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In the Footsteps of the Monuments Men: Traces from the Archives at the Metropolitan Museum

Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist, Museum Archives; and James Moske, Managing Archivist, Museum Archives

Posted: Friday, January 31, 2014

James Rorimer with Sgt. Antonio T. Valin examining recovered objects. Neuschwanstein, Germany, May 1945

First Lieutenant James J. Rorimer, at left, and Sergeant Antonio T. Valin examine recovered objects. Neuschwanstein, Germany, May 1945. Photograph by U.S. Signal Corps

«During the last years of World War II, Allied forces made a concerted effort to protect artworks, archives, and monuments of historical and cultural significance as they advanced across Europe. They also worked, during the war and after the German surrender, to secure artworks looted by the Nazis and restitute them to their rightful owners. Approximately 345 men and women from thirteen nations were charged with this task; most were volunteers in the Monuments, Fine Art, and Archives program, or MFAA, established in late 1943 under the Civil Affairs and Military Government Sections of the Allied armies. Popularly known as "Monuments Men," their ranks included museum curators, art historians, and others trained to identify and care for artworks subject to harsh conditions.»

Photograph of James Rorimer, 1964

Several of the Monuments Men either were Metropolitan Museum staff members or joined the Museum after the war; they include Theodore Heinrich, Theodore Rousseau, Edith Standen, and Harry D. Grier. Perhaps the most prominent among them was James J. Rorimer, a Harvard-educated medieval art specialist first hired by the Metropolitan in 1927. Rorimer steadily rose through the curatorial ranks and was appointed curator of medieval art in 1934. He played a central role in the development of The Cloisters museum and gardens, the branch of the Museum located in upper Manhattan. In 1943, Rorimer left the Museum to join the United States Army, where he eventually became an officer in the MFAA. Between 1943 and 1946, Rorimer covered a broad territory between northern France and Germany in his pursuit of art treasures confiscated and hidden by the Nazis.

Left: Yousuf Karsh (Canadian [born Armenia], 1908–2002). James Rorimer, 1964. Gelatin silver print. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund, 1967 (67.543.44). © Yousuf Karsh

Throughout his career, Rorimer carried small pocket notebooks in which he jotted brief memos, reminders, and other work-related information. Among the Museum's archival holdings are several such notebooks; they include references to artworks, historic monuments, and significant people associated with the artwork recovery effort. Mentioned on this page of one of his notebooks is Rose Valland, a staff member of the Jeu de Paume museum in Paris who played a valiant role in the protection and eventual recovery of dozens of works of art by keeping detailed notes on the movement of valuable pieces stolen by Hermann Wilhelm Goering and Joseph Goebbels. Following leads provided by Valland, Rorimer helped uncover a cache of Nazi-looted art at Neuschwanstein Castle in the Bavarian Alps. He and his colleagues later recovered other significant objects looted from museums at the Heilbronn mines in the same area.

During the war, Rorimer wrote letters to his family at home in New York City, providing them with glimpses of his activity as a Monuments Man:

Letter from James J. Rorimer to his family

James J. Rorimer to his family, August 31, 1944. Courtesy of Anne Rorimer

After the war, he published a vivid memoir of his wartime service, Survival: The Salvage and Protection of Art in War (Abelard Press, Inc., 1950). A copy is available for reference in Watson Library.

For his service in the MFAA, Rorimer received military decorations including the Bronze Star (1945), European Theatre Ribbon (four battle stars, 1944–1945), and Croix de Guerre (Silver Star, 1945). He was also made a Member of the Legion of Honor (1947) and Officer of the Legion of Honor (1957).

James J. Rorimer receives military decoration, 1945

James J. Rorimer receives military decoration, 1945. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Archives

In 1946, Rorimer returned to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, bringing with him a collection of photographs and index cards documenting historic European monuments before and after the war. An exhibition developed from the collection, Medieval Monuments in World War II, was on view at The Cloisters from August 2, 1946, through December 31, 1947. Among the pieces in the exhibition were the following before and after images of the Church of St. Jean in Caen, France. The photographs succinctly capture the war's devastating impact on Europe's monuments and cultural treasures.

Photo of Church of St. Jean, Caen, France (before)Photo of Church of St. Jean, Caen, France (after)

Photographs of Church of St. Jean, Caen, France (before the war, at left, and after the war, at right). Collection 15, Damage of European Monuments During World War II, Box 2, The Cloisters Library and Archives, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The corresponding index card describes St. Jean before the war as "elegant" and "remarkable for unity of style"; one word, written in red, describes St. Jean after the war: "Destroyed."

