Circus Sideshow

Georges Seurat (French, Paris 1859–1891 Paris)

Oil on canvas
39 1/4 x 59 in. (99.7 x 149.9 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of Stephen C. Clark, 1960
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    At the Salon des Indépendants in 1888 Seurat demonstrated the versatility of his technique by exhibiting Circus Sideshow, a nighttime outdoor scene in artificial light, and Models, an indoor scene by daylight (Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia). This is Seurat’s first nocturnal painting and also his first depiction of popular entertainment. It represents the parade or sideshow of the Circus Corvi, which had set up near the place de la Nation in Paris in the spring of 1887. Sideshows were held on the street, for free, to entice passersby to purchase tickets. The onlookers at the far right are queued on stairs leading to the box office.

  • Provenance

    the artist, Paris (until d. 1891); his mother, Mme Ernestine Seurat, Paris (1891–at least 1892); the artist's brother and brother-in-law, Émile Seurat and Léon Appert, Paris (until 1900; sold with another work for Fr 1,000 through Félix Fénéon to Bernheim-Jeune); Josse and Gaston Bernheim-Jeune, Paris (1900–ca. 1929; sold to Reid & Lefevre); [Reid & Lefevre, London, in 1929; sold in January to Knoedler]; [M. Knoedler & Co., New York, London, and Paris, 1929–32, stock no. A610, sold in November 1932 to Clark]; Stephen C. Clark, New York (1932–d. 1960)

  • Exhibition History

    Pavillon de la Ville de Paris. "Salon des Indépendants (4e exposition)," March 22–May 3, 1888, no. 614 (as "Parade de cirque," marked for sale).

    Brussels. Musée d'Art Moderne. "Neuvième exposition annuelle des XX," February 6–March 6, 1892, no. 10 (lent by Mme Seurat).

    Pavillon de la Ville de Paris. "Salon des Indépendants (8e exposition)," March 19–April 27, 1892, no. 1084 (lent by Mme Seurat).

    Paris. Revue Blanche. "Georges Seurat (1860 [sic]–1891): Œuvres peintes et dessinées," March 19–April 5, 1900, no. 32.

    Paris. Bernheim-Jeune. "Georges Seurat (1859–1891)," December 14, 1908–January 9, 1909, no. 69 (lent by MM. J[osse]. and G[aston]. B[ernheim].-J[eune].).

    Paris. Bernheim-Jeune. "Exposition de peinture moderne," June 14–23, 1917, no. 30.

    Paris. Bernheim-Jeune. "Georges Seurat (1859–1891)," January 15–31, 1920, no. 28.

    Paris. Théâtre de la Cigale. "Soirée de Paris: Exposition l'art au théâtre, au music-hall, et au cirque," May 17–June 30, 1924, no. 38 (as "La Parade," lent by MM. Bernheim).

    Paris. Bernheim-Jeune. "Exposition d'oeuvres des XIXe et XXe siècles," June–July 1925, no. 116.

    Paris. Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées. "Trente ans d'art indépendant: 1884–1914," February 20–March 21, 1926, no. 3216 (lent by MM. Bernheim-Jeune et cie.).

    Lucerne. location unknown. "Peintures des écoles impressionniste et néo-impressionniste," February 1929, no. 20 [see de Hauke 1961].

    Glasgow. Alex. Reid & Lefevre, Ltd.. "Ten Masterpieces by Nineteenth Century French Painters," April 1929, no. 8 (as "La Parade").

    London. Alex. Reid & Lefevre, Ltd.. "Ten Masterpieces by Nineteenth Century French Painters," June–July 1929, no. 7 (as "La Parade").

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "First Loan Exhibition: Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, van Gogh," November 8–December 7, 1929, no. 55 (as "Side Show [La parade]," lent by M. Knoedler and Company, New York, London, and Paris).

    Providence. Rhode Island School of Design. "Modern French Art," March 11–31, 1930, no. 36 (lent by M. Knoedler & Co., New York).

    Paris. Galerie Georges Petit. "Cent ans de peinture française," June 15–30, 1930, no. 31.

    New York. Knoedler Galleries. "Masterpieces by Nineteenth Century French Painters," October–November 1930, no. 11.

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "French Art: 1200–1900," January 4–March 12, 1932, no. 552 (lent by Roland F. Knoedler) [commemorative cat., no. 509].

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Exhibition of Modern European Art," October 4–25, 1933, unnumbered cat. (lent from a private collection).

    San Francisco. California Palace of the Legion of Honor. "French Painting from the Fifteenth Century to the Present Day," June 8–July 8, 1934, no. 148 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Modern Works of Art," November 20, 1934–January 20, 1935, no. 29 (lent from a private collection).

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition," June 26–October 4, 1936, no. 313 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Art in Our Time," May 10–September 30, 1939, no. 76 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Modern Masters from European and American Collections," January 26–March 24, 1940, no. 13 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. World's Fair. "Masterpieces of Art: European & American Paintings, 1500–1900," May–October 1940, no. 366 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Art in Progress," 1944, unnumbered cat. (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. Century Association. "Paintings from the Stephen C. Clark Collection," June 6–September 28, 1946, unnum. checklist.

    New York. Century Association. "Trends in European Painting, 1880–1930," February 2–March 31, 1949, no. 3 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. Knoedler Galleries. "Seurat, 1859–1891: Paintings and Drawings," April 19–May 7, 1949, no. 22 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, Esq.).

    New York. M. Knoedler & Co.. "A Collectors Taste: Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark," January 12–30, 1954, no. 20.

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Paintings from Private Collections," May 31–September 5, 1955, no. 139 (as "La parade [The Come-On]," lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 1–September 1, 1958, no. 124 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 7–September 7, 1959, no. 101 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 6–September 4, 1960, no. 112 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. "Neo-Impressionism," February 9–April 7, 1968, no. 82.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 387 (as "Invitation to the Side-Show [La parade]").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Seurat, 1859–1891," April 9–August 12, 1991, no. 198.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Georges Seurat, 1859–1891," September 24, 1991–January 12, 1992, no. 200.

    New York. Robert Lehman Collection. "Neo-Impressionism: The Circle of Paul Signac," October 1–December 31, 2001, no catalogue.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings," May 22–August 19, 2007, no. 378.

  • References

    Paul Adam. "Les impressionnistes à l'exposition des indépendants." La vie moderne (April 15, 1888), p. 229, calls it a fine study of relief.

    Félix Fénéon. "Le néo-impressionnisme à la IVe exposition des artistes indépendants." L'art moderne 8 (April 15, 1888), p. 122, notes that it is interesting in that it applies to a night scene a method mostly used for daylight.

