couture and the Eclectic Vision. New Haven, 1980, p. 463, asserts that this picture "indicates a distinct debt to Couture's Saint-Eustache murals".

Alain De Leiris. "Manet and El Greco: 'The Opera Ball'." Arts Magazine 55 (September 1980), pp. 97, 99 n. 17.

Klaus Kertess. "Figuring it Out." Artforum 19 (November 1980), pp. 30–31, ill.

Jennifer M. Sheppard. "The Inscription in Manet's 'The Dead Christ, with Angels'." Metropolitan Museum Journal 16 (1981), pp. 199–200, ill. (overall and detail).

Beatrice Farwell. Manet and the Nude: A Study in Iconography in the Second Empire. PhD diss.1981, pp. viii, 128–30, 309 n. 138, fig. 74, suggests that Manet painted this work from a photograph of the models.

Edward J. Sullivan. "El Greco of Toledo." Art Journal 42 (Fall 1982), p. 239.

Jane Mayo Roos. Manet's "Angels at the Tomb of Christ": The Problem of What Mary Madgalen Saw. 1982, pp. 1–32, figs. 1, 7–8 (overall and details), discusses the picture in relation to the inscription and to the ideas of Ernest Renan.

Ulrich Krempel in Bilder sind nicht verboten: Kunstwerke seit der Mitte des 19.Jahrhunderts mit ausgewählten Kultgeräten aus dem Zeitalter der Aufklärung. Exh. cat., Städtische Kunsthalle Düsseldorf. Düsseldorf, 1982, p. 252, ill. p. 150.

Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 109, 195, 199–203, 226, 228, no. 74, ill. (color, overall and detail) [French ed., Paris, 1983, pp. 108, 195, 199–203, 226, 228, no. 74, ill. (color, overall and detail)].

Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p. 221 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Charles S. Moffett and Françoise Cachin. Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 204–7 [French ed., 1983, pp. 204–7], catalogues the Louvre watercolor (no. 75, ill.) and the etching (no. 76, ill.), noting that they were not necessarily produced at the same time as the painting.

Pierre Daix. La vie de peintre d'Édouard Manet. Paris, 1983, pp. 123, 125–26, 137.

Charles F. Stuckey. Manet. Mount Vernon, N.Y., 1983, pp. 9–10, colorpl. 6.

Jane Mayo Roos. "Édouard Manet's 'Angels at the Tomb of Christ': A Matter of Interpretation." Arts Magazine 58 (April 1984), pp. 83–91, figs. 1, 5–6 (overall and details), accepts Sheppard's [see Ref. 1981] reading of the inscription, but argues that the painting represents "the actual coming back to life of Christ," quoting from contemporary reviews, analyzing the picture's pictorial and literary sources, and concluding that Manet's theology, unlike that of Renan, was orthodox, although the painting's brutal realism was generally condemned by contemporary critics and by the public.

Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 31–32, ill. (color).

Ziva Amishai-Maisels. Gauguin's Religious Themes. PhD diss., Hebrew University. New York, 1985, p. 103, identifies the iconography as "imago pietatis," a "variation on the Pietà in which the dead Christ is supported by Mary, John the Evangelist or angels," and claims that "this iconographical type was popular in Northern Europe and in the work of Giovanni Bellini and Andrea Mantegna," who inspired this picture.

Michael Paul Driskel. "Manet, Naturalism, and the Politics of Christian Art." Arts Magazine 60 (November 1985), pp. 44–45, fig. 3, comments that Manet has adopted the "traditional iconic schema of the 'imago pietatis' or Man of Sorrows".

Gabriel P. Weisberg. "From the Real to the Unreal: Religious Painting and Photography at the Salons of the Third Republic." Arts Magazine 60 (December 1985), pp. 58–59, 63, fig. 1, comments that it was one of the paintings of the Third Republic that stimulated the new attitude towards religious imagery; agrees that it represents the resurrection of Christ as imagined by Mary Magdalen (noting an unpublished paper by John Hunisak delivered at CAA in 1983).

Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 102, 147, 255, pl. 118.

Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 65, 67–68, colorpl. 54.

Richard R. Brettell. French Salon Artists: 1800–1900. Chicago, 1987, pp. 55, 59, discusses the connection between this picture, "The Mocking of Christ," and the biography of Jesus by the French theologian Joseph-Ernest Renan, the first volume of which appeared in 1863.

