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The Jewish Angel

Giorgio de Chirico (Italian (born Greece), Vólos 1888–1978 Rome )

Date:
1916
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
26 5/8 x 17 1/4 in. (67.6 x 43.8 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection, 1998
Accession Number:
1999.363.15
Rights and Reproduction:
© 2011 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed and dated (lower left): G. de Chirico/ 1916

  • Provenance

    [Paul Guillaume, Paris]; René Gaffé, Brussels (by 1929–37; sold in July 1937, through the dealer E. L. T. Mesens, to Penrose); Roland Penrose, London (1937–78; sold in April 1978 to Thaw); [E. V. Thaw & Co., Inc., New York, 1978; sold on November 10 to Gelman]; Jacques and Natasha Gelman, New York (1978–his d. 1986; her d. 1998)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. Galerie Devambez. "Exposition de peinture moderne," January 27–February 12, 1920, no. 7 (as "L'Ange juif").

    Paris. Paul Guillaume. "Exposition Giorgio de Chirico," June 4–15, 1926, no. 8 (as "L'Ange Juif") [probably this picture].

    London. New Burlington Galleries. "The International Surrealist Exhibition," June 11–July 4, 1936, no. 56 (as "The Jewish Angel," 1917, lent by Mons. René Gaffé, Brussels).

    London. Zwemmer Gallery. "Chirico, Picasso," June 1937, no. 10 (as "L'Ange juif").

    Paris. Galerie Beaux Arts. "Exposition internationale du surréalisme," January–February 1938, no. 40 (as "L'ange juif," 1916, lent by R. Penrose).

    London Gallery Ltd. "Giorgio de Chirico (1911–1917)," October 14–November 12, 1938, no. 11 (as "The Jewish Angel II," lent by Roland A. Penrose, London) [catalogue published in "London Bulletin" no. 6, October 1938, pp. 13, 18].

    Cambridge, England. Arts Council Gallery. "Cubist and Surrealist Paintings 1903–1938 from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Roland Penrose," July 7–20, 1954, no. 6 (as "Jewish Angel II").

    Wisbech, England. Peckover House. "Cubist and Surrealist Paintings 1903–1938 from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Roland Penrose," July 24–31, 1954, no. 6.

    Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Dada, Surrealism, and Their Heritage," March 27–June 9, 1968, no. 43 (lent by the Penrose Collection, London).

    Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "Dada, Surrealism, and Their Heritage," July 16–September 8, 1968, no. 43.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Dada, Surrealism, and Their Heritage," October 19–December 8, 1968, no. 43.

    London. Hayward Gallery. "Dada and Surrealism Reviewed," January 11–March 27, 1978, no. 1.15 (lent by a private collection).

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "The Spirit of Surrealism," October 3–November 25, 1979, no. 17 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman).

    Museum of Modern Art, New York. "De Chirico," March 30–June 29, 1982, no. 59 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman, Mexico City).

    Venice. Palazzo Grassi. "Effetto Arcimboldo," February 14–May 31, 1987, unnumbered cat. (p. 255; lent by a private collection).

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Italian Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1900–1988," January 14–April 9, 1989, no. 49 (lent by the Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Twentieth Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection," December 12, 1989–April 1, 1990, unnumbered cat. (p. 146).

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Twentieth Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection," April 19–July 15, 1990, unnumbered cat.

    Martigny. Fondation Pierre Gianadda. "De Matisse à Picasso: Collection Jacques et Natasha Gelman," June 18–November 1, 1994, unnumbered cat. (p. 170).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Painters in Paris: 1895 1950," March 8–December 31, 2000, extended to January 14, 2001, unnumbered cat. (p. 83).

  • References

    Pierre Courthion and Angelo Bardi. Sélection: Chronique de la vie artistique. 3me sér. Vol. 8, Giorgio de Chirico. Antwerp, 1929, ill. p. 46.

    Nino Frank. "Giorgio de Chirico et Alberto Savinio." Cahiers de Belgique 2 (April 1929), ill. p. 131.

    Herbert Read, ed. Surrealism. London, [1936], pl. 20.

    James Thrall Soby. The Early Chirico. New York, 1941, pp. xi, 66, pl. 52.

    Giorgio de Chirico. "A Fragment of Hebdomeros." Arson (March 1942), ill. p. 28.

    René Gaffé. Giorgio de Chirico, le Voyant. Brussels, 1946, p. 10, pl. 14.

    Herbert Read. Art Now: An Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture. rev. and enlarged ed. (1st ed., 1933). London, 1948, pl. 86.

    Jacques Lassaigne in History of Modern Painting. Vol. 3, From Picasso to Surrealism. Geneva, 1950, pp. 108–9, ill. (color).

    René Gaffé. "Confessions of a Collector." Magazine of Art 44 (October 1951), p. 212, ill.

    James Thrall Soby. Giorgio de Chirico. New York, [1955], p. 113, ill. p. 224.

    René Gaffé. À la Verticale: Réflexions d'un collectionneur. Brussels, 1963, p. 102, ill. p. 116.

    John Ashbery. "Growing Up Surreal." Art News 67 (May 1968), pp. 43–44, ill.

    William S. Rubin. Dada, Surrealism, and Their Heritage. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1968, pp. 82, 102, 231, no. 43, fig. 105.

