Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object

Woman with a Parrot

Artist:
Gustave Courbet (French, Ornans 1819–1877 La Tour-de-Peilz)
Date:
1866
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
51 x 77 in. (129.5 x 195.6 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
29.100.57
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 811
When this painting was shown in the Salon of 1866, critics censured Courbet's "lack of taste" as well as his model's "ungainly" pose and "disheveled hair." Yet the provocative picture found favor with a younger generation of artists who shared Courbet’s disregard for academic standards. Manet began his version of the subject (89.21.3) the same year; and Cézanne apparently carried a small photograph of the present work in his wallet.
Inscription: Signed and dated (lower left): .66 / Gustave.Courbet.
the artist (until 1870; sold in spring for Fr 15,000 to Bordet); Jules Bordet, Dijon (1870–98; deposited at Durand-Ruel, Paris, on February 2, 1895, deposit no. 8623; deposited at Durand-Ruel, New York, on November 4, 1895, deposit no. 5358; sold on April 30, 1898, for Fr 20,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, New York, 1898; stock no. 1994; sold on April 30, for $12,000 to Havemeyer]; Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York (1898–his d. 1907); Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1907–d. 1929; cat., 1931, pp. 76–77, ill.)
Brussels. location unknown. "Exposition générale des beaux-arts," 1866, no. 144.

Paris. Salon. "[no title]," May 1–?, 1866, no. 463 (as "La femme au perroquet").

Paris. Rond-Point du Pont de l'Alma. "Exposition des œuvres de M. G. Courbet," April 30–November 1867, no. 10.

Munich. Königlichen Glaspalaste. "I. Internationale Kunstausstellung," July 20–October 31, 1869, no. 1304 (as "Ein Mädchen mit einem Papagei spielend").

Antwerp. Salon. "[no title]," August 14–?, 1870 (as "La Courtisane") [see Fernier 1978].

Paris. École des Beaux-Arts. "Exposition des œuvres de Gustave Courbet," May 1882, no. 13 (lent by M. Jules Bordet).

Paris. Exposition Internationale Universelle. "Exposition centennale de l'art français (1789–1889)," May–November 1889, no. 210 (lent by M. Jules Bordet).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Loan Exhibition of the Works of Gustave Courbet," April 7–May 18, 1919, no. 24 (as "The Woman with a Parrot [La femme au perroquet]," lent anonymously).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H. O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10–November 2, 1930, no. 21 (as "Woman with a Parrot") [2nd ed., 1958, no. 93].

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "French Art: 1200–1900," January 4–March 12, 1932, no. 436 [commemorative catalogue, no. 320, pl. 112].

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Art Treasures of the Metropolitan," November 7, 1952–September 7, 1953, no. 141.

Cleveland Museum of Art. "Venetian Tradition," November 9, 1956–January 1, 1957, no. 8.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877," December 17, 1959–February 14, 1960, no. 60 (as "La femme au perroquet [Womand with a Parrot]").

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877," February 26–April 14, 1960, no. 60.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877," September 30, 1977–January 2, 1978, no. 96.

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877," January 19–March 19, 1978, no. 91.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "The Second Empire, 1852–1870: Art in France under Napoleon III," October 1–November 26, 1978, no. VI-30.

Detroit Institute of Arts. "The Second Empire, 1852–1870: Art in France under Napoleon III," January 15–March 18, 1979, no. VI-30.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "L'art en France sous le Second Empire," May 11–August 13, 1979, no. 198.

Leningrad [St. Petersburg]. State Hermitage Museum. "From Delacroix to Matisse," March 15–May 10, 1988, no. 10.

Moscow. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. "From Delacroix to Matisse," June 10–July 30, 1988, no. 10.

Brooklyn Museum. "Courbet Reconsidered," November 4, 1988–January 16, 1989, not in catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection," March 27–June 20, 1993, no. A145.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," April 19–August 8, 1994, no. 45.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Origins of Impressionism," September 27, 1994–January 8, 1995, no. 45.