Ekkehard Mai. Triomphe et mort du héros: La peinture d'histoire en Europe de Rubens à Manet. Exh. cat., Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons. Milan, 1988, pp. 141, 260, 262, fig. 102.

Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1989, pp. 96–98, 109.

Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1991, pp. 136, 142–46, 212, 372, colorpl. 75.

Richard Wrigley. Édouard Manet. London, 1991, pp. 16–17, 23, colorpl. 7.

Sarah Carr-Gomm. Manet. London, 1992, pp. 70–71, 140, ill. (color).

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. Ed. Susan Alyson Stein. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 220, 236–37, 333 n. 316, p. 335 n. 343.

Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 218, 234.

Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 31–33, colorpl. 32.

Vivien Perutz. Édouard Manet. Lewisburg, Pa., 1993, pp. 80, 112–16, colorpl. 19, discusses the placement of the wound on Christ's left side, noting that "Manet may not have known St. Augustine's theology, but probably did know that Christ's blood flowed from his sacred heart, and that there were many artistic precedents for the wound's placement on the left"; disagrees with Hanson [Ref. 1977] that Renan's book served as a catalyst for Manet to produce this work.

Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 352–53, no. A346, ill.

Gary Tinterow and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. xiv, 295, 309–10 [French ed., "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," Paris, 1994, XV, 295, 310].

Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 28–29, 46–48, 51–52, 403–4, 408, no. 96, ill. (color [fig. 68 and detail] and black and white) [French ed., Paris, 1994, pp. 46–48, 53, 400–2].

Gary Tinterow in Gary Tinterow and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 235, 348, 353 [French ed., "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," Paris, 1994, pp. 235, 347, 352].

Kermit Swiler Champa. 'Masterpiece' Studies: Manet, Zola, Van Gogh, and Monet. University Park, Pa., 1994, pp. 41–42, 46, remarks that this painting is the closest Manet ever came to a "phantasmagoria," noting that the work is a "pictorialized enactment of a religious fiction"; notes that the pose of the head and torso of Christ is repeated in "Bar at the Folies-Bergère" (Courtauld Gallery, London).

Michael Kimmelman. "A Decade that Remade the World in Paint." New York Times (September 25, 1994), section 2, p. 40.

Dolores Mitchell. "Manet's "Olympia": If Looks could Kill." Source 13 (Spring 1994), pp. 39, 41–46 n. 22, fig. 2.

Françoise Cachin. Manet: "J'ai fait ce que j'ai vu". Paris, 1994, pp. 62–63, 65, ill. (color) [English ed., 1995, pp. 62–63, 65, ill. (color)], calls it a meditation on death in the tradition of the 'vanitas' or macabre still lifes of the seventeenth century.

John Alan Walker. Letter to [the Editor of] Art in America. April 25, 1994.

Michael Fried. Manet's Modernism: or, The Face of Painting in the 1860s. Chicago, 1996, pp. 1, 91–95, 100, 122–23, 132, 157–60, 164, 175, 281–82, 308, 310–18, 357, 494–95 nn. 160, 162, p. 518 n. 77, p. 578 n. 134, p. 579 n. 135, p. 580 n. 145, colorpl. 6, fig. 148 (overall and detail), quotes from contemporary criticism, but notes that the terms in which this painting was attacked involved a highly charged comparison with another work, Moreau's "Oedipus and the Sphinx" (MMA 21.134.1), which hung in the same room at the 1864 Salon.

Hans Körner. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996, pp. 83–86, colorpl. 67.

Beth Archer Brombert. Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. Boston, 1996, pp. 148, 150–53, 158, 170–71, 220, fig. 17.

Heather Shirey-Sherwood. Manuscript. 1996, pp. 1–4, 13 n. 23, fig. 1, contends that this work was painted specifically for the Salon of 1864 and, therefore, not meant to be a purely devotional picture: it does not "represent an attempt to rebel against the authority of the Church by undermining conventional images of Christ nor . . . [does it] affirm Manet's interest in radical politics. Manet's images of Christ were conceived not to take sides in a theological discourse but rather to modernize the genre of religious painting, a genre that many progressive critics believed had become outmoded and stale".

Gary Tinterow in La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 1997, pp. 56–57, 108, fig. 24.

Fred Licht. Manet. Milan, 1998, p. 45, fig. 23.

