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Boy with a Sword

Édouard Manet (French, Paris 1832–1883 Paris)

Date:
1861
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
51 5/8 x 36 3/4 in. (131.1 x 93.4 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Gift of Erwin Davis, 1889
Accession Number:
89.21.2
  • Gallery Label

    Manet’s stepson, Léon Koëlla-Leenhoff, recalled that he had posed for this picture in 1861, when he was about ten years old. Manet dressed him in a seventeenth-century costume, adding a period sword as a prop—a tribute to the great Spanish painters he admired, notably Velázquez. Critics reviewed the work favorably on the five occasions that Manet exhibited it between 1862 and 1872.

    In 1889, the New York collector Erwin Davis donated Boy with a Sword and Young Lady in 1866 (89.21.3) to the Metropolitan; they were the first works by Manet to enter a museum collection.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed (lower left): Manet

  • Provenance

    the artist, Paris (1861–1871 or 1872; deposited with Théodore Duret, Paris, September 1870–71; sold in or by January 1872 [artist's tabbed notebook] for Fr 1,200 to Febvre); [Alexis-Joseph Febvre, Paris, 1872; sold on January 8 for Fr 1,500 to Durand-Ruel]; [Durand-Ruel, Paris, from 1872; stock no. 930; held as collateral by (Charles?) Edwards, Paris]; Alfred Edwards (son of Charles Edwards), Paris (until 1881; sale, Hôtel Drouot, February 24, no. 39, for Fr 9,100, to Feder); Jules Feder, Paris (1881; on deposit with Durand-Ruel, February 25, deposit no. 3080; sold on June 28 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1881; stock no. 1135; sold on June 28 for Fr 10,000 to J. Alden Weir for Davis]; Erwin Davis, New York (1881–89; his sale, Ortgies, New York, March 19–20, no. 141, bought in at $6,700)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. Rue de Choiseul. 1861–62, no catalogue? [see Wolff 1886].

    Bordeaux. Galerie de la société des amis des arts. "Salon des amis des arts de Bordeaux," 1862, no. 438 [see Dussol 1997].

    Paris. Galerie Martinet. "Exposition de tableaux anciens et modernes," March 1–April 1863, no catalogue? [see Jamot and Wildenstein 1932].

    Brussels. location unknown. "Exposition générale des beaux-arts, salon triennale," July 29–September 28, 1863, no. 755 [see Jamot and Wildenstein 1932].

    Paris. Avenue de l'Alma. "Tableaux de M. Édouard Manet," May 1867, no. 4 (as "L'enfant à l'epée").

    Marseilles. Société artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône. December 1868–?, no catalogue? [see Manet 1869].

    New York. National Academy of Design. "Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition," December 3, 1883–January 1, 1884, no. 153 (lent by Erwin Davis).

    New York. American Art Association. "Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris," April 10–28, 1886, no. 303 (lent by Erwin Davis).

    New York. National Academy of Design. "Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris," May 25–June 30, 1886, no. 303 (lent by Erwin Davis).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Temporary Exhibition," April 1906, no. 20.

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "French Art: 1200–1900," January 4–March 12, 1932, no. 423 [commemorative catalogue, no. 422, pl. 117].

    Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Museum of Art. "Manet and Renoir," November 29, 1933–January 1, 1934, no catalogue [see Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin 29 (December 1933), p. 17].

    Honolulu Academy of Arts. "Four Centuries of European Painting," December 8, 1949–January 29, 1950, no. 23.

    Art Gallery of Toronto. "Fifty Paintings by Old Masters," April 21–May 21, 1950, no. 23.

    Hempstead, N.Y. Hofstra College. "Metropolitan Museum Masterpieces," June 26–September 1, 1952, no. 39.

    Utica. Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute. "Picture of the Month," October 5–26, 1952, no catalogue?

    Des Moines Art Center. "Masterpieces of Portrait and Figure Painting," November 5, 1952–February 1, 1953, no catalogue.

    Haus der Kunst München. "München 1869–1958: Aufbruch zur Modernen Kunst," June 21–October 5, 1958, no. 79 this work was not included in the 1869 exhibition that the present show commemorated.

    New York. Wildenstein & Co., Inc.. "One Hundred Years of Impressionism: A Tribute to Durand-Ruel," April 2–May 9, 1970, no. 1.