    Gustave Geffroy. "Pointillé-Cloisonnisme." La justice (April 11, 1888), p. ?, calls it pale and awkwardly contrasted.

    Gustave Kahn. "Peinture: Exposition des Indépendants." Revue indépendante de littérature et d'art 7 (1888), p. 161, identifies posters for the Corvi circus in the background; finds Seurat's attempt at depicting a gaslit scene to be not completely successful.

    Néo [Paul Signac]. "IVe Exposition des artistes indépendant—Lettre de Néo à Trublot [Paul Alexis]." Le cri du peuple. March 29, 1888 [see Ref. Sterling and Salinger 1967 and Ref. Dorra and Rewald 1959, who list it as March 24].

    Félix Fénéon. "5e Exposition de la société des artistes indépendants." La vogue (September 1889), p. ? [reprinted in "L'art moderne," Brussels, October 27, 1889 and in Ref. Dorra and Rewald 1959], identifies the stage manager as the same figure as the bowler-hatted customs officer on the quai in Seurat's "Port-en-Bessin" (H188).

    Gustave Kahn. "Seurat." L'art moderne 11 (April 5, 1891), p. 110, calls it deliberately sad, and notes that it is Seurat's first representation of a night subject.

    Inventaire de l'atelier de Seurat. 1891 [published in Ref. Darragon 1991, pp. 288–89], mentions it and three of its "croquetons" remaining in the studio after Seurat's death.

    T. de Wyzewa. "Georges Seurat." L'Art dans les deux mondes no. 22 (April 18, 1891), p. 263, calls Seurat's figural compositions, including this work, tentative works in which he first applied methods that had yet to be defined [see Ref. Wyzewa 1990].

    Albert Arnay. "L'annuel des XX." Floréal 1 (March 1892), p. 84.

    Catalogue des oeuvres exposées, 1892: 8me exposition de la société des artistes indépendants. Exh. cat., Pavillon de la Ville de Paris. Paris, 1892, p. 66, no. 1084, dates it 1888.

    Georges Seurat (1860 [sic]–1891): Œuvres peintes et dessinées. Exh. cat., Revue Blanche. Paris, 1900, no. 32, dates it 1887–88.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Entwicklungsgeschichte der Modernen Kunst. Stuttgart, 1904, vol. 1, pp. 231–32, dates it 1888 and states that it is in the J. and G. Bernheim collection, Paris.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Modern Art, Being a Contribution to a New System of Aesthetics. London, 1908, vol. 1, p. 314.

    Exposition Georges Seurat (1859–1891). Exh. cat., Bernheim-Jeune. Paris, 1908, p. 12, no. 69, dates it 1887–88.

    Lucie Cousturier. "Georges Seurat (1859–1891)." L'Art décoratif 27 (June 1912), pp. 357, 361, 368, ill. [reprinted as "Seurat," Paris, 1921, and later eds.].

    Bissière. "Notes sur l'art de Seurat." L'esprit nouveau no. 1 (October 15, 1920), p. 23, ill., dates it 1887–89.

    Exposition Georges Seurat (1859–1891). Exh. cat., Bernheim-Jeune. Paris, 1920, unpaginated, no. 28, ill., dates it 1888.

    André Salmon. "Georges Seurat." Burlington Magazine 37 (September 1920), p. 121, includes it among a list of Seurat's works that were misunderstood by his contemporaries and which showed "profound intention".

    Lucie Cousturier. Seurat. Paris, [1921], pp. 12, 21, reprints Ref. Cousturier 1912.

    Henri de Régnier. Vestigia flammæ; poèmes. Paris, 1921 [see Ref. Sutter 1970], mentions it in a poem.

    André Lhote. Georges Seurat, avec 32 réproductions en phototypie. Rome, 1922, p. 13, ill. (unnumbered plate section).

    Charles Angrand. Letter to Gustave Coquiot. August 16, 1923 [published in "Charles Angrand: Correspondances, 1883–1926," 1988, p. 313], remarks that Seurat pointed out to him the complementary "haloes" around the gaslamps of Paris, an effect which he put to use in the painting.

    Walter Pach. Georges Seurat. New York, 1923, pp. 27–29, ill. (unnumbered plate section), dates it 1889.

    Gustave Coquiot. Seurat, avec 24 réproductions. Paris, 1924, pp. 43, 134, 151, 186, 226–28, ill. opp. p. 80, reprints comments by Charles Angrand [see Ref. 1923]; believes that it was executed in Seurat's studio in the "passage de l'Elysée des Beaux-Arts" [but see Ref Fénéon 1924]; mentions the ten works that Seurat showed at the 1888 Indépendants exhibition, calling them all canvases [but see Ref. Fénéon 1924]; likens the trombone player to a figure by Velázquez; remarks on the equilibrium of the painting.

    [Félix Fénéon]. "Précisions concernant Seurat." Bulletin de la vie artistique 5 (August 15, 1924), pp. 354–60, ill. (detail), disagrees with Coquiot [see Ref. 1924] that it was painted in the artist's studio by the Elysée-des-Beaux-Arts, and instead believes it was executed on boulevard de Clichy; notes that it was among ten paintings sold at the 1900 Revue blanche exhibition.

    "Cologne has Exhibition of Art in Rhineland." New York Times (August 16, 1925), p. X6, notes that "in intensity of conception [it] dominates" the 1925 exhibition at Bernheim-Jeune.

    Lucie Cousturier. Seurat. Paris, 1926, pp. 12, 21, reprints Refs. Cousturier 1912 and 1921.

    Henri Focillon. "Les salons de 1926." Gazette des beaux-arts 68 (May 1926), pp. 260–61, ill.

    Les dessins de Georges Seurat (1859–1891). Exh. cat., Bernheim-Jeune. Paris, 1926, unpaginated, ill., dates it 1887.

    Ruth Green Harris. "Bits of Personal History Please Paris Art World." New York Times (January 23, 1927), p. X11.

    Notice de Waldemar George. Seurat, 24 phototypies. Paris, [1928], unpaginated, ill.

    Gustave Kahn. Les dessins de Georges Seurat (1859–1891). Paris, 1928, vol. 1, unpaginated.

    Robert Allerton Parker. "The Drawings of Georges Seurat." International Studio 91 (September 1928), pp. 17, 21, 23, dates it 1889.