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 28.

Berlin. Neue Nationalgalerie. "Französische Meisterwerke des 19. Jahrhunderts aus dem Metropolitan Museum of Art," June 1–October 7, 2007, unnumbered cat.

Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Gustave Courbet," October 13, 2007–January 28, 2008, no. 179.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Gustave Courbet," February 27–May 18, 2008, no. 179.

Montpellier. Musée Fabre. "Gustave Courbet," June 14–September 28, 2008, no. 179.

A. Baignères. Revue contemporaine 51 (1866), pp. 347–48, considers this picture the turning point in the public's acceptance of Courbet.

Charles Beauquier. Revue littéraire de la Franche-Comté (August 1, 1866) [reprinted in "Les amis de Gustave Courbet," Bulletin no. 35, 1966, pp. 3–4], calls it "Femme nue," and notes it is to be reproduced as a lithograph by M. Lassalle.

Charles Beaurin. "Le salon de 1866." Revue du XIXe siècle 1 (June 1, 1866), p. 454, states that despite the stiffness of the forms, it is a study of some beauty.

Charles Blanc. "Salon de 1866." Gazette des beaux-arts 20 (1866), p. 510, criticizes it for vulgarity and faults in drawing.

Maxime du Camp. Revue des deux mondes 63 (1866), pp. 711–12, considers it mediocre.

Jules Castagnary. La Liberté (May 1866) [reprinted in "Salons 1857–1870," Paris, 1892, vol. 1, pp. 239–40], calls it a representation of a real woman of the time, and a work of superior conception and painting.

P. Challemel-Lacour. "Le Salon de 1866." La Revue moderne (1866), pp. 534–35.

Cham. "Promenade au salon." Le Charivari (May 1866) [reprinted in Ref. Léger 1920, p. 61], illustrates a caricature of this picture.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to the comte de Nieuwerkerke. April 2, 1866 [ms., Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Cabinet des Estampes, Papiers Courbet, Boite 5], asserts that this picture is unfinished and requires five or six hours work to complete a few details.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to Alfred Bruyas. [January–February 1866] [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, p. 275, no. 66-5], relates that he is preparing a female nude for exhibition in a month and a half, referring to the Salon.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to Urbain Cuenot. [April 6, 1866] [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, pp. 276–78, no. 66-7], states that the comte de Nieuwerkerke sent a message that he was delighted with this work but expresses uncertainty that the comte will pay Fr 10,000 for it.

Gustave Courbet. Letters to the marquis de Chennevières. [April 18], June 29, and July 10, 1866 [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, pp. 279, 285–86, nos. 66-8, 66-16, 66-17], states that he has been asked by the comte de Nieuwerkerke to finish this painting while it is hanging in the Salon and requests the marquis to provide a copy of the comte's letter of authorization.

Gustave Courbet. Letters to the comte de Nieuwerkerke. June 16 and 27, July 27, August 10, 1866 [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, pp. 282–84, 287–95, nos. 66-14, 66-15, 66-18, 66-20], refuses to sell this picture for Fr 6,000 to the French government through Nieuwerkerke because he previously accepted the comte's offer to buy it for Fr 10,000 as a private collector; in his August letter, quotes Victor Frond, the intermediary in their negotiations, who writes that the comte bought this work and "Puits noir" (F462; Musée du Louvre, Paris) for Fr 12,000.

Gustave Courbet. Letters to his family. [August 6] and September 2, [1866] [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, pp. 293, 298, nos. 66-19, 66-23], mentions it in Exh. Brussels 1866; states that he is suing the comte de Nieuwerkerke for reneging on his purchase of this picture.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to Charles Yriarte. August 14, 1866 [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, pp. 295–97, no. 66-21], responds to an article published by Yriarte in the "Monde illustré" referencing the negotiations over this painting.

Louis Enault. Revue illustrée des eaux minérales, des bains de mer, de stations hivernales (May 27, 1866), p. 162 [reprinted in Les amis de Gustave Courbet, Bulletin no. 35, 1966, p. 5].

