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Boating

Édouard Manet (French, Paris 1832–1883 Paris)

Date:
1874
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
38 1/4 x 51 1/4 in. (97.2 x 130.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
29.100.115
  • Gallery Label

    Manet summered at Gennevilliers in 1874, often spending time with Monet and Renoir across the Seine at Argenteuil, where Boating was painted. Beyond adopting the lighter touch and palette of his younger Impressionist colleagues, Manet exploits the broad planes of color and strong diagonals of Japanese prints to give inimitable form to this scene of outdoor leisure. Rodolphe Leenhoff, the artist’s brother-in-law, is thought to have posed for the sailor but the identity of the woman is uncertain.

    Shown in the Salon of 1879, Boating was deemed "the last word in painting" by Mary Cassatt, who recommended the acquisition to the New York collectors Louisine and H.O. Havemeyer.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed (lower right): Manet

  • Provenance

    the artist, Paris (1874–79; sold at the Paris Salon in 1879, for Fr 1,500 to Desfossés); Victor Desfossés, Paris (1879–95; sold on May 7, 1895 for Fr 25,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1895, stock no. 3267, as "En bateau"; sold on September 19 for Fr 55,000 to Havemeyer ]; Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York (1895–his d. 1907); Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1907–d. 1929; cat., 1931, pp. 138–39, ill.)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. location unknown. 1876, no catalogue? [see Bertall 1876 and Deraismes 1876].

    Paris. Salon. May 12–June 1879, no. 2011 (as "En bateau").

    Paris. École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. "Exposition des œuvres de Édouard Manet," January 6–28, 1884, no. 76 (lent by M Desfossés).

    Paris. Exposition Internationale Universelle. "Exposition centennale de l'art français (1789–1889)," May–November 1889, no. 498 (lent by V. Desfossés) [see Moreau-Nélaton 1906].

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Loan Exhibition: Paintings by Édouard Manet, 1832–1883," November 29–December 13, 1913, no. 13.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H. O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10–November 2, 1930, no. 79 (as "In a Boat [En bateau]") [2nd ed., 1958, no. 157].

    Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Museum of Art. "Manet and Renoir," November 29, 1933–January 1, 1934, no catalogue [see Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin 29 (December 1933), p. 17].

    Art Gallery of Toronto. "Loan Exhibition of Paintings," November 1–December 1, 1935, no. 181.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Great French Paintings: An Exhibition in Memory of Chauncey McCormick," January 20–February 20, 1955, no. 23.

    Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Édouard Manet, 1832–1883," November 3–December 11, 1966, no. 125.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Édouard Manet, 1832–1883," January 13–February 19, 1967, no. 125.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 78).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 374.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," September 21–November 24, 1974, no. 22.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, no. 22.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Manet, 1832–1883," April 22–August 1, 1983, no. 140.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet, 1832–1883," September 10–November 27, 1983, no. 140.

    Leningrad [St. Petersburg]. State Hermitage Museum. "From Delacroix to Matisse," March 15–May 10, 1988, no. 14.

    Moscow. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. "From Delacroix to Matisse," June 10–July 30, 1988, no. 14.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection," March 27–June 20, 1993, no. A358.

    Washington. Phillips Collection. "Impressionists on the Seine: A Celebration of Renoir's 'Luncheon of the Boating Party'," September 21, 1996–February 9, 1997, unnumbered cat. (fig. 27).

    Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme...," October 20, 1997–January 18, 1998, no. 20.

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "The Impressionists at Argenteuil," May 28–August 20, 2000, no. 40.

    Hartford. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. "The Impressionists at Argenteuil," September 6–December 3, 2000, no. 40.

    Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. "Manet en el Prado," October 13, 2003–February 8, 2004, no. 93.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 62.

    Berlin. Neue Nationalgalerie. "Französische Meisterwerke des 19.Jahrhunderts aus dem Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," June 1–October 7, 2007, unnumbered cat.