    Indianapolis Museum of Art. "Treasures from the Metropolitan," October 25, 1970–January 3, 1971, no. 67.

    Tokyo National Museum. "Treasured Masterpieces of The Metropolitan Museum of Art," August 10–October 1, 1972, no. 92.

    Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art. "Treasured Masterpieces of The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 8–November 26, 1972, no. 92.

    Sydney. Art Gallery of New South Wales. "Modern Masters: Manet to Matisse," April 10–May 11, 1975, no. 59.

    Melbourne. National Gallery of Victoria. "Modern Masters: Manet to Matisse," May 28–June 22, 1975, no. 59.

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Modern Masters: Manet to Matisse," August 4–September 1, 1975, no. 59.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Manet, 1832–1883," April 22–August 1, 1983, no. 14.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet, 1832–1883," September 10–November 27, 1983, no. 14.

    Stockholm. Nationalmuseum. "Manet i närbild," February 7–June 11, 1985, no. 59.

    Southampton, N.Y. Parrish Art Museum. "In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition," June 29–September 1, 1986, no. 47.

    New York. National Academy of Design. "In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition," September 18–December 7, 1986, no. 47.

    Naples. Museo di Capodimonte. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," December 3, 1986–February 1, 1987, no. 22.

    Milan. Pinacoteca di Brera. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," March 4–May 10, 1987, no. 22.

    Leningrad [St. Petersburg]. State Hermitage Museum. "From Delacroix to Matisse," March 15–May 10, 1988, no. 12.

    Moscow. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. "From Delacroix to Matisse," June 10–July 30, 1988, no. 12.

    Fort Lauderdale. Museum of Art. "Corot to Cézanne: 19th Century French Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," December 22, 1992–April 11, 1993, no catalogue.

    Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," September 16, 2002–January 12, 2003, no. 73.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting," March 4–June 8, 2003, no. 133.

    Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. "Manet en el Prado," October 13, 2003–February 8, 2004, no. 24.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 56.

    Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet, inventeur du Moderne," April 5–July 17, 2011, no. 26.

  • References

    Zacharie Astruc. Le salon de 1863 (May 20, 1863) [reprinted in Ref. Moreau-Nélaton 1926, vol. 1, p. 51].

    Ernest Chesneau. "L'art contemporain." L'Artiste 1 (April 1, 1863), p. 149.

    Édouard Manet. Letter to Monsieur Martinet. [1863] [published in Étienne Moreau-Nélaton, "Manet: Raconté par lui-même," vol. 1, Paris, 1926, p. 45], gives the price of this painting as Fr 1,000 but says that he is willing to sell it for Fr 800.

    Ernest Chesneau. "Salon de 1865." Le Constitutionnel (May 16, 1865), p. 1.

    E. Spuller. "M. Édouard Manet et sa peinture." Le nain jaune (June 9, 1867) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Émile Zola. "Une nouvelle manière en peinture: Édouard Manet." Revue du XIXe siècle, 8e sér., 4 (January 1, 1867) [reprinted in Émile Zola, "Le bon combat: De Courbet aux impressionnistes," Paris, 1974, pp. 85, 88, 141 n. 104], praises this picture highly and comments that the influence of Spanish painters can be seen; predicts that it will be one of the successes of the exhibition.

    Paul Mantz. "Salon de 1868, II." L'illustration (June 6, 1868), p. 362 [translated and reprinted in George Heard Hamilton, "Manet and His Critics," New Haven, 1954, p. 120].

    A. Maire. "Revue de l'exposition de la société artistique. À Madame . . . troisième lettre." Courrier de Marseille (January 21, 1869), p. 2 [see Ref. Wilson-Bareau 2003].

    Édouard Manet. Letter to Émile Zola. [early 1869] [published and translated in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, "Correspondence & Conversation, Manet by Himself: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings," London, 1991, p. 49], says that he sent this painting to the Société artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône.

    Théodore Duret. Letter to Édouard Manet. September 16, 1870 [published in A. Tabarant, "Manet et ses œuvres," Paris, 1947, p. 183], acknowledges that this work was deposited in his gallery for safe-keeping, but belongs to Manet.