Théophile Gautier. Journal officiel (July 4, 1866) [see Ref. Sterling and Salinger 1966], observes that for Courbet this picture is unusual in its poetry and style.

Ludovic Halévy. Journal entry. May 11, 1866 [reprinted in "Carnets," Paris, 1935, vol. 1, pp. 109–10], refers to it as "Femme couchée" and calls it an admirable painting.

Léon Lagrange. "Le Salon de 1866." Le Correspondant 32 (1866), p. 196.

comte de Nieuwerkerke. Letters to Gustave Courbet. June 19 and July 3, 1866 [published in L. C. Mazauric, "La Revue du Louvre," 18 (1968), pp. 28, 30–31], maintains that a price was never agreed upon for this picture and asserts that he did not purchase it because Courbet altered the composition.

Paul de Saint-Victor. "Salon de 1866. 5e article (1)." La Presse (June 10, 1866), p. 3, finds it lacking in style and substance.

C. de Sault. "Salon de 1866." Le Temps no. 1840 (May 18, 1866), p. 2, considers the drawing inconsistent.

Étienne-Joseph-Théophile Thoré. Salon de 1866. 1866 [reprinted in "Salons de W. Bürger, 1861 à 1868," 1870, vol. 2, pp. 277, 283–84], asserts that in preparation for "Venus and Psyche" (F370; present location unknown), Courbet executed a study (F527; State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg) that became the prototype for our picture; calls the figure "une femme toute moderne, et, si vous voulez, une courtisane".

Jules Vallès. L'Événement (March 11, 1866), p. 1 [reprinted in Ref. Courthion 1950], praises the picture before its exhibition at the Salon.

Émile Zola. Mon salon. Paris, 1866, pp. 57–58, 60, finds it lacks the artist's usual power.

[J. Castagnary]. Le Nain jaune (August 14 and 29, 1866), relates that the Ministry of Fine Arts first rejected and then offered to buy this painting [see Ref. Paris 1867].

Felix Jahyer. Deuxième étude sur les beaux-arts: Salon de 1866. Paris, 1866, pp. 81, 86–87, praises this picture.

Edmond About. Salon de 1866. Paris, 1867, pp. 47–49, criticizes it for vulgarity in details of the figure and setting.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to M. Bardenet. [January 31, 1867] [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, p. 303, no. 67-2], makes arrangements to show this work to collectors in his studio.

L. Petit. "G. Courbet." Le Hanneton (June 13, 1867) [reprinted in Ref. Léger 1920], copies this and several other works in a caricature.

Edmond de Goncourt and Jules de Goncourt. Journal entry. September 18, 1867 [published in R. Ricatte, ed., "Journal: Mémoires de la vie littéraire," Paris, 1956, vol. 2, p. 376], describes it as removed from reality as an eighteenth-century academic nude.

Arnaud. Le Salon pour rire (1868) [reprinted in Ref. Léger 1920], copies the parrot in a caricature.

Jules Bordet. Draft for a press release. [1870] [published in P. D. Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, p. 374 n. 1], announces that he has bought this work for Fr 20,000 [sic], and notes erroneously that it was in the Salon of 1867.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to Juliette Courbet. April 29, 1870 [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Courbet," Chicago, 1992, p. 373, no. 70-11], states that he sold this picture to M. Bordet from Dijon for Fr 15,000.

Gustave Courbet. Letter to Jules Castagnary. [April 13, 1874] [published in English transl. in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, ed., "Letters of Gustave Coubet," Chicago, 1992, p. 530, no. 74-8].

comte H. d' Ideville. Gustave Courbet. Paris, 1878, pp. 30, 32–33, 62–64, recalls seeing Courbet working on this picture in his studio.

Paul Mantz. "Gustave Courbet—Part 3." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 18 (1878), pp. 375–76, 378–79, traces its origins to the study of a reclining woman (F527; Hermitage).