  • References

    Bertall. "L'exposition de M. Manet." Paris-Journal (April 30, 1876), p. 9?, refers to it as the "Canotier avec cette canotière," noting that it was in an exhibition of Manet's work in 1876, and remarking that it was not included in the Salon of 1875.

    Maria Deraismes. Letter to Édouard Manet. May 5, 1876, notes that it was included in an exhibition held by Manet in 1876 and praises it very highly.

    Stéphane Mallarmé. "The Impressionists and Édouard Manet." The Art Monthly Review and Photographic Portfolio, a Magazine Devoted to the Fine and Industrial Arts and Illustrated Photography 1, no. 9 (September 30, 1876) [reprinted in T. A. Gronberg, "Manet: A Retrospective," New York, 1990, p. 146], calls it "Boaters".

    Arthur Baignères. "Le Salon de 1879 (Premier article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 19 (June 1879), p. 564.

    [Jules] Castagnary. "Salon de 1879 (6e article)." Le Siècle (June 28, 1879), p. 2.

    [Louis de] Fourcaud. "Le Salon du 'Gaulois': Impressions Parisiennes." Le Gaulois (June 18, 1879), p. 2, criticizes its execution as that of a rough sketch.

    J.-K. Huysmans. "Le Salon de 1879." Le Voltaire (June 10, 1879) [reprinted in Huysmans, "L'Art moderne," Paris, 1883, pp. 35–36], praises this picture for its freedom from convention and tradition, especially in regard to color, and notes that the woman recalls images from Japanese prints.

    Édouard Manet. Letter to Stéphane Mallarmé. May 8, 1879 [postmark] [published in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, "Manet by Himself, Correspondence & Conversation: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings," Boston, 1991, p. 186], complains about the way his works, including this one, have been hung at the Salon.

    Édouard Manet. Letter to Edmond Turquet. June 6, 1879 [published in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, "Manet by Himself, Correspondence & Conversation: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings," Boston, 1991, p. 186], requests that Turquet reconsider purchasing one of his paintings at the 1879 Salon.

    Stop. Le Journal amusant (June 14, 1879), no. 204 [reprinted in Éric Darragon, "Manet," Paris, 1991, p. 404, no. 339], makes a caricature of this painting, with the woman's dress as an eiderdown.

    F[rédéric].-C. de Syène. "Salon de 1879. II." L'Artiste 30 (July 1879), p. 7, criticizes it.

    H[enri]. Guérard. "Manet's Decoration by the State." Le carillon (July 16, 1881) [reprinted in T. A. Gronberg, "Manet: A Retrospective," New York, 1990, p. 171].

    Louis Gonse. "Manet." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 29 (February 1884), p. 146.

    Joséphin Péladan. "Le procédé de Manet d'après l'exposition de l'École des Beaux-Arts." L'Artiste, 54 année, 1 (February 1884), pp. 114–15, criticizes the drawing of the hands of the boatman.

    Émile Zola. Exposition des œuvres de Édouard Manet. Exh. cat., École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Paris, 1884, p. 16, refers to it as "les Canotiers".

    L. de Fourcaud. "Exposition centennale de l'art français. IV." Revue de l'exposition universelle de 1889. Paris, 1889, p. 51.

    J. Meier-Graefe. "Die Stellung Eduard Manet's." Die Kunst für Alle 15 (October 15, 1899), p. 67, ill.

    Antonin Proust. "The Art of Édouard Manet." The International Studio 12 (February 1901), ill. p. 228.

    Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, pp. 108, 117–18, 237, no. 181, dates it 1874.

    Hugo v. Tschudi. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1902, p. 29, ill.

    Adolf Hölzel. "Über Künstlerische Ausdrucksmittel und Deren Verhältniz zu Natur und Bild." Die Kunst für Alle 20 (December 15, 1904), p. 129, ill.

    Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manuscrit de l'œuvre d'Édouard Manet, peinture et pastels. [1906], unpaginated, no. 188 [Département des Estampes, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris].