Index Card for Church of St. Jean, Caen, France

Index card for Church of St. Jean, Caen, France, Collection 15, Damage of European Monuments During World War II, Box 2, The Cloisters Library and Archives, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Between 1946 and 1947, the Metropolitan hosted several other exhibitions that explored the impact of the war on cultural objects and historic monuments. Fine Arts Under Fire (June 14–July 21, 1946) was a special exhibition prepared by LIFE magazine in cooperation with the Roberts Commission (formally known as the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas). The exhibition consisted of thirty photographic panels with accompanying text that showed damage to famous buildings and the MFAA's discoveries of looted art. For more information, see The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, June 1946.

The War's Toll of Italian Art (October 18–November 24, 1946) was organized in collaboration with the American Committee for the Restoration of Italian Monuments. It presented a comprehensive exhibition of photographs, models, and original works illustrating the extensive damage to Italian art during World War II. For more information, see The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, November 1946.

Exhibition catalogue, "Paintings Looted from Holland: Returned through the Efforts of The United States Armed Forces"

Paintings Looted from Holland: Returned through the Efforts of The United States Armed Forces (July 1–July 31, 1947) displayed forty-six works by sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Dutch painters on loan from the Dutch government to the United States as a token of gratitude for the MFAA's restoration of Nazi-looted art objects to Holland. The works traveled to a total of thirteen American cities before being returned to Holland. The exhibition catalogue is available for reference in Watson Library.

Right: Exhibition catalogue, Paintings Looted from Holland: Returned through the Efforts of The United States Armed Forces, Office of the Secretary Records, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Archives

On April 2, 1946, General Dwight D. Eisenhower—who had facilitated the MFAA's work by forbidding looting by Allied soldiers and issuing monument protection orders—was elected honorary Fellow for Life of the Museum in recognition of his efforts (see "This Weekend in Met History: April 2"). At the ceremony, Francis Henry Taylor, director of the Metropolitan Museum from 1940 to 1954, stated that the award of honorary Fellow for Life was "in a sense, more than a gesture by the entire academic world to the man, who, more responsible than any other, has made it possible for the world of great civilization in the past to continue for future generations," (New York Times, April 3, 1946). General Eisenhower's address at this event, titled "Art in Peace and War," was printed in The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, May 1946. Listen to Eisenhower's address.

General and Mrs. Eisenhower leaving The Metropolitan Museum of Art, April 2, 1946

General and Mrs. Eisenhower leaving The Metropolitan Museum of Art, April 2, 1946. Box 8, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 75th Anniversary Committee records, 1945–1950, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Archives. Download the finding aid for these records (PDF).

Hundreds attended the award ceremony, which was broadcast via loudspeaker throughout the Museum. The proceedings were recorded on fragile 78-rpm glass-based 12" lacquer discs that sat silent for decades in the Watson Library and the Museum Archives until 2010, when the Museum received a grant from the Monuments Men Foundation to preserve, digitally remaster, and publish these unique audio recordings online. Eisenhower later served the Museum as Trustee (1948–1953) and Honorary Trustee (1953–1969).

James Rorimer continued his distinguished career at the Metropolitan by serving as director of The Cloisters (1949–1955) and later director of the Museum (1955–1966). As director, he was responsible for many significant acquisitions—including Rembrandt's Aristotle with a Bust of Homer and the Annunciation Triptych (Merode Alterpiece) by the workshop of Robert Campin—oversaw significant expansions of gallery space and visitorship. Rorimer died at age 60 on May 11, 1966.

Related Installation

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Archives celebrates the achievements of the Monuments Men with a special installation of historical photographs, documents, and publications in the Museum's Thomas J. Watson Library from January 31 through March 13, 2014.

Related Links

Museum Itinerary—The Monuments Men at the Met: Treasures Saved During World War II
Now at the Met: "This Weekend in Met History: April 2"
Watson Library Digital Collections: Eisenhower Receives Life Fellowship Award

Page from Rorimer's Notebook

Notebook, 1945, James J. Rorimer Papers

Notebook, 1945, James J. Rorimer Papers, Box 8, The Cloisters Library and Archives, The Metropolitan Museum of Art


  • VL says:

    A great read. As an art lover I traveled to St. Petersburg, Russia to view "The Stolen Art
    Exhibit". These were impressionistic paintings on their way back to German families.

    Posted: February 5, 2014, 9:10 a.m.