    William S. Rubin. Dada and Surrealist Art. New York, [1968], pp. 126, 217, 477, fig. 117.

    Claudio Bruni. Catalogo Generale Giorgio de Chirico. Vol. 1, pt. 1–3 Opere dal 1908 al 1930. [Milan], 1971, pl. 33.

    Dawn Ades. Dada and Surrealism Reviewed. Exh. cat., Hayward Gallery. [London], 1978, p. 22, no. 1.15, ill.

    Artemis 77–78: Consolidated Audited Annual Report (1978), pp. 48–49, no. 20, ill. (color).

    Edward B. Henning. The Spirit of Surrealism. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1979, pp. 53, 172, no. 17, ill. p. 55.

    Edward B. Henning. "Surrealism: In the Footsteps of Freud." Art News 79 (May 1980), ill. p. 123 (color).

    Ester Coen. "Catalogo: Giorgio de Chirico." La Metafisica: Museo documentario. Casalecchio di Reno [Bologna], 1981, p. 197, no. 85, ill. p. 277 (color).

    Anna Maria Del Monte in Giorgio de Chirico, 1888–1978. Vol. 1, Catalogo. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna. [Rome], 1981, p. 72, under no. 12

    Roland Penrose. Scrap Book, 1900–1981. New York, 1981, fig. 442.

    Jean Charles Gateau. Paul Éluard et la Peinture Surréaliste (1910–1939). Geneva, 1982, p. 97.

    Edward B. Henning. "Giorgio de Chirico: The Metaphysical Paintings." Museum 3 (May/June 1982), p. 71, ill. p. 73.

    Marianne W. Martin in De Chirico. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1982, p. 89.

    William Rubin in De Chirico. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1982, pp. 67–69, fig. 18 and colorpl. 59.

    Jeanne Siegel. "The Image of the Eye in Surrealist Art and its Psychoanalytic Sources, Part One: The Mythic Eye." Arts Magazine 56 (February 1982), pp. 102–4, ill.

    Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco. L'opera completa di De Chirico, 1908–1924. Milan, 1984, p. 98, no. 106, ill. and colorpl. XXVI.

    Jerrold Levinson. "Titles." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 44 (Autumn 1985), p. 36.

    Milly Heyd. "De Chirico: 'The Greetings of a Distant Friend'." Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Art. Ed. Mary Mathews Gedo. Vol. 3, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1988, pp. 107–11, 115, 124–25, fig. 1.

    Paolo Baldacci in Italian Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1900–1988. Ed. Emily Braun. Exh. cat., Royal Academy of Arts, London. Munich, 1989, pp. 67, 416, no. 49, ill. (color).

    Dawn Ades in Twentieth Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, p. 41.

    William S. Lieberman in Twentieth Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, p. 13.

    Sabine Rewald in Twentieth Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection. Ed. William S. Lieberman. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1989, pp. 145–47, 297, ill. (color and bw).

    Matthew Valence Gale. "The Enigma of Fatality: The Work of Giorgio de Chirico, 1909–1924." PhD. diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1992, vol. 1, pp. 214–15, 223, 230; vol. 3, fig. 124.

    Paolo Baldacci. Giorgio de Chirico. Betraying the Muse: De Chirico and the Surrealists. Exh. cat., Paolo Baldacci Gallery. New York, 1994, p. 134, fig. 125.

    Paolo Baldacci. De Chirico: The Metaphysical Period, 1888–1919. Boston, 1997, pp. 327, 331, 430, 432–34, 442, no. 116, ill. (color).

    Grace Glueck. "When One City Was the Heart of Art's Youth." New York Times (March 10, 2000), p. E39.

    Antony Penrose. The Home of the Surrealists: Lee Miller, Roland Penrose and Their Circle at Farley Farm. London, 2001, pp. 41, 140.

    Antony Penrose. Roland Penrose: The Friendly Surrealist. Munich, 2001, pp. 83, 86.

    Claudio Crescentini. "De Chirico e le Avanguardie: rapporti." G. de Chirico: Nulla Sine Tragoedia Gloria. Florence, 2002, p. 75.

    Wieland Schmied. Giorgio de Chirico: The Endless Journey. Munich, 2002, pp. 88–89, 91, ill. (color).

    Adriano Altamira. "De Chirico e Duchamp." Metafisica, no. 5–6 (2005–6), pp. 73, 86, fig. 5.

    Magdalena Holzhey. Giorgio de Chirico, 1888–1978: The Modern Myth. Cologne, 2005, pp. 46, 50, ill. p. 54 (color).

    Deborah Walker. Giorgio de Chirico and the Real: Art, Enigma and Nietzschean Innocence. Saarbrücken, 2008, p. 55.

    Claudio Crescentini. Giorgio de Chirico: L'Enigma Velato. [Rome], [2009], p. 115, fig. 71, colorpl. XV.

    Victoria Noel-Johnson in Giorgio de Chirico: La Suggestione del Classico. Exh. cat., Galleria Civica d'Arte, Cava de'Tirreni. Milan, 2009, p. 17, fig. 5 (color).

    Victoria Noel-Johnson in De Chirico a Castel del Monte. Il Labirinto dell'Anima. Exh. cat., Castel del Monte, Andria. Milan, 2011, pp. 29–30, fig. 16 (color).

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New York, 2012, p. 412, ill. (color).

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