    Théodore Duret in François Benoit. "Édouard Manet et les impressionistes." Histoire du paysage en France. Paris, 1908, p. 310 [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Rudolf Adelbert Meyer. "Manet und Monet." Die Kunst Unserer Zeit 19 (1908), p. 51, ill., dates it 1874.

    Théodore Duret. Manet and the French Impressionists. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1910]. London, 1912, pp. 96, 235, no. 181, ill. opp. p. 96.

    Jean Laran and Georges Le Bas. Manet. Paris, 1912, pp. 95–96, pl. XI, quote contemporary criticism.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Édouard Manet. Munich, 1912, p. 231 n. 3, p. 232, fig. 133, identifies the man as Manet's brother-in-law, Rodolphe Leenhoff.

    Antonin Proust. "Erinnerungen an Édouard Manet." Kunst und Künstler 11 (March 1913), p. 323, ill.

    Antonin Proust. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1913, p. 93.

    Achille Ségard. Mary Cassatt: Un peintre des enfants et des mères. Paris, 1913, pp. 61–62, notes its influence on Cassatt's "La barque" (National Gallery of Art, Washington) and remarks that she admired it and recommended that Mrs. Havemeyer purchase it.

    Emil Waldmann. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1923, pp. 78, 81, 129, ill.

    Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, vol. 2, pp. 24, 57, 129, no. 76, figs. 195 and 352, agrees with the identification of the sitter as Rudolphe Leenhoff and publishes a photograph of the picture hanging in the posthumous exhibition of 1884.

    Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "The Havemeyer Pictures." The Arts 16 (March 1930), p. 479, identifies the couple as George Moore and his mistress; praises it.

    A. Tabarant. "Les Manet de la collection Havemeyer." La Renaissance 13 (February 1930), pp. 68, 72, ill., identifies the man as Rudolphe Leenhoff.

    A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 264–65, no. 215, agrees with the identification of the man as Rudolphe Leenhoff and notes that the woman has not yet been identified; reprints contemporary criticism.

    Paul Colin. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1932, pp. 42, 74, lists it with works painted in the summer and fall of 1874, but dates it 1875.

    Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. 1, pp. 96, 149, no. 244; vol. 2, fig. 176, identify the man as Rodolphe Leenhoff.

    K. R. Gallas. Letter to the Director of the MMA. May 15, 1934, suggests that the man is Guy de Maupassant.

    Loan Exhibition of Paintings Celebrating the Opening of the Margaret Eaton Gallery and The East Gallery. Exh. cat., Art Gallery of Toronto. Toronto, 1935, pp. 29, 38, no. 181, ill., notes that it was painted before 1879.

    Jacques-Émile Blanche. Portraits of a Lifetime: The Late Victorian Era, The Edwardian Pageant, 1870–1914. [reprint; 1st ed. 1937]. 1938, p. 39, identifies the man as Baron Barbier, a friend of Guy de Maupassant.

    Gotthard Jedlicka. Édouard Manet. Zürich, 1941, pp. 173–74, 404 n. 5, regards it as a preparation for "Argenteuil" (RW221; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tournai) and "The Atelier of Claude Monet" (RW19; Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Munich).

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Notes." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 5 (March 1947), p. 172, ill. (overall and detail on cover), notes that it was painted in the summer of 1874 in Argenteuil, at about the same time as "Argenteuil" (RW221); identifies the man as Rudolf Leenhoff and suggests that the woman is Manet's wife and his sister, Suzanne Leenhoff.

    A. Tabarant. Manet et ses œuvres. 4th ed. (1st. ed. 1942). Paris, 1947, pp. 246–47, 345–49, 492, 512, 539, no. 226, fig. 226, states that it was painted a few days after "Argenteuil" (RW221), noting that Rudolph Leenhoff is the sitter.

    Fiske Kimball and Lionello Venturi. Great Paintings in America. New York, 1948, pp. 180–81, no. 83, ill. (color), dates it 1874 and agrees with the idenfication of the sitters as Madame Manet and her brother, Rodolphe Leenhoff; calls this more daring than "Argenteuil" (RW221), which was executed at about the same time, and notes that these works marked a turning point in the style of Manet; comments that Monet liked to paint on a boat, which he called his "studio," and that Manet painted Monet and Madame Monet twice on this boat, but left both sketches unfinished, suggesting that they were the first idea for this picture (RW218 and 219).