    Édouard Manet. Letter to T. Duret. September 16, 1870 [published in A. Tabarant, "Manet et ses œuvres," Paris, 1947, pp. 182–83], asks Duret to store this painting for him during the siege.

    Édouard Manet. Memorandum of Paintings Sold to Durand-Ruel. [January–February 1872] [published and translated in Ref. Wilson-Bareau 1991, p. 163], notes that this picture was sold to Fèvre [sic] for Fr 1,200
    .

    Armand Silvestre. La renaissance litteraire 1 (1872), p. 179, comments that in its style it equals the portraits of Velázquez.

    Armand Silvestre. Galerie Durand-Ruel, recueil d'estampes, gravées à l'eau-forte. Paris, 1873, pp. 24–25, pl. LVI (engraving by Braquemond).

    Junius. "M. Édouard Manet." Le Gaulois (April 25, 1876) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Édouard Manet. Letter to Marx. [1881], requests that he ask 'Gill' to note that Weir had just purchased this picture from Durand-Ruel.

    Albert Wolff. "Edouard Manet." Le Figaro (May 1, 1883), p. 1.

    Edmond Bazire. Manet. Paris, 1884, pp. 54–56, 139, identifies the sitter as Léon Leenhoff, who also appears in the "Déjeuner sur l'herbe" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) and "Enfant au plateau" (Phillips Collection, Washington).

    Jacques de Biez. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1884, pp. 34, 57.

    Paul Mantz. "Les Œuvres de Manet." Le Temps (January 16, 1884), p. 3.

    Albert Wolff. La Capitale de l'art. 2nd. ed. Paris, 1886, pp. 220, 227, notes that it was exhibited at "cercle artisitique de la rue de Choiseul".

    E[mile]. Durand-Gréville. "La Peinture aux États-Unis: Les Galeries privées (1er article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 36 (July 1887), p. 74, lists it in the collection of Erwin Davis.

    Antonin Proust. "Édouard Manet: Souvenirs." La revue blanche 12 (February–May 1897), pp. 174, 314, 420, 426.

    Arthur J. Eddy. "Édouard Manet, Painter." Brush and Pencil 1 (February 1898), pp. 137–38, 140, praises it highly, calling it one of Manet's finest.

    William Sharp. "The Art Treasures of America (Concluded.)." Living Age, 7th ser., 1 (December 3, 1898), p. 606.

    Arthur Hoeber. The Treasures of The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York. New York, 1899, p. 90.

    Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, pp. 19, 203, no. 41, mentions that there is a small reproduction of this work by Manet in the Gérard collection, Paris.

    Roger Fry. Letter to Robert W. De Forest. June 16, 1906 [published in Denys Sutton, ed., "Letters of Roger Fry," New York, 1972, vol. 1, p. 265].

    Roger Fry. Letter to his wife, Helen Fry. March 2, 1906 [published in Denys Sutton, ed., "Letters of Roger Fry," New York, 1972, vol. 1, p. 255].

    Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manuscrit de l'œuvre d'Édouard Manet, peinture et pastels. [1906], unpaginated, no. 36 [Département des Estampes, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris], dates it 1861.

    Frank Fowler. "The Field of Art: Modern Foreign Paintings at the Metropolitan Museum, Some Examples of the French School." Scribner's Magazine 44 (September 1908), pp. 381–82, ill.

    Emil Waldmann. "Französische Bilder in Amerikanischem Privatbesitz, Part 1." Kunst und Künstler 9 (November 1910), pp. 91, 96, ill., dates it 1861–62 in the caption for the illustration and 1862 in the text.

    Paul Durand-Ruel. Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel. 1911–12 [published in Lionello Venturi, "Les archives de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1939, vol. 2, pp. 166, 192, 211].

    Théodore Duret. Manet and the French Impressionists. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1910]. London, 1912, pp. 28, 214, 224, no. 41, recounts that he saw this work in the Davis collection.

    Jean Laran and Georges Le Bas. Manet. Paris, 1912, pp. 23–24, pl. IV, date it 1861, noting that it was exhibited in Paris then.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Édouard Manet. Munich, 1912, p. 64 n. 1, p. 131 n. 4, p. 202 n. 1, pp. 313, 313.

    Antonin Proust. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1913, pp. 120, 136, 152, 154.