Richard R. Brettell. Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860–1890. Exh. cat., National Gallery, London. New Haven, 2000, p. 80, colorpl. 41 (detail).

Nancy Locke. Manet and the Family Romance. Princeton, 2001, pp. 3, 137–39, fig. 69.

Peter Meller. "Manet in Italy: Some Newly Identified Sources for his Early Sketchbooks." Burlington Magazine 144 (February 2002), pp. 74–75, fig. 28 (color), suggests that a source for this painting is a fresco, "Man of Sorrows," of about 1520 by Andrea del Sarto (S. Salvi, Florence) that was painted for the Novitiate in SS. Annunziata, but detached in 1810 and moved to the Accademia, where Manet could have seen it.

Carol Armstrong. Manet Manette. New Haven, 2002, pp. 11, 14, 17, 28, 40, 41, 99, 157–58, 271, 355 n. 23, p. 362 n. 4, ill. (no. 7 and fig. 70).

Deborah L. Roldán in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 391, 396.

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 228–30, 240, 492–93, no. 142, fig. 9.51 (color and black and white) [French ed., "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," Paris, 2002, pp. 193, 382–83, fig. 102 (color)].

Manuela B. Mena Marqués in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 23–24, 199, 223–24, 230–235, 372–73, 446, 454, 456–458, no. 63, ill., and colorpl. 63, suggests that the watercolor (Musée du Louvre, Paris), which is in reverse, was made as a preparatory drawing.

Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 51, 55, 386, 388.

Valeriano Bozal in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 90, 405.

Gudrun Mühle-Maurer in Manet en el Prado. Ed. Manuela B. Mena Marqués. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 354, 496.

Arden Reed. Manet, Flaubert, and the Emergence of Modernism: Blurring Genre Boundaries. Cambridge, 2003, pp. 5, 7, fig. 1 (detail).

Stéphane Guégan in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, p. 194.

Pierre Rosenberg. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Milan, 2006, pp. 13, 176–77, 233, ill. (color).

Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, pp. 118–20, 127–31, 147, 188, 262, 325.

John Elderfield. Manet and the Execution of Maximilian. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2006, pp. 48, 50–54, 80, 130, 134, p. 164 nn. 70, 77, 79, fig. 18 (color), suggests a possible connection between the angels' wings and Mexico's emblem of an eagle and snake; relates this picture to the Maximilian paintings because both depict unseen events "known only through written texts . . . and earlier reproductive images" and portray "a suffering hero supported by two attendants".

Eric Storm. De ontdekking van El Greco: Aartsvader van de moderne kunst. Amsterdam, 2006, p. 39, fig. 3.

Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 84–85, 227–29, no. 58, ill. (color and black and white).

Laurence des Cars in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2008, p. 64 [French ed., Paris, 2007].

Laurence des Cars in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 47.

Simon Kelly in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 60, 68 nn. 38–39.

Philippe Sollers and Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 112.

Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 159–60, 168, 239, 269, 276, no. 73, colorpl. 128 and ill. pp. 158, 161 (color details).

Louis-Antoine Prat in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 112.

Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 284–85.

Eric Storm. El descubrimiento del Greco: nacionalismo y arte moderno (1860–1914). Madrid, 2011, pp. 40–41, fig. 6 (color) [Spanish translation of Storm 2006].

Javier Barón in El Greco & la pintura moderna. Ed. Javier Barón. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2014, pp. 16, 114, fig. 1 (color).

Leticia Ruiz Gómez in El Greco & la pintura moderna. Ed. Javier Barón. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2014, p. 316.

Jennifer A. Thompson in Inventing Impressionism: Paul Durand-Ruel and the Modern Art Market. Ed. Sylvie Patry. Exh. cat., Musée du Luxembourg, Paris. London, 2015, p. 142, fig. 93 (color) [French ed., "Paul Durand-Ruel: le Pari de l'Impressionnisme," Paris, 2014, p. 108, fig. 76 (color)], notes that Durand-Ruel placed it in the American Exhibition of the Products, Arts, and Manufactures of Foreign Nations, which opened in Boston on September 3, 1883.

Kathryn Calley Galitz. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Masterpiece Paintings. New York, 2016, p. 437, under no. 354.

A watercolor of the MMA picture in reverse is in the Louvre; Manet made an etching in 1866–67 (Guérin 1944, no. 34).
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