    Lionello Venturi. Impressionists and Symbolists. 2, New York, 1950, pp. 23–24, fig. 20.

    George Heard Hamilton. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954, pp. 211–12, 232, 265, pl. 31.

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), p. 52, ill.

    Georges Bataille. Manet: Biographical and Critical Study. New York, 1955, pp. 94, 109, ill. (color).

    Jean Leymarie. Impressionism. Lausanne, 1955, vol. 2, p. 35, suggests that the couple pictured is the same as in "Argenteuil" (RW221).

    Lionello Venturi. Four Steps Toward Modern Art: Giorgione, Caravaggio, Manet, Cézanne. New York, 1956, p. 57, fig. 23.

    John Richardson. Édouard Manet: Paintings and Drawings. London, 1958, p. 126, no. 48, fig. 48.

    Jacques Lethève. Impressionnistes et symbolistes devant la presse. Paris, 1959, p. 105.

    Henri Perruchot. La vie de Manet. Paris, 1959, pp. 250–51, 280.

    Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, p. 225, calls it "Marine"; states that Mary Cassatt referred to it as "the last word in painting" and that Manet painted it in a couple of days, just after he finished his prolonged work on "Argenteuil" (RW221).

    J. Mathey. Graphisme de Manet: Essai de catalogue raisonné des dessins. 1, Paris, 1961, p. 33, under no. 135, publishes a study for the woman, done in 1874 (Ströllen collection, Paris).

    Henri Perruchot. Édouard Manet. New York, 1962, pp. 14, 87, no. 60, colorpl. 60.

    Denys Sutton. "The Discerning Eye of Louisine Havemeyer." Apollo 82 (September 1965), pp. 232, fig. 5.

    George Heard Hamilton. "Is Manet Still 'Modern'?" Art News Annual 31 (1966), p. 162, dates it 1875; comments that the lack of a horizon shows the influence of Japanese art.

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Édouard Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 142–43, 145, no. 125, fig. 125 (overall and detail), notes that the higher point of view and the cut-off boat and sail are highly reminiscent of the style of many Japanese prints.

    Sandra Orienti in The Complete Paintings of Manet. New York, 1967, p. 103, no. 194, ill., and colorpl. XXXII.

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 45–47, ill., date it summer of 1874.

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill. (color and black and white, overall and detail).

    Alain De Leiris. The Drawings of Édouard Manet. Berkeley, 1969, p. 125, under no. 429, publishes a drawing related to this work and suggests that the drawing published by Mathey [see Ref. 1961] is a copy by another hand.

    John Rewald. "The Impressionist Brush." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 32, no. 3 (1973/1974), pp. 30–31, no. 19, ill. (overall and color detail).

    Carl R. Baldwin The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Impressionist Epoch. [New York], 1974, pp. 12–13, ill.

    Charles S. Moffett in Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1974, pp. 124–26, no. 22, ill. (color) [French ed., "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1974], comments that pentimenti and x-rays reveal that originally the man at the tiller held the rope in his right hand but that "by altering the direction of the rope Manet removed a cue to logical perspective and thereby further emphasized the flatness of the picture space".

    Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 6, 20, 24, 186–87, no. 223, ill.; vol. 2, p. 148, under nos. 400–401.

    Bernard Dorival in "Ukiyo-e and European Painting." Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. New York, 1976, p. 36, fig. 18 (color).

    Theodore Reff. "Review of Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975." Art Bulletin 58 (December 1976), p. 637, states that the two sketches reproduced by Rouart and Wildenstein [see Ref. 1975, nos. 400 and 401] are copies by another hand.

    J. Kirk T. Varnedoe in Gustave Caillebotte. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Houston, 1976, p. 122, fig. 1, describes this composition as a "partial precedent" for Caillebotte's "Canotiers" (Berhaut 1978, no. 75; private collection, Paris).