J. Troubat. Plume et pinceau (1878), p. 254 [reprinted in Ref. Courthion 1948, p. 130].

Émile Durand-Gréville. Entretiens avec J.-J. Henner (May 1882) [published in "Les Amis de Gustave Courbet," no. 37, 1967, p. 15], records Henner's comments about this painting when it was exhibited in 1882.

J.-K. Huysmans. "Le Salon officiel de 1880." L'Art moderne. Paris, 1883, p. 238, states that it is no more realistic than a nude by Lefebvre or Cabanel.

Victor Fournel. Les Artistes français contemporains: Peintres—sculpteurs. Tours, 1884, p. 363, criticizes the arrangement and composition as unrealistic and without taste, but praises the execution as nearly perfect.

Alexandre Estignard. Courbet: sa vie, ses oeuvres. Besançon, 1896, pp. 52–53, 78, 164, 187, lists a study in the Fiorini collection, Geneva (possibly F373).

Julius Meier-Graefe. Corot und Courbet: Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Modernen Malerei. Leipzig, 1905, p. 178.

Henry Marcel. La Peinture française au XIXe siècle. Paris, 1905, p. 208, states incorrectly that it was painted for Khalil-Bey.

Georges Riat. Gustave Courbet peintre. Paris, 1906, pp. 234–42, 252, 256, 270, 276, 387, no. 56, ill., notes the relation of this work to "Venus and Psyche" (F370); describes the Hermitage study (F527) as the first idea for this painting but reproduces another painting of a reclining nude (F536; Museum Mesdag, The Hague) as a study.

Georges Gazier. Gustave Courbet: L'homme et l'oeuvre. Besançon, 1906, p. 33.

Julius Meier-Graefe. Corot und Courbet. 2nd ed. Munich, 1912, p. 178.

Léonce Bénédite. Courbet. Paris, [1912], pp. 89–90, pl. 37.

[J.] Castagnary. "Fragments d'un livre sur Courbet." Gazette des beaux-arts, 4th ser., 7 (January 1912), p. 24, remarks that this picture and "Remise de chevreuils" (F552; Musée d'Orsay, Paris) renewed the public's favorable opinion of Courbet.

Théodore Duret. Courbet. Paris, 1918, pp. 75–76, 149, pl. 26.

Charles Léger. Courbet selon les caricatures et les images. Paris, 1920, pp. 61, 66, 77, reprints caricatures of this picture by Just Durgy (1866), Cham [Ref. 1866], and Petit [Ref. 1867].

André Fontainas. Courbet. Paris, 1921, pp. 83–84.

Charles Léger. Courbet. Paris, 1925, pp. 76, 79, ill. p. 105.

George Sakier. "La Peinture française du XIXe siècle au 'Metropolitan Museum of Art' de New-York." L'Amour de l'art 7 (June 1926), p. 203, ill. p. 198.

Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Bonvin raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1927, p. 72, relates Bonvin's comment at the 1866 Salon that this work was "a Dubufe".

Charles Léger. Courbet. Paris, 1929, pp. 118, 125, 147, 189, records a copy of this picture by Courbet's pupil Cherubino Pata.

Arsène Alexandre. "La Collection Havemeyer: Courbet et Corot." La Renaissance 12 (June 1929), pp. 273, 276, ill. p. 274.

Paul Jamot in La Peinture au Musée du Louvre. Vol. 1, École française. Paris, 1929, p. 15, states that this model also appears in "The Source" (F627; Musée du Louvre, Paris).

Harry B. Wehle. "The Exhibition of the H. O. Havemeyer Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 25 (March 1930), p. 55.

Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "The Havemeyer Pictures." The Arts 16 (March 1930), p. 477, ill. p. 452.

R. H. Wile[n]ski. French Painting. Boston, 1931, p. 224.

H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, pp. 76–77, ill., calls it "Nude—La femme au perroquet".