  • Judith Barr says:

    Given that the movie was just released February 6, the interest in this exhibit will increase. Any possibility of extending the run of this installation into April? Also, would be interested in the role of another of your curators, Edith Standen.

    Posted: February 8, 2014, 6:24 p.m.

  • Master says:

    I agree with Judith, i would like so much to visit this exhibit but is a very short time!

    Posted: February 12, 2014, 5:22 a.m.

  • Marcy Chambers says:

    Having just finished Corinne Bouchoux’s book about Rose Valland, this exhibit is a very timely one for me, and I must add my plea to those of Judith and Master for you to put off the closing date for another month or so.

    Posted: March 3, 2014, 7:58 p.m.

  • Janet Sawyer says:

    I am sorry to that see the exhibition featured in "Now at the Met", which just came today, at the Watson library, actually ended two weeks ago!
    I had not previously heard of it although as a member I often visit the museum and would loved to have seen it.
    Please do consider extending or reprising the exhibition if possible. Interest in this important chapter of the museums history continues to grow.

    Posted: March 27, 2014, 11:41 a.m.

  • Maggie Kurkoski says:

    Excellent article! I'm excited to follow the "Monuments" itinerary the next time I visit the Met. I work at Smith College, and we also have Monuments "Men" -- Ardelia Hall and Dutch art historian Alphonse Vorenkamp.
    Vorenkamp was actually on sabbatical in Holland on the eve of the German invasion, and watched his countrymen and fellow academics prepare for the onslaught.

    If this type of archival research appeals to you, we have more information about Vorenkamp here: http://scma.smith.edu/artmuseum/Collections/Cunningham-Center/Blog-paper-people/Smith-Monuments-Wo-Men

    Posted: March 27, 2014, 11:47 a.m.

  • deborah neuner says:

    I did see the Movie & cannot recall women who obviously did have a significant part, get credit for the important part they played in helping to save the art as part of MFAA. I hope that they will extend the exhibition. It will remind & inform the Public of all ages, what was done to save & rescue a huge part of civilization & culture that would otherwise have been lost & destroyed.

    Posted: March 27, 2014, 11:58 a.m.

  • Patricia A. Plantz says:

    I am so happy that someone had the wisdom to do what could be done to save art work that could never be duplicated or replaced. I was overwhelmed with sadness when I saw the movie and saw some pieces of art being destroyed.

    Posted: March 27, 2014, 12:02 p.m.

  • kate schmitt says:

    I love the Monuments Men story especially because I've heard bits of it as part of my family history. My grandfather's uncle was a 'Monuments Man' - Lionello Perera. I was wondering if there are any references to him in your exhibit.
    Thanks for highlighting these important collections and historic endeavors.

    Posted: March 27, 2014, 1:17 p.m.

  • Mary Louise Bullock says:

    Extend the exhibit to coincide with the movie release. This is a huge story. Should be all over WNYC and NPR and NYT. I recently purchased the paperback, which I plan to read as soon as I finish "The Rape of Europa."

    Posted: March 27, 2014, 3:31 p.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    Dear Kate Schmitt,
    Thanks so much for writing. Your grandfather’s uncle, Lionello Perera, was not referenced in the installation. Unfortunately, we have no information about Lionello Perera and his time as a Monuments Man.
    -Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist

    Posted: March 28, 2014, 11:44 a.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    It is wonderful to see such interest in the Monuments Men installation, thank you all! In order to make room for another exhibit, the Monuments Men installation could not be extended.
    -The Metropolitan Museum of Art Archives

    Posted: March 28, 2014, 11:45 a.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    Dear Judith Barr,
    Edith Standen was a renowned tapestry historian. With the respectable rank of Captain, she was discharged from the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives section of the military in 1947. (The Costume Institute has her Army uniform: http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/84401
    ). In 1949 she was appointed by Francis Henry Taylor to the position of Curator, in charge of the Met’s Textile Study Room. Mounting numerous exhibitions, proposing many acquisitions and publishing extensively, she held this position until her retirement in 1970. A respected and prolific scholar, she continued her research after retiring, arriving at Watson Library each morning into her 93rd year (she passed away in 1998 at the age of 93). The National Archives has posted an excellent blog about Edith Standen’s time as a Monuments Man:
    -Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist

    Posted: March 28, 2014, 11:47 a.m.

  • Lorelei Pepe says:

    I was so excited to hear about the exhibit of the Monuments Men history at the Met. It is a vital part of our history. Many people like myself were totally unaware of this before the movie came out, which was fascinating and so educational.... Hope you can keep this collection a long time and give it the exposure it needs... Thanks so much.