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, pp. 77, 165, 190, fig. 109.

    Michael Justin Wentworth Minneapolis Institute of Arts. James Tissot: Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints. Minneapolis, 1978, pp. 98, 231, under no. 20, fig. 20d, discusses it in relation to Tissot's etching of "The Thames" of 1876 (Minneapolis Institute of Arts).

    Anne Distel. Hommage à Claude Monet (1840–1926). Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. Paris, 1980, p. 111.

    Raymond Cogniat and Michel Hoog. Manet. Paris, 1982, pp. 23, 27, 38, no. 26, colorpl. 26.

    Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p. 436 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

    Anne Coffin Hanson in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p. 23 [French ed., "Manet, 1832–1883," Paris, 1983, p. 23].

    Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 29, 33, 320, 356–59, 363, no. 140, ill. (color, overall and detail) [French ed., Paris, 1983], notes that the woman wears the same hat as Mme Monet in "On the Beach" (RW188) and "The Swallows" (RW190) and by Camille Monet in "The Monet Family in the Garden" (RW227, MMA 1976.201.14), but that she resembles neither painter's wife.

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 40–41, ill. (color).

    Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 172–73, 176, 213, colorpl. 161, suggests that Camille Monet served as the model for this picture.

    Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 56, 107, 117, 177, 257, 262 n. 9, colorpl. 60, mentions that this picture and Monet's "La Grenouillère" (MMA 29.100.112) were the only two "recreation pictures" to enter the Havemeyers' collection.

    Charles F. Stuckey in Charles F. Stuckey and William P. Scott. Berthe Morisot, Impressionist. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1987, p. 82, fig. 54, calls Morisot's "The Lake in the Bois de Boulogne (Summer Day)" (National Gallery, London) a "reprise" of this picture.

    Gary Tinterow et al. "Modern Europe." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8, New York, 1987, pp. 18–20, colorpl. 6.

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau. "L'année impressionniste de Manet: Argenteuil et Venise en 1874." Revue de l'art 86 (1989), pp. 29, 32, 34 n. 24, fig. 4, dates it 1874–75.

    Norma Broude. "A World of Light: France and the International Impressionist Movement, 1860–1920." World Impressionism: The International Movement, 1860–1920. New York, 1990, p. 28, colorpl. 26.

    Françoise Cachin. Manet. [Paris], 1990, pp. 116, 158, ill. (color), suggests that the woman was a professional model.

    T. A. Gronberg. Manet: A Retrospective. New York, 1990, p. 15, colorpl. 66, notes that Manet began working on this in August 1874.

    Robert Rosenblum. "Friedrichs from Russia: An Introduction." The Romantic Vision of Caspar David Friedrich: Paintings and Drawings from the U.S.S.R. New York, 1990, pp. 12–13, fig. 13, compares it to Friedrich's "On the Sailboat" (State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad) of 1818–19.

    Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1991, pp. 260, 286, 377, 381, colorpl. 204, publishes a caricature by Stop that originally appeared in Le journal amusant [see Ref. 1879].

    Nigel Blake Francis Frascina in "Modern Practices of Art and Modernity." Modernity and Modernism: French Painting in the Nineteenth Century. New Haven, 1993, pp. 115, 118, pl. 106, compares it with Manet's "Argenteuil" (RW221), which depicts the same male model, Rodolphe Leenhoff; states that Leenhoff's clothing (white shirt, white flannel trousers, and straw boater with blue border) is that of the prestigious "Cercle nautique", whose headquarters were at Asnières.

    Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 225, 334 n. 325, p. 340 n. 400, comments that the Havemeyers saw this picture on their trip to Europe in 1889 at the Exposition Centennale des Beaux-Arts.

    Vivien Perutz. Édouard Manet. Lewisburg, Pa., 1993, pp. 164–65, 175, 220 n. 20, colorpl. 45, compares it to Manet's "On the Beach" (RW188; Musée d'Orsay, Paris) and to "Argenteuil" (RW221); suggests that the woman was added later.

    Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 210, 219.

    Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 27, colorpl. 31.

    Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 356, no. A358, ill.

    Anne Distel. Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. Paris, 1994, p. 116, under no. 23, fig. 2, cites this painting, which Caillebotte may have seen in 1876, as a compositional influence for both the placement and cropping of his "Partie de bateau" (Berhaut 1994, no. 121; private collection).

    Beth Archer Brombert. Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. Boston, 1996, pp. 361, 395–96, compares it to "In the Conservatory" (RW289).

    Hans Körner. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996, pp. 149, 151, 154, colorpl. 121.

    Alan Krell. Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life. London, 1996, pp. 134, 179, colorpl. 122, discusses the gaze of the man and woman, noting that her gaze runs along the surface of the canvas, accentuating the flatness and two-dimensionality of the picture.

    Eliza E. Rathbone in Impressionists on the Seine: A Celebration of Renoir's "Luncheon of the Boating Party". Exh. cat., Phillips Collection. Washington, 1996, pp. 28–30, 34, 41, colorpl. 27, compares it to Manet's "Argentueil" (RW221), noting that the pair in the MMA picture is a "couple of superior social station"; comments on the striking newness of the composition, which may explain Manet's five year wait before submitting it to the Salon of 1879; mentions that this work inspired Renoir's "Girl in a Boat" (private collection) of 1877.

    Katherine Rothkopf. Impressionists on the Seine: A Celebration of Renoir's 'Luncheon of the Boating Party'. Exh. cat., Phillips Collection. Washington, 1996, pp. 79–80.

    Lisa Portnoy Stein. Impressionists on the Seine: A Celebration of Renoir's 'Luncheon of the Boating Party'. Exh. cat., Phillips Collection. Washington, 1996, p. 242.

    Colin B. Bailey in Colin B. Bailey. Renoir's Portraits: Impressions of an Age. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. New Haven, 1997, p. 130, identifies the woman as Suzanne Leenhoff, noting that the bonnet worn here is the same one she wore in "On the Beach" (RW188).

    Fred Licht. Manet. Milan, 1998, p. 62, fig. 38, dates it 1874–76.

    Carol Armstrong. Manet Manette. New Haven, 2002, pp. 203, 212, 218, 220–23, fig. 106.

    Françoise Cachin in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 36, 378.

    Manuela B. Mena Marqués in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 21, 25, 296–99, 321, 373, 478, 484, no. 93, ill., colorpl. 93, fig. 139 (color detail), notes that the woman resembles Alice Lecouvé, the model Manet used for "Le Linge" (RW237; Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pa.).

    Richard R. Brettell and Stephen F. Eisenman. Nineteenth-Century Art in the Norton Simon Museum. 1, New Haven, 2006, p. 378, fig. 98a.

    Anne Distel in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 149 n. 6 [French ed., "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie Vollard," Paris, 2007, p. 161 n. 6].

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 104–5, 273, no. 95, ill. (color and black and white), cover (color), and fig. 13 (installation photo).

    Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 90–91, 230–31, no. 62, ill. (color and black and white) and fig. 13 (installation photo).

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Venice: From Canaletto and Turner to Monet. Exh. cat., Fondation Beyeler. Basel, 2008, p. 148.

    Karin Sagner. Gustave Caillebotte: Neue Perspektiven des Impressionismus. Munich, 2009, p. 165, fig. 86 (color).

    Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 211, 271.

    Simon Kelly in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 63.



  • Notes

    Manet painted this work in Argenteuil in the summer of 1874, shortly after completing "Argenteuil" (RW221; Musée de Beaux-Arts, Tournai). The man has been identified as Rodolphe Leenhoff, the Dutch painter and Manet's brother-in-law. The identity of the woman has remained a mystery.

    The man's right hand originally held the sheet, and traces of this position are still evident on the water and the boat. [see Ref. Stang 1972]

    There are two studies for the head of the woman [see Refs. Mathey 1961, Leiris 1969, and Reff 1976].

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