George Boas. "Courbet and his Critics." Courbet and the Naturalistic Movement. Ed. George Boas. Baltimore, 1938, pp. 47, 49.

Lionello Venturi. Modern Painters. Vol. 1, New York, 1947, p. 216, fig. 149, calls it a "staggering blunder".

Charles Léger. Courbet et son temps (Lettres et documents inédits). Paris, 1948, pp. 112–13, 196–97, fig. 32.

Pierre Courthion, ed. Courbet raconté par lui-même et par ses amis. Vol. 1, Sa vie et ses oeuvres. Geneva, 1948, pp. 130, 212, 214–15, 220–22.

Marie Luise Kaschnitz. Die Wahrheit, nicht der Traum: Das Leben des Malers Courbet. Leipzig, 1949, pp. 107, 124, 163, 166, 169.

Pierre Courthion, ed. Courbet raconté par lui-même et par ses amis. Vol. 2, Ses écrits, ses contemporains, sa postérité. Geneva, 1950, pp. 231, 301, fig. 7.

Art Treasures of the Metropolitan: A Selection from the European and Asiatic Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1952, p. 232, colorpl. 141, remarks that this model posed for Courbet and Whistler a number of times.

Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), ill. p. 48.

Lionello Venturi. Four Steps Toward Modern Art: Giorgione, Caravaggio, Manet, Cézanne. New York, 1956, p. 54, fig. 20, calls it one of Courbet's greatest mistakes, noting that one can see "the awful fusing of the academic and realistic".

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, pp. 184–85, 195–96, recalls that she "begged Mr. Havemeyer to buy [this] picture, not to hang it in our gallery lest the anti-nudists should declare a revolution and revise our Constitution, but just to keep it in America, just that such a work should not be lost to the future generations...".

A. Tabarant. La Vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1942). [Paris], 1963, pp. 378–79, 381, 389.

Wayne V. Andersen. "Cèzanne's 'Carnet violet-moiré'." Burlington Magazine 107 (June 1965), p. 313, fig. 40 (photograph), notes that Cézanne kept a reproduction of this painting.

Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 2, XIX Century. New York, 1966, pp. 124–27, ill.

Lucie Chamson Mazauric. "Comment on perd un tableau." Revue du Louvre et des musées de France 18, no. 1 (1968), pp. 27–36, ill.

Hélène Toussaint in Gustave Courbet (1819–1877). Exh. cat., Villa Medici. Rome, 1969, pp. XXXI, 38.

Kermit S. Champa and Kate H. Champa. German Painting of the Nineteenth Century. Exh. cat., Yale University Art Gallery. New Haven, 1970, pp. 82–83, suggests this picture was a source for Lovis Corinth's "Recumbent Nude" (1899; Kunsthalle Bremen).

Sandra Pinto. Courbet. Paris, 1970, pp. 24, 37, ill. pp. 59–60 (color).

André Fermigier. Courbet. Geneva, 1971, pp. 101–2, 104.

Carl R. Baldwin. The Impressionist Epoch. Exh. brochure, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [New York], 1974, p. 11, remarks that this painting is "devoid of any 'redeeming' allusion to mythology or legend".

Lydie Huyghe in René Huyghe. La Relève de l'imaginaire. La Peinture française au XIXe siècle: Réalisme, romantisme. Paris, 1976, p. 441, erroneously dates it 1886.

Bruno Foucart. G. Courbet. Naefels, Switzerland, 1977, pp. 62, 69, ill. p. 66 (color), compares it to "The Hammock" (1844; Collection Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur; F53).

Robert Fernier. La vie et l'oeuvre de Gustave Courbet. Vol. 2, Peintures, 1866–1877. Lausanne, 1978, pp. 4–5, no. 526, ill.

Marie-Thérèse de Forges in Gustave Courbet (1819–1877). Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Paris. London, 1978, pp. 35, 41–43 [French ed., 1977, pp. 36, 41–44], relates the dispute between Courbet and Nieuwerkerke, the Superintendent of Fine Arts, concerning the purchase of this picture for the French government.