    Posted: March 29, 2014, 7:38 p.m.

  • Brigitte Schaefer says:

    I am from a german family in Hungen/Germany who gave rooms (a house) for american soldiers who (maybe) discovered the Rosenberg archives in the castle of Hungen near Frankfurt.

    My grandparents (a anti-nazi teachers´s household) told me that the "soldiers" with enourmous culture und art knowledge had been very friendly and they had very good conversations with them.
    One of these men studied at east coast university and they had a dog.
    My grandparents (Mr. and Mrs. Seip with daughter Annemarie and son Walter ) and my parents are gone and can´t tell us about the names of these "soldiers". Do you know something about this men?
    Does private papers of their search/work in Hungen exists?
    Thank you.

    Posted: March 30, 2015, 7:54 p.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    Dear Lorelei Pepe,
    Thank you so much for for your words of support, we will continue to do our best!
    -Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist

    Posted: March 31, 2015, 1:33 p.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    Dear Brigitte Shaefer,
    Thanks so much for sharing your family's story. I'm not aware of any Hungen or Rosenberg related archival records held by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. However, it appears Monuments Men Robert Posey, Lincoln Kirstein, and Julius Buchman were associated with the discovery of the Rosenberg archives at Hungen.

    Related links:
    Robert Posey (http://www.monumentsmenfoundation.org/the-heroes/the-monuments-men/posey-capt.-robert-k.)
    Lincoln Kirstein (http://www.monumentsmenfoundation.org/the-heroes/the-monuments-men/kirstein-pfc.-lincoln-e.)
    Julius Buchman (http://www.jta.org/1945/07/10/archive/nearly-1000000-volumes-from-looted-jewish-libraries-found-in-rosenbergs-storehouses)
    Rosenberg archives (http://www.errproject.org/about.php)

    I hope you find these links helpful.
    -Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist

    Posted: April 1, 2015, 11:24 a.m.

  • Dr George Abbott White says:

    Preparing for a photographic "shadowing" trip of some of the Monuments Men work in Western Europe this September, I just now came across this wonderful account of MET-associated Monuments [Women] and Men. The documents and text vividly converse with one another and having just re-read Rick Atkinson's of "The Guns at Last Light," the last months of WW2, was struck with the absolute appropriateness of the MET's honoring General Eisenhower in 1946 (and how good it was to hear his address). Having missed the Exhibition, any chance a guide or booklet was published? And was there any special outreach to schools and young people who are, after all, the ones to continue this awareness?

    Posted: August 23, 2015, 1:13 p.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    Dear Dr. George Abbott White,
    I’m so glad you enjoyed the blog post and the audio of the Eisenhower address. An exhibition booklet was not published.

    The Museum published an online itinerary, complemented by writings from Monuments Men historians and James Rorimer himself. The itinerary allows visitors to discover eleven works of art that narrowly escaped destruction and were restituted to their rightful owners. Without the courage, determination, and foresight of the Monuments Men, these important paintings would not be in the Met's collection today.
    The Monuments Men at the Met: Treasures Saved During World War II

    The Museum also hosted a Sunday at the Met program titled “Monuments Men: Fact and Fiction”, exploring how the actions of Monuments Men James Rorimer, George Stout, and others protected and recovered stolen art during World War II. Program speakers included Lynn Nicholas, author of The Rape of Europa, Rachel Mustalish, Conservator in the Museum’s Department of Paper Conservation, and Michael J. Kurtz, Visiting Professor, College of Information Studies, University of Maryland. The recorded program can be viewed on the Museum’s website.

    You might be interested in the blog “Monuments Girl”, written by Sarah Rorimer as she retraced the steps of her Monuments Men grandfather, James J. Rorimer.

    I hope you enjoy these resources and will share them with others. Wishing you all the best for your Monuments Men adventures in September!
    -Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist

    Posted: August 26, 2015, 11:13 a.m.

  • Melissa Bowling says:

    Dear Dr. George Abbott White,
    http://www.metmuseum.org/visit/itineraries/monuments-men />
    http://www.metmuseum.org/metmedia/video/lectures/sam-monuments-men />

    Posted: August 26, 2015, 11:13 a.m.

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About the Authors

Melissa Bowling is the associate archivist in the Museum Archives.

James Moske is the managing archivist in the Museum Archives.

About this Blog

Now at the Met offers in-depth articles and multimedia features about the Museum's current exhibitions, events, research, announcements, behind-the-scenes activities, and more.