Bridge and Cows (Liber Studiorum, part I, plate 2)
Designed and etched by Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
Charles Turner (British, Woodstock, Oxfordshire 1774–1857 London)
Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
June 11, 1807
Etching and mezzotint; second state of five (Finberg)
plate: 7 1/4 x 10 1/2 in. (18.4 x 26.7 cm)
sheet: 8 1/4 x 11 1/2 in. (21 x 29.2 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1928
Not on view
Turner distilled his ideas about To establish the compositions, he made brown watercolor drawings, then etched outlines onto copper plates. Professional engravers usually developed the tone under Turner's direction, and Charles Turner here added mezzotint to describe cows standing in a shallow water near a rustic wooden bridge, with trees shading the scene and two pairs of figures on the bank. The print demonstrates Turner's mastery of eighteenth-century picturesque and interest in Gainsborough's soft-ground etchings, with the "P" in the upper margin indicating the category of Pastoral landscape.
Signature: in plate: "Drawn & Etched by J.M.W. Turner R.A. / Engraved by C. Turner"
Inscription: in plate above image: "P"; below: "Published as the Act directs by J.M.W. Turner Harley Street"
Vendor: P. & D. Colnaghi & Co.
Finberg 2 ii/v; Rawlinson 2 between i & ii/iv
William George Rawlinson Turner's Liber Studiorum: A Description and A Catalogue. Macmillan & Co., 2nd ed. London, 1906, cat. no. 2 between i & ii/iv, pp. 12-13.
Alexander Joseph Finberg The History of Turner's Liber Studiorum, with a new catalogue raisonné. Ernest Benn Limited, London, 1924, cat. no. 2 ii/v, pp. 6-8.
Robert Upstone Turner: The Second Decade exh. cat., Tate Gallery. Tate Gallery, London, 1989, cat. no. 23, p. 27.
Luke Herrmann Turner prints: The Engraved Work of J.M.W. Turner. New York University Press, New York, 1990, p. 32.
Gillian Forrester Turner's 'Drawing Book': The Liber Studiorum, exh. cat., London, Tate Gallery, 20 February–2 June. London, 1996, illustrates: related watercolor, ca. 1806-7 (Tate Britain), and first published state, 1807, cat. no. 2, pp. 47-8.