    A[lfred]. H. B[arr]. Jr. First Loan Exhibition: Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, van Gogh. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1929, pp. 25–26, 43, no. 55, ill. (overall and detail), dates it 1889; calls it one of the most important paintings in the exhibition and remarks that "in its formality and symmetry the composition is quite without parallel in its day"; notes that the geometric perspective, similar to "La grande jatte," is here divided into three planes—the foreground of heads, the middle ground with the trombone player, and the backdrop with the other musicians—and believes Seurat was influenced in this respect, and in the frontality and rigidity of the figures, by Egyptian reliefs; calls it "the most geometric in design as well as the most mysterious in sentiment" of his major canvases.

    Roger Fry. "Seurat's 'La parade'." Burlington Magazine 55 (December 1929), pp. 290–91, 293, ill. (color), remarks that "even among Seurat's works this picture seems . . . to be unique in the completeness with which the most literal facts of everyday life have been transmuted into the purest, most abstract of spiritual values"; discusses the simplification of forms and their relation to one another, comparing these qualities to Poussin.

    "Ten Great Pictures: City Exhibition is an Artistic Event." Glasgow Evening News (April 16, 1929).

    "French Pictures: Exhibition in Glasgow." Glasgow Herald (April 22, 1929).

    K. "French Masters: 10 Pictures Worth £250,000 on View in Glasgow." Glasgow Bulletin (April 16, 1929).

    W. J. W. "Ten Masterpieces of French Art: Worth a Quarter of a Million." Glasgow Evening Times (April 16, 1929).

    Vincent van Gogh en zijn tijdgenooten. Exh. cat., Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, 1930, p. 92, dates it 1889.

    Curt Glaser. "Pariser Saison." Kunst und Künstler 28 (October 1930), pp. 506, 508, ill.

    Ruth Green Harris. "Masterpieces Abound: Three Exhibitions Contain Well Chosen Examples of the Work of Famous Artists." New York Times (November 2, 1930), p. X15.

    Kasper Niehaus. "Georges Seurat." Elsevier's Geïllustreerd Maandschrift 40 (January–June 1930), pp. 299, 309, pl. LXIV.

    Cent ans de peinture française. Exh. cat., Galerie Georges Petit. Paris, 1930, unpaginated, no. 31, ill., dates it 1887–88.

    Robert Rey. La peinture française à la fin du XIXe siècle: la Renaissance du sentiment classique. Paris, 1931, pp. 123–24, 131, 144, reprints the May 3, 1891 inventory of Seurat's studio executed by his mother, Félix Fénéon, and Maximilien Luce, which notes the presence of the canvas as well as four studies for it and three "croquetons".

    Claude Roger-Marx. Seurat. Paris, 1931, p. 14, fig. 16, dates it 1890 but notes that it was in the 1888 exhibition of the Indépendants.

    R. H. Wile[n]ski. French Painting. Boston, 1931, pp. 319, 321, dates it 1887–88 and incorrectly locates it in the Bernheim Jeune collection, Paris.

    P. G. Konody and Xenia de Tunzelmen. An Introduction to French Painting. London, 1932, p. 223, ill. opp. p. 222.

    Exhibition of French Art, 1200–1900. Exh. cat., Royal Academy of Arts. London, 1932, pp. 248–49, no. 552, dates it 1887–88.

    Elisabeth Luther Cary. "Seurat to Surrealisme." New York Times (July 16, 1933), p. X5, ill., remarks that it, and "La grande jatte," are "informed by something of the inflexibility of youth".

    Modern Works of Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1934, pp. 12, 25, no. 29, pl. 29, dates it 1889.

    [René] Édouard-Joseph. Dictionnaire biographique des artistes contemporains 1910–1930. 3, Paris, 1934, p. 295, ill., dates it 1888.

    Exhibition of French Painting from the Fifteenth Century to the Present Day. Exh. cat., California Palace of the Legion of Honor. San Francisco, 1934, p. 60, no. 148, ill., dates it 1889.

    André Lhote in "Arts et littératures dans la société contemporaine." Encyclopédie française. 16, part 1, Paris, 1935, p. 16.30-7, ill. pp. 16.30-6, 16.31-7, illustrates a diagram of it and discusses its use of the divine proportion, which he believes gives the painting its beauty.

    Daniel Catton Rich. Seurat and the Evolution of "La Grande Jatte". Chicago, 1935, p. 4 n. 3, p. 16 n. 2, notes that witnesses saw Seurat draw sketches directly from Montmartre performances for it and "Le chahut".

    Alfred H. Barr Jr. in Cubism and Abstract Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1936, pp. 22, 223.

    Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1936, p. 119, no. 313, pl. LXIX, dates it 1889.

    William M. Milliken. "The Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition of the Cleveland Museum of Art." Art News 34 (June 13, 1936), pp. 13–14, ill.

    Edward Alden Jewell. "Gallery to Open in Capital Today." New York Times (November 14, 1937), p. 51.

    James Laver with notes on artists and pictures by Michael Sevier in French Painting and the Nineteenth Century. New York, 1937, p. 96, no. 136, ill., dates it 1887–88 and incorrectly locates it in the collection of Roland F. Knoedler, Esq., New York.

    André Salmon. Propos d'atelier. Paris, 1938, p. 51.

    Christian Zervos. Histoire de l'art contemporain. Paris, 1938, ill. p. 84, dates it 1890.

    James W. Lane. "Thirty-three Masterpieces in a Modern Collection: Mr. Stephen C. Clark's Paintings by American and European Masters." Art News Annual 37 (February 25, 1939), pp. 130, 133–34, ill. (color).

    Art in our Time. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1939, unpaginated, no. 76, ill., dates it 1889; compares it to a Byzantine mosaic or Egyptian wall painting in its verticality; notes that "Seurat's laboriously scientific technique dissolves the natural forms into a kind of molecular dance and achieves at the same time an unearthly radiation of light".

    Gaston Bernheim de Villers. Petites histoires sur de grands artistes. Paris, 1940, p. 117.

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "383 Masterpieces of Art." Art News, (The 1940 Annual), 38 (May 25, 1940), p. 66.

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "[On the Italian Masters at the Museum of Modern Art] . . . And the Modern Masters." Art News 38 (January 27, 1940), p. 30, ill.

    D[orothy]. C. M[iller]. Modern Masters from European and American Collections. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1940, pp. 8, 23, no. 13, ill.

    Walter Pach in Masterpieces of Art: Catalogue of European and American Paintings, 1500–1900. Exh. cat., World's Fair. New York, 1940, pp. 240, 248, no. 366.