    Paul Jamot. "La collection Camondo au Musée du Louvre: Les peintures et les dessins (deuxième article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 4th ser., 11 (June 1914), pp. 442, 444, comments that this is one of the first works of Manet's Spanish period.

    Katharine Metcalf Roof. The Life and Art of William Merritt Chase. New York, 1917, p. 94, notes that Chase told Weir that Durand-Ruel had this painting and another by Manet for sale in their gallery.

    Duncan Phillips. Julian Alden Weir: An Appreciation of His Life and Works. New York, 1921, p. 21, notes that Erwin Davis commissioned Weir to buy Impressionist paintings for him in Paris, including this one.

    J.-E. Blanche. Manet. London, 1925, pp. 31, 42, fig. 4, dates it between 1867 and 1870.

    Léon Rosenthal. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 12 (1925), p. 212, remarks that this picture recalls the works of Velázquez and Zurbarán.

    Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, vol. 1, pp. 45, 51–53, fig. 48; vol. 2, p. 90, dates it 1861; reprints a letter from Manet to M. Martinet and Ref. Astruc 1863; identifies the sitter as Léon, the son of Suzanne Leenhoff.

    Paul Jamot. "Manet, 'Le fifre' et Victorine Meurend." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 51 (January–May 1927), pp. 33–34.

    Charles Léger. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1931, p. 7, dates it 1861.

    A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 68–69, no. 42, remarks that Manet made two engravings of this, one with the child turned to the right and one reversed, in 1862; notes that the work that Duret [see Ref. 1902], no. 42, had listed as a small copy of this picture by Manet, is in fact a copy by another hand.

    Germain Bazin. "Manet et la tradition." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), pp. 155, 160.

    Paul Colin. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1932, p. 21.

    Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. 1, pp. 35–36, 119, no. 42; vol. 2, fig. 35.

    "Notes biographiques." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 146, erroneously list it as being in the Salon of 1861, where Manet made his debut.

    E. Lambert. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 9 (June 1933), p. 372, notes the influence of Murillo.

    Helen Comstock. "The Connoisseur in America: A Child Portrait by Manet." Connoisseur 97 (May 1936), p. 282, compares it to Manet's portrait of Line Campineau as a child (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City).

    Walter Pach. Queer Thing, Painting: Forty Years in the World of Art. New York, 1938, pp. 9–10, sees the influence of Velázquez and relates comments about it by William Merritt Chase.

    Lionello Venturi. Les Archives de l'impressionnisme. Paris, 1939, vol. 2, pp. 166, 192, 211, publishes Paul Durand-Ruel's account of the sale of this picture [see Ref. Durand-Ruel 1911–12].

    Hans Graber. Édouard Manet nach Eigenen und Fremden Zeugnissen. Basel, 1941, pp. 82, 297, 309, reprints lists of works in Manet's 1867 exhibition.

    Marcel Guérin. L'œuvre gravé de Manet. Paris, 1944, unpaginated, under no. 11, notes that Léon Leenhoff, the sitter, was nine at the time this portrait was made and illustrates prints made by Manet after this work.

    Preface by Edward Alden Jewell in French Impressionists and Their Contemporaries Represented in American Collections. New York, 1944, p. 83, ill. (color).

    Hans Huth. "Impressionism Comes to America." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 29 (April 1946), pp. 232–33, fig. 6, remarks that William Merritt Chase "induced" Weir to buy this painting for Erwin Davis.

    A. Tabarant. Manet et ses œuvres. 4th ed. (1st. ed. 1942). Paris, 1947, pp. 45, 136, 183, 534, no. 44, fig. 37, dates it 1860–61.

    Fifty Paintings by Old Masters. Exh. cat., Art Gallery of Toronto. Toronto, 1950, unpaginated, no. 23, erroneously notes that it is dated 1860; comments that the sword belonged to the artist Monguiot [sic].

    George Heard Hamilton. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954, pp. 38–39, 81 n. 2, pp. 96, 98, 111, 120, 130 n. 6, pp. 155, 161, 260, 265, 266, reprints and discusses contemporary criticism.

    Nils Gösta Sandblad. Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception. Lund, 1954, pp. 31, 87.

    J.-L. Vaudoyer. E. Manet. Paris, [1955], unpaginated, ill. (overall and detail), notes that this is the first time that Léon Leenhoff posed for Manet.