Hélène Toussaint in Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Paris. London, 1978, pp. 164, 168–69, no. 91, ill. [French ed., 1977, pp. 181, 186–88, no. 96, ill.], compares it to Gigoux's "Death of Cleopatra" (Musée des Beaux-arts, Chambéry), which Courbet could have seen at the Musée du Luxembourg, and to photographs of the time; repeats anecdote that Thoré suggested this subject to Courbet [Ref. Thoré 1866].

J[oseph]. R[ishel]. in The Second Empire, 1852–1870: Art in France under Napoleon III. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1978, pp. 276–77, no. VI-30, ill. [French ed., 1977, pp. 331–32], discusses its reception at the Salon of 1866; suggests the subject "may have derived from Dutch seventeenth-century painting, where women with parrots abound, often with the same erotic overtones".

Prof. Dr. Peter-Klaus Schuster in Courbet und Deutschland. Exh. cat., Hamburger Kunsthalle. Cologne, 1978, pp. 240–42, ill., relates it to the study in the Museum Mesdag, The Hague (F536), and to Clesinger's sculpture "Woman Bitten by a Serpent" (Musée du Louvre, Paris); suggests that it was Courbet's response to Manet's "Olympia" (1865; Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

Denys Sutton. "Bonjour tristesse." Apollo 107 (January 1978), p. 8, fig. 16.

John Rewald. Paul Cézanne: The Watercolors, A Catalogue Raisonné. Boston, 1983, p. 91, cites it as a possible source for Cézanne's watercolor "Le punch au rhum" (Private collection, Stuttgart).

Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p.258, ill. [French ed., Paris, 1983].

Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Ed. Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p. 244 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

Denise Delouche. "Le Tableau et sa caricature: les oeuvres de Courbet vues par les caricaturistes." L'Image par l'image. Rennes, 1983, unpaginated.

Pierre Courthion. L'opera completa di Courbet. Milan, 1985, pp. 102–3, no. 518, ill.

Nanette Salomon. "Courbet's 'Woman with a Parrot' and the Problem of 'Realism'." Tribute to Lotte Brand Philip: Art Historian and Detective. Ed. William W. Clark et al. New York, 1985, pp. 144–53, fig. 1, suggests a sixteenth-century German woodcut of a nude woman with a parrot originally created by Hans Sebald Beham and copied by Hans Weigel as a possible source for this picture; discusses the iconographic tradition to which it belongs.

Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 56, 110, 193, 239, 256, 262 n. 9, colorpl. 143, describes its reception in 1909 when Mrs. Havemeyer lent it to the MMA.

Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 88–90, fig. 79, notes that, instead of causing offense, its sensuality ensured Courbet's popularity with the Salon public; discusses the parrot with regard to accepted nineteenth-century symbolism and the model's titillation; states that the model's anonymous commodified body is what kept the image socially acceptable.

Charles F. Stuckey in The Art of Paul Gauguin. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1988, p. 268, claims that this picture inspired Gauguin to paint "Te nave nave fenua" (Ohara Museum of Art, Kurashiki, Japan), which "juxtaposes a birdlike lizard with a naked woman for similar erotic effect".

Jean-Jacques Fernier in Cherubino Pata, 1827/1899: le vrai faux-Courbet. Exh. cat., Musée-Maison Natale Gustave Courbet. Ornans, 1988, pp. 32–34, ill., discusses a copy after this picture by Pata (location unknown).

Michael Fried in Sarah Faunce and Linda Nochlin. Courbet Reconsidered. Exh. cat., Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn, 1988, pp. 48–52, 228–29 nn. 23–25, 30, fig. 3.6, discusses this picture based on the hypothesis that Courbet was attempting to deny his role as creator and transport himself into the painting; asserts that this composition displays several elements uncharacteristic of Courbet's work.