    R. H. Wilenski. Modern French Painters. New York, [1940], pp. 94, 108, 257, 309, 348, dates it 1887–88; mentions the posthumous inventory of Seurat's studio, noting its presence and that of five drawings and three "croquetons" for it [but see Refs. Rey 1931 and Dorra and Rewald 1959, who reprint the inventory, cataloguing four drawings and three croquetons]; comments on the similarity in subject to Cocteau's 1917 ballet "Parade," with costumes and drop-scene by Picasso.

    Robert J. Goldwater. "Some Aspects of the Development of Seurat's Style." Art Bulletin 23 (June 1941), pp. 121–25, 126 n. 28, 127, 129–30, fig. 16.

    Bernard Dorival. La peinture française. Paris, 1942, vol. 2, p. 115, pl. XLVI.

    Bernard Dorival. "De l'impressionisme au fauvism, 1883–1905." Les étapes de la peinture française contemporaine. 1, [Paris], 1943, pp. 242, 245–47, dates it 1888.

    John Rewald. Georges Seurat. [2nd, revised ed. 1946; French ed. 1948]. New York, 1943, pp. 58, 70, 72, 79 n. 125, fig. 77, dates it 1887–88.

    Art in Progress. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1944, pp. 30, 224, ill., dates it 1889.

    Lionello Venturi. "The Art of Seurat." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 26 (July 1944), p. 427.

    Jacques de Laprade. Georges Seurat. Monaco, 1945, pp. IV, VII, ill. p. 48, dates it 1887–88.

    Bernard Dorival. Images de la peinture française contemporaine. Paris, [1946], p. 15, dates it 1890.

    John Rewald. Georges Seurat. 2nd rev. ed. [1st ed., 1943]. New York, 1946, pp. 58, 70, 72, 79 n.125, fig. 77.

    Germain Seligman. The Drawings of Georges Seurat. New York, 1947, pp. 11–12, 17, 19–21, 23–25, 28, 38, 59, under nos. 21–23, p. 60, under no. 24, dates it 1888; dates the earliest drawings relating to it from 1881–82, noting that Seurat worked on the theme for about six years before completing the final painting.

    Howard Devree. "Stephen C. Clarks Open Art Show at Home to Help Fresh Air Association of St. John." New York Times (April 2, 1948), p. 21.

    Alonzo Lansford. "Clark Collection Shown for Charity." Art Digest 22 (March 15, 1948), p. 9.

    André Lhote. Seurat. Paris, 1948, p. 11.

    John Rewald. Georges Seurat. Paris, 1948, pp. 117, 127, 137–38, fig. 82.

    Howard Devree. "Seurat Art Show Will Assist Blind." New York Times (April 19, 1949), p. 23.

    Trends in European Painting 1880–1930. Exh. cat., Century Association. New York, 1949, unpaginated, no. 3, ill., dates it 1887–88.

    Seurat, 1859–1891: Paintings and Drawings. Exh. cat., Knoedler Galleries. New York, 1949, unpaginated, no. 22, ill.

    John Rewald. Seurat (1859–1891). [1st ed.]. Paris, [1949?], unpaginated, fig. 39, states that Seurat began work on the painting in the fall of 1887, and dates it 1887–88 in the caption.

    John Rewald. "Seurat: The Meaning of the Dots." Art News 48 (April 1949), p. 62, ill. p. 62 (color).

    R[eginald]. H[oward]. Wilenski. Seurat (1859–1891). Exh. cat., Faber Gallery. London, 1949, pp. 2, 5.

    Umbro Apollonio. Georges Seurat. Exh. cat., Galleria dell'Obelisco. Rome, 1950, unpaginated.

    Lionello Venturi. Impressionists and Symbolists. 2, New York, 1950, p. 152, dates it 1887–89 and notes that it was painted in the studio.

    Jacques de Laprade. Seurat. Paris, 1951, pp. 18, 63, 81–83, 87, ill.

    Dora Panofsky. "Gilles or Pierrot? Iconographic Notes on Watteau." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 39 (May–June 1952), p. 325 n. 19.

    A Collector's Taste: Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co. New York, 1954, unpaginated, no. 20, ill., dates it 1889 but places it in the Salon des Indépendants of 1888.

    Aline B. Louchheim. "Rare Art Works on View Tonight." New York Times (January 11, 1954), p. 19.

    Introduction by Alfred H. Barr Jr. "Paintings from Private Collections." Museum of Modern Art Bulletin 22 (Summer 1955), pp. 14, 35, no. 139, ill. (installation photo).

    Paintings from Private Collections. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1955, p. 19.

    John Rewald. Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin. 1st ed. New York, 1956, pp. 141–42, 420, 427, 516, 543.

    Pierre Courthion. Paris des temps nouveaux. Geneva, 1957, pp. 44, 46, ill. (color).

    Etienne Gilson. Painting and Reality. New York, 1957, p. 43, pl. 15.

    William I. Homer. "Seurat's Port-en-Bessin." Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin 46 (Summer 1957), pp. 34, 36, 38.

    Robert L. Herbert. "Seurat in Chicago and New York." Burlington Magazine 100 (May 1958), p. 152, comments on its close ties to the theories of Charles Henry.

    John O'Connell Kerr. "Seurat the Silent Post-Impressionist." The Studio 155 (May 1958), p. 133.

    Seurat: Paintings and Drawings. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1958, pp. 17–18.

    Meyer Schapiro. "New Light on Seurat." Art News 57 (April 1958), pp. 22, 45, fig. 3 (detail).

    Henri Dorra and John Rewald. Seurat: L'œuvre peint, biographie et catalogue critique. Paris, 1959, pp. XXII, XXIV, LXII–LXIV, LXVII, LXXV–LXXVI, LXXVIII, XCII–XCIV, C, CIV n. 46, pp. CIX–CX, 224–227, no. 181, ill., note that the frame has disappeared; state that it was begun in the winter of 1887 and exhibited in March 1888, remarking that he completed the work much more quickly than his other large paintings.

    William I. Homer. "Henri Dorra and John Rewald, Seurat; l'œuvre peint; biographie et catalogue critique." Art Bulletin 42 (September 1960), pp. 229, 231, believes that a drawing traditionally thought to be a study for "Les poseuses" is actually a conté crayon drawing for the woman third from the left in the row of spectators; notes that the finished painting does not show this figure's torso but that the profile of the head and neck are visible.

    C[ésar]. M[ange]. de Hauke. Seurat et son œuvre. Paris, 1961, vol. 1, pp. IX, XXVI, XXVIII, XXIX, XXX, 150–53, 197, 211, 222, 228–29, 231, 239, 246, 250, no. 187, ill., publishes a list written by Madeleine Knobloch to M. Luce after the death of Seurat indicating which paintings were to stay in her possession and which were to stay in the Seurat family, the latter group including this work.