    A. Hyatt Mayor. "The Gifts that Made the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 16 (November 1957), p. 100.

    Henri Perruchot. La vie de Manet. Paris, 1959, pp. 109–10, ill. opp. p. 96 (color).

    Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, p. 221, comments that she regrets not having bought this picture at the 1886 New York exhibition.

    Theodore Reff. "The Symbolism of Manet's Frontispiece Etchings." Burlington Magazine 104 (May 1962), pp. 183–85, fig. 2, notes that Manet borrowed the sword from his friend the painter Monginot and identifies it as "a mid-seventeenth-century hanger, probably of Saxon origin to judge from the type of blued metal pommel, though the leather baldric may be more recent"; compares it with another representation of the same sword in Manet's etching that formed the second frontispiece of a collection of eight etchings [fig. 1, see Ref. Guérin 1944].

    A. Tabarant. La Vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1942). [Paris], 1963, pp. 313, 415.

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Édouard Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 56–57, 147, mentions it in discussing an etching of the same subject.

    Joel Isaacson. "The Early Paintings of Claude Monet." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1967, pp. 140, 310 n. 9.

    Sandra Orienti in The Complete Paintings of Manet. New York, 1967, p. 90, no. 37, ill.

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 30–33, ill., provide information about the sitter, noting that Léon Koëlla-Leenhoff asserted that he posed for it in Manet's studio on the Rue Guyot toward the end of 1861 when he was not quite ten years old; comment that the date 1861 and a second signature, which had both been added at the beginning of the century, were removed during cleaning; describe the painting and mention that it vividly recalls Ribera's painting of a club-footed boy that was in Paris in Manet's time and was given to the Louvre in 1869.

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill.

    Beatrice Farwell. "Manet's 'Espada' and Marcantonio." Metropolitan Museum Journal 2 (1969), p. 206, notes that the sitter assumes the role of a seventeenth-century Spanish page.

    Joel Isaacson. Manet and Spain, Prints and Drawings. Exh. cat., The Museum of Art, The University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1969, pp. 19, 26, comments on the etching and notes that there is no pictorial source for this picture; suggests that the sitter Léon Koëlla-Leenhoff was Manet's son; discusses the bibliography and lists is as a work of fall 1862.

    Alain De Leiris. The Drawings of Édouard Manet. Berkeley, 1969, pp. 10, 56, 105, no. 156, fig. 7 (tracing), mentions a tracing and discusses it in relation to the picture.

    Steven Kovács. "Manet and His Son in 'Déjeuner dans l'atelier'." The Connoisseur 181 (November 1972), pp. 196, 198, 200, fig. 1, suggests that the subject, Léon Leenhoff, may have been the son of Manet and Suzanne Leenhoff, who later became his wife; discusses and interprets Manet's use of the sword in depictions of Léon.

    Letters of Roger Fry. New York, 1972, vol. 1, pp. 24, 255 n. 1 to letter no. 177, p. 265 n. 1 to letter no. 191.

    Richard J. Boyle. American Impressionism. Boston, 1974, p. 160.

    George Mauner. Manet, Peintre-Philosophe: A Study of the Painter's Themes. University Park, Pa., 1975, p. 177 n. 20, compares it to "La chanteuse des rues" (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston).

    Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 12, 24, 54–55, no. 37, ill. ; vol. 2, p. 166, date it 1862.

    David H. Solkin. "Philibert Rouvière: Édouard Manet's 'L'acteur tragique'." Burlington Magazine (November 1975), p. 705, mentions it in a discussion of Manet working in the style of Velázquez.

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, pp. 71, 79, colorpl. 48.

    Bradford R. Collins. "Manet's Luncheon in the the Studio: An Homage to Baudelaire." Art Journal 38 (Winter 1978–79), p. 109.

    Albert Boime. Thomas Couture and the Eclectic Vision. New Haven, 1980, pp. 461, 463.

    Alain De Leiris. "Manet and El Greco: 'The Opera Ball'." Arts Magazine 55 (September 1980), p. 97.

    Frances Weitzenhoffer. "First Manet Paintings to Enter an American Museum." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 97 (March 1981), pp. 125–29, describes in detail Davis's acquisition, attempted sale, and eventual presentation to the Museum of this picture.