Michael Fried. Courbet's Realism. Chicago, 1990, pp. 189, 200–201, 203–5, 207, 209, 220, 247, 289, 338–39 nn. 31–34, fig. 75, repeats, with slight modifications, Ref. Fried 1988; compares this work with "Apples, Pears, and Primroses on a Table" (F780; Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena).

Sam Hunter. Alex Katz. New York, 1992, p. 31, notes that it inspired Alex Katz's "Upside Down Ada" (1965, Museum of Modern Art, New York).

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. Ed. Susan Alyson Stein. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 184–85, 195–97, 301, 328 n. 253, p. 330 nn. 278–79, p. 340 n. 400.

Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 210, 223, 253, figs. 103, 106, publishes installation photographs of Exhs New York 1919 and 1930.

Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 21–22, 33, colorpl. 19.

Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 316–17, no. A145, ill.

Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. xiii, 98, 101, 104, 109–12, 212, 296, 315, 361–63, 410, no. 45, ill. p. 361, fig. 148 (color) [French ed., Paris, 1994], states that Courbet "appropriated" this nude from Gleyre's "The Dance of the Bacchantes" (1849; Musée Cantonal des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne); discusses the Nieuwerkerke scandal in detail.

Michael Kimmelman. "At the Met with Hans Haacke: Peering at a Wide World Beyond Works on a Wall." New York Times (December 9, 1994), p. C32, reports that Haacke relates this painting to Cabanel's "Birth of Venus" (MMA 94.24.1) and to Marcel Duchamp's "Étant Donnés" (Philadelphia Museum of Art).

Pierre Georgel. Courbet: Le Poème de la nature. Paris, 1995, pp. 101–2, fig. 102h (color), remarks that the pose of the figure recalls Cabanel's "Birth of Venus" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

Albert Kostenevich. Hidden Treasures Revealed: Impressionist Masterpieces and Other Important French Paintings Preserved by the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg. Exh. cat.New York, 1995, pp. 37–38, 40–41, ill., asserts that Courbet's "Reclining Woman" (State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg) clearly precedes this picture, although it is not a study for it.

Alan Krell. Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life. London, 1996, pp. 81–82, fig. 73 (detail).

Fred Leeman in Fred Leeman and Hanna Pennock. Museum Mesdag: Catalogue of Paintings and Drawings. Amsterdam, 1996, p. 143.

James H. Rubin. Courbet. London, 1997, pp. 204–5, 207, 212, 251, 325, fig. 126.

Jörg Zutter in Courbet: Artiste et promoteur de son œuvre. Ed. Jörg Zutter and Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. Exh. cat., Musée cantonal des Beaux-Arts de Lausanne. Paris, 1998, pp. 25, 31, 34, 75, 81, 104, fig. 22.

Michael Kimmelman. Portraits: Talking with Artists at the Met, the Modern, the Louvre and Elsewhere. New York, 1998, pp. 224–25, ill. p. 156 [text similar to Kimmelman 1994].

Bernard Vouilloux. Le Tableau vivant: Phyrné, l'orateur et le peintre. Paris, 2002, pp. 306, 316, 440 n. 102, pl. 100.

Valérie Bajou. Courbet. Paris, 2003, pp. 10, 119, 185, 217, 288, 309, 326, 328–30, 338, 341–42, 401 n. 16, p. 408 n. 30, p. 418 n. 64, ill. (color).

Frances Suzman Jowell. "Thoré-Bürger's Art Collection: 'A Rather Unusual Gallery of Bric-à-Brac'." Simiolus 30, no. 1/2 (2003), pp. 74, 103, notes that the Hermitage "Reclining Woman" (F527) was listed as a study for this picture in the 1870 sale of Thoré's collection.

Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, p. 181.

Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, fig. 16 (installation photo, color).

Kathryn Calley Galitz in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 47–48, 201–2, no. 28, ill. (color and black and white).

Linda Nochlin. Courbet. New York, 2007, pp. 15, 17.

19th Century European Paintings. Sotheby's, London. June 27, 2007, pp. 240, 242–43, under no. 222, fig. 1 (color).

Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. The Most Arrogant Man in France: Gustave Courbet and the Nineteenth-Century Media Culture. Princeton, 2007, pp. 134–35, 137, 142, 209 nn. 91, 92, fig. 104 (color), remarks that it "was a calculated move to trick the government into awarding him a medal or even a Legion of Honor cross, just so that he could refuse it".

Michèle Haddad. Gustave Courbet: Peinture et histoire. Sainte-Croix, 2007, pp. 94, 141, 199, 205.

Kathryn Calley Galitz in Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 58, 235, no. 55, ill. (color and black and white).

Tamar Garb. The Painted Face: Portraits of Women in France 1814–1914. New Haven, 2007, pp. 65–66, 73–74, 257 nn. 18, 30, colorpl. 60, discusses the relationship of the painting's parrot to that in Manet's "Young Lady in 1866" (MMA 89.21.3) and its beak to the nose of the sitter in Manet's "Portrait of Mlle. E. G." (1870, National Gallery, London).

Laurence des Cars in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2008, pp. 367–71, 380, no. 179, ill. (color) [French ed., Paris, 2007].

Kathryn Calley Galitz in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2008, p. 315 [French ed., Paris, 2007].

Dominique de Font-Réaulx in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2008, pp. 339, 351, 356, 363 n. 1, pp. 372, 376 [French ed., Paris, 2007].

Dominique Lobstein in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2008, pp. 437–38, 440, 451 [French ed., Paris, 2007].

Paul Galvez in Courbet: A Dream of Modern Art. Ed. Klaus Herding and Max Hollein. Exh. cat., Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt. Ostfildern, 2010, p. 61, fig. 4 (color).

Klaus Herding in Courbet: A Dream of Modern Art. Ed. Klaus Herding and Max Hollein. Exh. cat., Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt. Ostfildern, 2010, p. 230, under no. 68, ill. (color), discusses the study for this painting (Koons collection; F528).

Stephanie Marchal in Courbet: A Dream of Modern Art. Ed. Klaus Herding and Max Hollein. Exh. cat., Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt. Ostfildern, 2010, p. 240, under no. 73, p. 288.

Michel Hilaire in Realismo(s). La huella de Courbet. Exh. cat., Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Barcelona, 2011, pp. 80–82, ill.

Gary Tinterow in Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity. Ed. Gloria Groom. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Chicago, 2012, p. 31, fig. 4 (color) [French ed., "L'Impressionnisme et la Mode," Paris, 2012, p. 44].

Jean-Philippe Huys in Gustave Courbet et la Belgique: Réalisme de l'art vivant à l'art libre. Exh. cat., Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Milan, 2013, pp. 64, 81, 177, fig. 41 (color).

Jeffery Howe in Gustave Courbet et la Belgique: Réalisme de l'art vivant à l'art libre. Exh. cat., Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Milan, 2013, pp. 136, 139, 143 n. 33.

Jeffery Howe in Courbet: Mapping Realism; Paintings from the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium and American Collections. Ed. Jeffery Howe. Exh. cat., McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College. Chestnut Hill, Mass., 2013, pp. 14–15.



The reclining nude in "Venus and Psyche" (1864; location unknown; Fernier 1978, no. 370) was probably the prototype for "Woman with a Parrot." Thoré [Ref. 1866] is said to have suggested modifications to a study related to "Venus and Psyche" (State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; F527), which then inspired the MMA picture. Two other works (Oskar Reinhart collection, Winterthur; F534 and Mesdag Museum, The Hague; F536) are closely related to the Hermitage study. A half-length painting in the Koons collection (F528) preceded the MMA picture.

Ref. Fernier 1988 reproduces a copy after the MMA picture by Courbet's student Cherubino Pata (1879; location unknown). There is also an etching after the painting by A. P. Martial in "Album du Salon de 1866" and a wood engraving by F. L. Meaulle published in J. Bruno's novel "Les Misères des gueux," 1872, as "Isaure caressant sa perroquet."
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