    "Ninety-first Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1960–1961." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (October 1961), pp. 44, 64, ill.

    Stephen C. Clark Art Collection and House. New York, 1961, unpaginated, no. 9, ill. (color).

    Stuart Preston. "Metropolitan Museum Displays Paintings and Drawings Received in 1960." New York Times (October 17, 1961), p. 47.

    Robert L. Herbert. Seurat's Drawings. New York, 1962, pp. 127–28, 131, 174, 181, colorpl. VIII, believes it was begun in 1886, on the basis of the date of an unpublished study in a private collection in Paris, and first completed in 1888; finds that the palette exactly matches his 1890 works, which together with an examination of the surface brushwork leads him to postulate that the canvas was reworked in 1890; disagrees with de Hauke [see Ref. 1961], who calls "Acrobat by the Ticket Booth" (H671) a study for it, stating that the date of the drawing is "well before 1887" and that its subject never entered into any phase of the creation of the painting.

    Charles Bouleau. Charpentes: La géométrie secrète des peintres. [Paris], 1963, pp. 210, 216, ill.

    William Innes Homer. Seurat and the Science of Painting. Cambridge, Mass., 1964, pp. 164, 175–79, 183, 188, 219–220, 223, 229, 240, 246, 298 n. 42, p. 300 n. 53, p. 303 n. 81, fig. 49.

    J[ean].-F[rançois]. Revel. "Charles Henry et la science des arts." L'Oeil no. 119 (November 1964), p. 44.

    Meyer Schapiro. "Seurat: Reflections." Art News Annual 29 (1964), pp. 25, 41, ill. (color).

    Sir Anthony Blunt in Roger Fry. Seurat. London, 1965, pp. 7–8, 74, 77, 83–85, colorpls. 39–40 (overall and detail).

    Albert Boime. "Seurat and Piero della Francesca." Art Bulletin 47 (June 1965), p. 267, fig. 6, compares it, in its "strong axiality and the severe architectural framework," to Piero della Francesca's "Discovery and Proof of the Cross" (San Francesco, Arezzo), which Seurat could have known through reproductions, and calls Piero influential in Seurat's early development.

    William A. Camfield. "Juan Gris and the Golden Section." Art Bulletin 47 (March 1965), p. 131, fig. 1, after p. 132.

    John Russell. Seurat. New York, 1965, pp. 11, 76, 78, 197, 212, 214–16, 218–19, 222, 226, colorpl. 194, dates it between the fall of 1887 and the beginning of 1888; discusses five drawings (H381, 382, 384, 385, and 386) that "look forward" to it and "Le cirque"; states that "no amount of geometry can hide the fact that this picture offers a criticism of society" and calls Rimbaud's poem "Parade" one of the origins of the painting; believes both artist and poet saw the circus as "a mirror to the condition of mankind in the new-made industrial cities of the late nineteenth century".

    Carla Lonzi. Georges Seurat. Milan, [1966], unpaginated, ill. (overall and detail) and colorpl. X–XI.

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 193, 197–200, ill., mention a similarly patterned background and a row of silhouetted heads in an illustration by Gavarni in "Le diable à Paris," 1846, which they say Seurat could have known; believe the painted border to be by the artist.

    Pierre Courthion. Georges Seurat. 1st ed. New York, [1968], pp. 11, 32, 40, 44, 46–48, 138, 140–41, ill. (color), dates it 1888; postulates that Seruat met Madeleine Knoblock while painting this picture; calls it "perhaps the sole work of nineteenth-century painting that unequivocally anticipates Cubism (and even Purism)".

    Robert L. Herbert. Neo-Impressionism. Exh. cat., Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York, 1968, pp. 99, 118–19, no. 82, ill. (color), dates it 1886–88; identifies the site as the Cirque Corvi.

    Max Kozloff. "Neo-Impressionism and the Dream of Analysis." Artforum 6 (April 1968), p. 44, dates it 1888 and discusses it in relation to the interest in Symbolism among the Neo-Impressionists.

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill., dates it 1887–88.

    Introduction by Kenneth Clark in Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, p. 320, no. 387, ill.

    Mark Roskill. Van Gogh, Gauguin, and the Impressionist Circle. Greenwich, Conn., 1970, pp. 89, 96–97, 298, pl. 76, dates it 1886–88; remarks that Van Gogh probably saw the preliminary studies for it on a visit to Seurat's studio, and suggests that the depiction of gas lights influenced the rays of light in Van Gogh's "Night Café".

    J[ames]. H[enry]. Rubin. "Seurat and Theory: The Near-Identical Drawings of the Café-Concert." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 76 (October 1970), pp. 239, 243.

    Jean Sutter in The Neo-Impressionists. Greenwich, Conn., 1970, pp. 19, 22, 231, ill.

    Niels Luning Prak. "Seurat's Surface Pattern and Subject Matter." Art Bulletin 53 (September 1971), pp. 372, 375, 378, notes Seurat's device of "cutting off" the corners of his compositions at a 45-degree angle, seen here at lower right.

    Theodore Reff. "Harlequins, Saltimbanques, Clowns, and Fools." Artforum 10 (October 1971), p. 40.

    Louis Hautecœur. Georges Seurat. Milan, 1972, pp. 30, 42, 48, 53–56, 64–66, 68, 70, 83, ill. (color).

    Fiorella Minervino in L'opera completa di Seurat. [1st, French ed., 1973]. Milan, 1972, pp. 7, 85, 87, 90, 106–8, no. 188, ill. p. 107 and colorpl. LII-LIII.

    Iku Takenaka et al. Seurat et le néo-impressionnisme. [Tokyo], 1972, p. 110, no. 10, ill. (color and black and white).

    Violette de Mazia. "Creative Distortion: III. In Portraiture." Barnes Foundation Journal of the Art Department 4 (Autumn 1973), p. 16 n., pl. 42.

    Everett Fahy in "Paintings, Drawings." The Wrightsman Collection. 5, [New York], 1973, p. 205.

    Mitsuhiko Kuroe. Pissarro/Sisley/Seurat. Tokyo, 1973, p. 142, no. 63, ill. (color and black and white).

    Carl R. Baldwin The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Impressionist Epoch. [New York], 1974, pp. 19–20.

    Edward B. Henning. "Plane, Structue, Color, and Content." Cleveland Museum of Art Bulletin 61 (September 1974), p. 231, fig. 16.

    René Huyghe Lydie Huyghe in La Relève du réel: la peinture française au XIXe siècle: impressionnisme, symbolisme. Paris, 1974, pp. 242, 465, figs. 226–27.