    Colette Becker in Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p. 522 [French ed., 1983, p. 522].

    Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 46, 123, 290 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

    Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 75–78, 109, no. 14, colorpl. 14 [French ed., Paris, 1983], cites contemporary criticism and provides extensive provenance information.

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Charles S. Moffett and Françoise Cachin. Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 78, 80, 82, 138 [French ed., 1983, pp. 78, 80, 82, 138], discusses three of Manet's etchings and his tracing after this picture (nos. 15–18).

    John Pope-Hennessy. "Roger Fry and The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Oxford, China, and Italy: Writings in Honour of Sir Harold Acton on his Eightieth Birthday. London, 1984, p. 231.

    Ragnar von Holten. Manet i närbild. Exh. cat., Nationalmuseum. Stockholm, 1985, pp. 54, 84–86, no. 59, ill. (color).

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 26–27, ill. (color), dates it about 1885.

    Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 54, 77, 101, fig. 38, compares it to "The Fifer" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

    Maureen C. O'Brien in Maureen C. O'Brien. In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat., Parrish Art Museum. Southampton, N.Y., 1986, pp. 25, 37–38, 95, 146, 154, 160, 162, 176, ill., and colorpl. XVII, discusses the "show-stopper" status of this picture and Manet's "Woman with a Parrot" (MMA 89.21.3), due to preferential hanging in the place of honor, the south wall of the paintings gallery, which they shared with Degas at the 1883 exhibition.

    Ronald G. Pisano in Maureen C. O'Brien. In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat., Parrish Art Museum. Southampton, N.Y., 1986, pp. 63, 69.

    Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 35, 44, pl. 6.

    Sjraar van Heutgen et al. in Franse meesters uit het Metropolitan Museum of Art: Realisten en Impressionisten. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1987, pp. 13, 24–25, fig. 16.

    Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1989, pp. 58–60, 71, 137.

    Horst Keller. Edouard Manet. Munich, 1989, pp. 14, 17, fig. 11.

    Françoise Cachin. Manet. [Paris], 1990, pp. 74–75, 156, colorpl. 3.

    Anne Distel. Impressionism: The First Collectors. New York, 1990, pp. 24, 242, calls Alexis Febvre, who owned this work by 1872, "perhaps the first dealer to risk buying a Manet"; on pp. 22–23, identifies the banker Charles Edwards, a financial backer of Durand-Ruel, as the father of Alfred Edwards, another early owner of this work.

    T. A. Gronberg. Manet: A Retrospective. New York, 1990, pp. 22, 30, 71–72, 168, 189, 228, 323, 339, colorpl. 6, translates and reprints contemporary criticism.

    Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1991, pp. 69, 79, 80–81, 90, 115, 188, 289, 372–73, fig. 41 (color).

    Sarah Carr-Gomm. Manet. London, 1992, pp. 46–47, ill. (color), comments that this was intended as a "costume piece intended to attract those fashionable members of Parisian society who liked to dress up their children".

    Roger Hurlburt. "Free Spirits." Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale) (December 20, 1992), p. 4D.

    Helen Kohen. "Lasting Impressions." Miami Herald (December 20, 1992), p. 6I, ill.

    Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 221, 237, 333 n. 315, p. 335 n. 345.

    Vivien Perutz. Édouard Manet. Lewisburg, Pa., 1993, p. 127.

    Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 206.

    Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 8, 27, 31, fig. 1.

    H. Barbara Weinberg in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 76.

    Beth Archer Brombert. Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. Boston, 1996, pp. 81, 85–86, 185–86, 255, 419, fig. 4, discusses the symbolism of the sword.

    Hans Körner. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996, pp. 27, 29, colorpl. 19.

    Ronald Pickvance. Manet. Exh. cat., Fondation Pierre Gianadda. Martigny, 1996, p. 221 under no. 18, notes that the seventeenth-century Spanish costume also appears in "Boy with a Tray" (RW D454; Phillips Collection, Washington).

    Gary Tinterow in La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 1997, pp. 32, 107, fig. 10.

    Madeleine Fidell-Beaufort. "The American Art Trade and French Painting at the End of the 19th century." Van Gogh Museum Journal (2000), p. 107.