    John Russell. "Met Museum Serves Up A Feast of Impressionism." New York Times (December 12, 1974), p. 58.

    Douglas Cooper. Alex Reid & Lefevre 1926–1976. [London], 1976, pp. 84–85, ill.

    Roger Copeland. "An Avant-Gardist Toys With the Past." New York Times (March 7, 1976), p. D13.

    Peter F. Blume. French Masterpieces of the 19th Century from the Henry P. McIlhenny Collection. Exh. cat., Allentown Art Museum. Allentown, Pa., 1977, p. 82.

    Eleanor Pearson. "Seurat's 'Le cirque'." Marsyas 19 (1977–78), p. 48.

    Antoine Terrasse. Seurat's Universe. Paris, 1977, p. 58.

    Seurat in Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1978, p. 9 n. 13, p. 11 n. 19, pp. 121 n. 1, 177, p. 179, fig. 21, dates it winter 1887–early 1888.

    Bernard Denvir. "Beyond the Picturesque." Art & Artists 13 (December 1978), pp. 21–23.

    Maurice Sérullaz in Phaidon Encyclopedia of Impressionism. Oxford, 1978, pp. 181–82, ill., dates it 1887–88.

    Robert Goldwater. Symbolism. New York, 1979, p. 141, fig. 117.

    Richard Shone. The Post-Impressionists. London, 1979, pp. 43–44, pl. 37.

    [Sarane] Alexandrian. Seurat. New York, 1980, pp. 66–67, 77–78, 85, 93, ill. (color).

    Robert L. Herbert. "'Parade de cirque' de Seurat et l'esthétique de Charles Henry." Revue de l'art 50 (1980), pp. 9–23, fig. 1 (color) and ill. on cover (color detail), remarks that after its exhibition at the Salon des Indépendants of 1888, it became one of Seurat's least admired works, defended mainly but only briefly by Félix Fénéon.

    John House. "Meaning in Seurat's Figure Paintings." Art History 3 (September 1980), pp. 352, 356 n. 28, pl. 57.

    Theodore Reff. "Picasso's Three Musicians: Maskers, Artists & Friends." Art in America 68 (December 1980), p. 138, fig. 19 (color), compares it with Picasso's "Three Musicians" and suggests that Picasso could have seen it when it was exhibited in June 1917 or January 1920.

    Patrizia Magnani. "Produzione di musica e rappresentazione." Casabella 45, no. 473 (1981), ill. p. 52.

    Robert Rosenblum. "Fernand Pelez, or The Other Side of the Post-Impressionist Coin." Art, The Ape of Nature: Studies in Honor of H. W. Janson. New York, 1981, pp. 711–12, fig. 4.

    Bogomila Welsh-Ovcharov. Vincent van Gogh and the Birth of Cloisonism. Exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario. Toronto, 1981, p. 240, fig. 86.

    Joel Isaacson. "Impressionism and Journalistic Illustration." Arts Magazine 56 (June 1982), p. 114 n. 46.

    Erich Franz and Bernd Growe. Georges Seurat, Zeichnungen. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Munich, 1983, pp. 86–87, 91 nn. 25–26, 193, 199, colorpl. 14 [English ed., 1984].

    Metropolitan Museum, New York. Milan, 1983, pp. 79, 155, colorpl. 90.

    Roger Herz-Fischler. "An Examination of Claims Concerning Seurat and 'The Golden Number'." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 101 (March 1983), pp. 109–12 n. 12, refutes claims that Seurat consciously used the Golden Number in this and other works and theorizes instead that he used "a system of proportion [involving] simple ratios" that happen to approximate the Golden Section.

    Jo Ann Wein. "Delacroix's 'Street in Meknes' and the Ideology of Orientalism." Arts 57 (June 1983), p. 108, fig. 3.

    Lincoln Kirstein. Four Centuries of Ballet: Fifty Masterworks. New York, 1984, pp. 210, 271, fig. 407.

    Nan Robertson. "Patinkin Sits for a Portrait." New York Times (May 22, 1984), p. C11.

    Charles F. Stuckey. Seurat. Mount Vernon, N.Y., 1984, pp. 23–24, 32 n. 8, colorpl. 11.

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 11, 226–27, 255, ill. (color), notes that it was generally called "féerique" (enchanted) by Seurat's contemporaries.

    Richard Thomson. Seurat. Oxford, 1985, pp. 133, 141, 147–48, 152–56, 166, 168, 176, 185, 197, 205, 209, 212, 214, 220–23, 231 n. 80, colorpl. 154.

    Alan Lee. "Seurat and Science." Art History 10 (June 1987), pp. 218, 221–22.

    Gary Tinterow et al. "Modern Europe." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8, New York, 1987, pp. 10, 69, colorpl. 49.

    Joan Ungersma Halperin. Félix Fénéon: Aesthete & Anarchist in Fin-de-Siècle Paris. New Haven, 1988, pp. 115, 126–30, ill.

    Herbert Wotte. Georges Seurat: Wesen, Werk, Wirkung. Dresden, 1988, pp. 47, 65, 72–77, 79, 82, 94, 96, 110, 210, 216, colorpl. 73.

    Éric Darragon. "Pégase à Fernando: A propos de Cirque et du réalisme de Seurat en 1891." Revue de l'art no. 86 (1989), pp. 48–49.

    Henri Dorra. "Japanese Sources for Two Paintings by Seurat." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 114 (September 1989), pp. 95–97, 99, fig. 1, states that the spectators in the foreground were derived from Kobayashi Kiyochika's design for the colored woodblock "Fireworks at Shinobazu Pond" and that Seurat was possibly also influenced by this woodblock to represent the circus at night.

    Jean-Claude Lebensztejn. Chahut. Paris, 1989, pp. 14, 17, 25–26, 31–32, 67–70, 83, 91, 116, 119, 124, 137, 138 n., pp. 143, 149, ill.

    William M. Butler in Seurat at Gravelines: The Last Landscapes. Exh. cat.Indianapolis, 1990, p. 69.

    Jonathan Crary in Seurat at Gravelines: The Last Landscapes. Exh. cat.Indianapolis, 1990, pp. 62–63.

    Milton Esterow. "Masterpiece Theater." Art News 89 (Summer 1990), pp. 133–34, ill. (color).

    Catherine Grenier. Seurat: Catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1990, pp. 9, 123–25, 154, no. 188, ill. (color).

    Martin Kemp. The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. New Haven, 1990, p. 318.

    Alain Madeleine-Perdrillat. Seurat. New York, 1990, pp. 109–18, 124, 126, 141, 147, 150, 157–58, 167, 207–9, 213, ill. (color, overall and detail).

    Rodolphe Rapetti in L'art du XIXe siècle, 1850–1905. Paris, 1990, p. 75.

    John Rewald. Seurat: A Biography. New York, 1990, pp. 159, 162, 164, 167, 178, 193, 199, 220 n. 14, p. 229, ill. (color, overall and details).

    MaryAnne Stevens in The Passionate Eye: Impressionist and Other Master Paintings from the Collection of Emil G. Bührle, Zurich. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington. Zürich, 1990, p. 184, fig. 65a.

    Guy Burn. "Letter from Paris." Arts Review 43 (May 17, 1991), p. 242, ill.

    Françoise Cachin in Georges Seurat, 1859–1891. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1991, pp. 275, 278, 423 [French ed., "Seurat," Grand Palais, Paris, 1991, pp. 14, 313, 317], compares the frieze of heads at the bottom of the painting to the carefully positioned objects in the foreground of "La grande jatte".

    Françoise Cachin. Seurat: Le rêve de l'art-science. Paris, 1991, pp. 96–99, 101, 111, 141, ill. (color).

    Éric Darragon in Seurat: Correspondances, témoinages, notes inédites, critiques. Paris, 1991, pp. 19, 322.

    Anne Distel in Georges Seurat, 1859–1891. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1991, pp. 360–61, 363, 408 [French ed., "Seurat," Paris, 1991, pp. 39, 410–11, 413].

    Robert L. Herbert et al. Georges Seurat, 1859–1891. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1991, pp. vii, 3, 68, 233, 262–63, 266, 272, 327, 342, 376, 392–93, 433, ill. (color detail, frontispiece) [French ed., "Seurat," Paris, 1991, pp. 20, 110, 268, 300, 302, 308, 371, 389, 424, 442–43].

    Richard Kendall. "Highlights and Shadows: Seurat Retrospective at the Grand Palais." Apollo 133 (June 1991), pp. 420–21.

    Michael Kimmelman. "Seurat: The Enigma Behind the Luster." New York Times (September 22, 1991), pp. H1, H35, ill.

    Luc de Nanteuil. "Seurat: une certaine révolution." Connaissance des arts no. 470 (April 1991), pp. 38, 42.

    John Russell. "Seurat Beckons to Many Worlds Beyond the Dot." New York Times (April 28, 1991), p. H33.

    Paul Smith. "Was Seurat's Art Wagnerian? And What if it Was?" Apollo 133 (July 1991), pp. 24–26, 28, colorpl. 1.

    Catherine Strasser. Seurat: Cirque pour un monde nouveau. Paris, 1991, pp. 5, 15, 19, 46, 52, 62.

    Richard Thomson in Toulouse-Lautrec. Exh. cat., Hayward Gallery, London. New Haven, 1991, p. 231 [French ed., "Seurat," Paris, 1991].

    Richard Tilston. Seurat. London, 1991, pp. 22, 25–26, 28, 130, 132–33, 136, 150, 170, ill. (color).

    Gary Tinterow in Georges Seurat, 1859–1891. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1991, pp. 303–16, no. 200, ill. (color, overall & details) [French ed., "Seurat," Paris, 1991, pp. 337, 344, 347–56, 358–60, no. 198, ill. (color, overall and details)].

    Michael F. Zimmermann. Seurat and the Art Theory of His Time. Antwerp, 1991, pp. 44, 216, 262, 268, 289, 296, 306, 317, 320, 324–25, 335, 337, 345–50, 354–56, 362, 364–66, 372, 374, 377–79, 388, 418, 440, 442, 446, 448, 270 nn. 81, 126, ill. p. 322 (color detail), fig. 495 (color), remarks that the painting depicts a full brass band, including a trombone and a double-bass, to underline the melancholy atmosphere; notes that the use of the golden section governs its geometric structure; calls it a hieratic style that stylizes everyday life into a ritual; mentions the yellowish-violet nocturnal light, Seurat's adoption of the basic pessimism of Symbolism, and his use of "Egyptian" techniques of geometric arrangement; identifies certain contemporary figures; states that "the human urge to the sensational is here immortalized as a ceremonial".

    Youssef Ishaghpour L'Échoppe. Seurat: La pureté de l'élément spectral. Caen, 1992, unpaginated.

    Ellen W[ardwell]. Lee. "Seurat Centenary." Art Journal 51 (Summer 1992), p. 105, ill.

    Floyd Ratliff. Paul Signac and Color in Neo-Impressionism. New York, 1992, p. 186, notes the similarity between the stippled pen and ink drawing for this painting and the one done the same year by Signac for his painting "Le petit déjeuner," suggesting that the two artists were in very close communication at that time.

    Sarah Carr-Gomm. Seurat. London, 1993, pp. 34, 36–37, 110, 112–13, ill. (color).

    Karal Ann Marling. "A Blessing on Your Head." New York Times (April 18, 1993), p. BR39.

    A[braham]. M. Hammacher. Silhouette of Seurat. Exh. cat., Kröller-Müller Museum. Otterlo, 1994, pp. 18, 21, 34–35, 39–40, 43, 52, ill. (color).

    John G. Hutton. Neo-Impressionism and the Search for Solid Ground: Art, Science, and Anarchism in Fin-de-Siècle France. Baton Rouge, 1994, pp. 192–99, fig. 45.

    Ségolène Le Men. Seurat & Cheret: Le peintre, le cirque, et l'affiche. Paris, 1994, pp. 16, 19, 21–28, 67, 73, 94, 117–18, 125, 135, 137, 146, 149, 178 n. 268, colorpl. 1.

    Natasha Staller. "Babel: Hermetic Languages, Universal Languages, and Anti-Languages in Fin de Siècle Parisian Culture." Art Bulletin 76 (June 1994), pp. 331, 346, fig. 2 (detail).

    David Sweetman. Paul Gauguin: A Complete Life. London, 1995, p. 130, identifies the figure of the trombonist as Seurat himself.

    Kirk Varnedoe. "The Evolving Torpedo: Changing Ideas of the Collection of Painting and Sculpture of The Museum of Modern Art." Studies in Modern Art. The Museum of Modern Art at Mid-Century: Continuity and Change. 5, New York, 1995, pp. 15, 28, 63 n. 5, p. 72 n. 118, ill.

    Jane Block in The Dictionary of Art. 22, New York, 1996, pp. 745–46, ill.