    George Mauner and Henri Loyrette. Manet: The Still-Life Paintings. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. New York, 2000, pp. 21, 33–34, 66 [French ed., "Manet: Les natures mortes," Paris, 2000, pp. 36, 48, 78], discusses it in relation to the watercolor "Boy Carrying a Tray" (Phillips Collection, Washington) and suggests that the page from Caravaggio's "Alof de Wignacourt" in the Louvre and the boy carrying a pitcher in Zurbarán's "Circumcision" in Grenoble, which Manet would have seen in the Galerie Espagnole, are possible sources for this composition.

    Rebecca A. Rabinow. "Modern Art Comes to the Metropolitan: The 1921 Exhibition of 'Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings'." Apollo 152 (October 2000), pp. 4, 9 n. 13.

    William H. Gerdts. American Impressionism. 2nd ed. New York, 2001, p. 105.

    Nancy Locke. Manet and the Family Romance. Princeton, 2001, pp. 73–74, 120–23, 131, fig. 33.

    Carol Armstrong. Manet Manette. New Haven, 2002, pp. 11, 16–17, 27–28, 39–40, 47, 72, 101, 104, 114, 160, 178, ill. (no. 4 and fig. 46), questions whether this is a genre picture or a portrait.

    Peter Meller. "Manet in Italy: Some Newly Identified Sources for his Early Sketchbooks." Burlington Magazine 144 (February 2002), pp. 92–93, sites Benozzo Gozzoli's fresco of the "Story of Abraham and Hagar" in the Camposanto in Pisa, which includes the figure of a woman carrying a dish of fruit and a boy with a tray as a possible source for this work; suggests that the MMA picture could be "a modern travesty" of "Amor with the Sword of Mars" or perhaps a "Cupid with the Sword of Alexander" since the concept of this work was possibly connected to Manet's long-planned marriage to Suzanne Leenhoff, the mother of the child depicted.

    Valeriano Bozal in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 86, 403–4.

    Trevor Fairbrother in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, p. 529.

    Manuela B. Mena Marqués in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 16–17, 25, 146, 156–58, 166, 188, 220, 238, 373, 428, 432, 435, 443, 452–53, no. 24, colorpls. 1 and 24 (overall and detail), ill., dates it between 1860 and 1861 and discusses possible sources for the composition.

    Gudrun Mühle-Maurer in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 353–54, 495–96.

    Deborah L. Roldán in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 391, 395.

    Gary Tinterow in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 2–3, 51, fig. 1.1 (color).

    H. Barbara Weinberg in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 288–89 n. 110.

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 213–15, 217, 237, 484, 486–87, 529, no. 133, fig. 9.21 [French ed., "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," Paris, 2002, p. 377, no. 73, fig. 1 (color)], dates it 1860–61, noting that it is more likely that it was painted in 1860 given the babyish features of Léon; discusses the possible sources for this composition and compares it to "The Young Lange" (RW 61; Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe).

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 46–48, 55, 383–84, 388.

    John Elderfield. Manet and the Execution of Maximilian. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2006, pp. 80–81, 120, fig. 34 (color), relates this picture to the figure of the sword carrier in one of the Maximilian paintings (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston).

    Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, p. 54.

    Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 6, 80–81, 223–25, no. 56, ill. (color and black and white) and fig. 16 (installation photo, color).

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. xiv, 95, 267–68, no. 89, ill. (color and black and white) and fig. 16 (installation photo, color).

    Isabelle Cahn in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 171.

    Laurence des Cars in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 54 n. 31.

    Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 118, 159, ill. pp. 116, 119 (color details).

    Simon Kelly in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 58, 60, 67 n. 13, p. 68 nn. 36–37 and 40–41.

    Nancy Locke in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 74, 77, 269, 274, no. 26, colorpl. 32.

    Philippe Sollers and Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 108.



  • Notes

    The boy is Léon Koëlla-Leenhoff (1852–1927), the son of Suzanne Leenhoff, a Dutch musician, and probably Édouard Manet, who was also his godfather. The sword pictured belonged to the artist Charles Monginot [see Ref. Reff 1962].

    Manet made numerous etchings, three of which show the figure turned to the left and two to the right. Duret [see Ref. 1902] listed a small copy of this picture as by Manet in the Gérard collection; but it is a copy by another hand [see Ref. Tabarant 1931].

  • See also
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