    Paul Smith in The Dictionary of Art. 28, New York, 1996, pp. 502, 504.

    John Leighton and Richard Thomson. Seurat and the Bathers. Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 1997, pp. 147, 149, 153.

    Albert Schug in Pointillismus: Auf den Spuren von Georges Seurat. Exh. cat., Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne. Munich, 1997, p. 22 [French ed., "Pointillisme: Sur les traces de Seurat," Lausanne, 1998, p. 22].

    Paul Smith. Seurat and the Avant-Garde. New Haven, 1997, pp. 111, 123–24, 126, 130, 132, 136, 141–43, 145–46, 149, 159, color figs. 119, 134, 138, 169 (overall and details).

    Uwe Westfehling. Pointillismus: Auf den Spuren von Georges Seurat. Exh. cat., Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne. Munich, 1997, p. 228 [French ed., "Pointillisme: Sur les traces de Seurat," Lausanne, 1998, pp. 227–28].

    Patricia Mainardi in Courbet: Artiste et promoteur de son oeuvre. Exh. cat., Musée cantonal des Beaux-Arts de Lausanne. Paris, 1998, p. 104.

    Eberhard Roters. Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts: Themen und Motive. Cologne, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 382–83, ill.

    Jonathan Crary. Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture. Cambridge, Mass., 1999, pp. 5, 7, 149–54, 156, 160, 163, 175–78, 181, 187–214, 217–18, 220, 223–25, 227–29, 236, 238–41, 243–44, 246, 256–58, 269, 273, 278, 280, 366, ill. (overall and details).

    Nancy Forgione. "'The Shadow Only': Shadow and Silhouette in Late Nineteenth-Century Paris." Art Bulletin 81 (September 1999), pp. 495, 497–99, 500, 502, 505, fig. 10.

    Denis Pelli. "An Artist's Work Blurs Lines Between Art and Science." New York Times (August 10, 1999), p. A1, ill. (detail).

    Peter Paquet. Helldunkel, Raum und Form: Georges Seurat als Zeichner. Frankfurt am Main, 2000, pp. 187–89, 196, 241, 380, 398, 402, 407, 412, 422, 425, 431, 438, 452.

    Prof. Dr. Michel Draguet. Signac, Seurat: Le néo-impressionnisme. Paris, 2001, pp. 25, 36–38, 40, 71–73, ill. (color).

    Robert L. Herbert. Seurat: Drawings and Paintings. New Haven, 2001, pp. vii, x, 14, 16, 107, 109, 137–38, 140–53, 156, colorpls. 121, 124 (overall and detail).

    Chiao-Mei Liu Université de Paris. Cézanne: La série de Château Noir. Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2001, p. 75, fig. 26.

    Roberta Smith. "A Crucial Link Between Two Styles of the Paris Avant-Garde." New York Times (October 12, 2001), p. E34.

    Richard Thomson in Vincent van Gogh and the Painters of the Petit Boulevard. Exh. cat., Saint Louis Art Museum. St. Louis, 2001, p. 92.

    John G. Hutton in Georges Seurat et le néo-impressionnisme, 1885–1905. Exh. cat., Museum of Art, Kochi. Tokyo, 2002, pp. 237–38, 259, 270, 279 n. 3, p. 299, fig. 6 (color).

    Laura Iamurri. "Gli appunti di viaggio di Lionello Venturi, 1932–1935." Storia dell'arte no. 101 (2002), pp. 96–98 n. 17.

    Neil Harris in Seurat and the Making of "La Grande Jatte". Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 2004, p. 259 n. 52.

    Robert L. Herbert et al. Seurat and the Making of "La Grande Jatte". Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 2004, pp. 132, 137, 143, 144, 149, 154, fig. 5 (color).

    Marina Ferretti-Bocquillon in Le Néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2005, pp. 22, 180, 266.

    Adèle Lespinasse in Le Néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2005, p. 260.

    Marianne Mathieu in Le Néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2005, p. 262.

    Sylvie Patry in Le Néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2005, p. 154.

    Richard R. Brettell and Stephen F. Eisenman. Nineteenth-Century Art in the Norton Simon Museum. 1, New Haven, 2006, p. 432.

    Daniel Cohen-McFall in The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, figs. 248, 259 (installation photographs of Exhs. New York 1929 and 1961).

    Neil Harris in The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, p. 201.

    Sarah Lees in The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, pp. 153, 315, 344, no. 378, fig. 125 (color).

    Gilbert T. Vincent and Sarah Lees in The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, pp. 150, 156, 188, 196 nn. 81, 82, p. 198 n. 129, p. 199 n. 154, fig. 155 (color installation photograph of Stephen Clark's townhouse).

    Robyn Roslak. Neo-Impressionism and Anarchism in Fin-de-Siècle France: Painting, Politics and Landscape. Aldershot, England, 2007, p. 86, fig. 3.11.

    Susan Alyson Stein in Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 178–79, 303–5, no. 166, ill. (color and black and white).

    Richard Thomson in Jodi Hauptman. Georges Seurat: The Drawings. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2007, pp. 173–76, fig. 2 (color).

    Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, p. 11.

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, p. xix.

    Chris Stolwijk in Van Gogh and the Colours of the Night. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2008, pp. 35, 146 n. 64.

    Joseph J. Rishel in Masterpieces of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. 4th rev. ed. [1st ed., 1989]. New York, 2009, p. 242 n. 7.

    Claire Maingon in A City for Impressionism: Monet, Pissarro, and Gauguin in Rouen. Exh. cat., Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen. Paris, 2010, pp. 171–73, ill. (color), calls it "Circus Sideshow" and "Parade"; notes that Angrand posed for one of the figures in this painting.

  • Notes

    In their catalogue raisonné, Dorra and Rewald [see Ref. 1959] list five studies associated with this painting: conté crayon drawings for the tree (DR180a), the trombone player (DR180b), and the clown and ringmaster (DR180c), an oil sketch of the overall composition (DR180), and an ink drawing of the overall composition (DR181a) [but see Ref. Thomson 1985, who does not believe this drawing is by Seurat]. De Hauke [see Ref. 1961] includes these same five studies (H667, 680, 669, 186, 681, respectively), as well as ten other drawings less closely related to the final picture.

    This painting was listed in an inventory of Seurat's studio of May 3, 1891, shortly after his death [see Ref. Seyrès 1991], along with four drawings and three sketches or "croquetons" for it.

    The painting is known to represent the spectacle used to advertise the Cirque Corvi, a miniature animal circus, which was set up in 1887 at the Foire aux pains d'épice in the Place de la Nation in Paris.

  • See also