The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment

Jan van Eyck (Netherlandish, Maaseik ca. 1390–1441 Bruges) and Workshop Assistant

ca. 1435–40
Oil on canvas, transferred from wood
Each 22 1/4 x 7 2/3 in. (56.5 x 19.7 cm)
Credit Line:
Fletcher Fund, 1933
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    These exquisite paintings, juxtaposing Christ's sacrifice for the salvation of mankind with the Last Judgment, are by Jan van Eyck, the most celebrated painter of fifteenth-century Europe, and an assistant. The Crucifixion is presented as an eyewitness account set against a distant landscape, astonishing for its depth and subtlety of description. By contrast, the Last Judgment is organized hieratically in three tiers, with the scale of the figures manipulated to indicate their relative importance. The biblical texts on the original frames relate specifically to the scenes depicted, establishing a play between word and image that would have been admired by contemporaries.

  • Catalogue Entry

    These two pictures, of almost miraculous detail, are defining examples of fifteenth-century Netherlandish painting. When they were in the Tatistcheff collection in the nineteenth century they were mounted as the wings of a triptych whose centerpiece was an Adoration of the Magi (stolen before 1841; see Passavant 1841). This has led to considerable speculation as to whether the works were originally meant as a diptych or parts of a triptych. Some scholars believe they were elements of a triptych but have proposed different centerpieces (see Kern 1927 and Philip 1971). However, as Eichberger (1987) has pointed out, diptychs treating these two themes were in use for private devotion, especially in court circles. Also, the frames, which are original, show closely-aligned marks from hinges and traces of an old clasp.

    No information about the commission for the panels has survived, but, given their remarkable quality, their production by a court artist, their intimate presentation in a manner resembling that of manuscript illumination, and, above all, the Latin texts inscribed on the frames in a protohumanist script, the patron was likely a highly educated member of the court of Philip the Good at Brussels. Some writers have plausibly suggested that this individual may be the man elegantly dressed in an ermine-trimmed coat and extravagant hat who is shown at the right beneath the cross in the Crucifixion.

    These two diminutive panels juxtapose an astonishingly detailed depiction of the natural world with a hieratically organized vision of heaven and hell. In contrast to the panoramic vista offered in the Crucifixion, with its bird's-eye view, atmospheric sky, and deep space, the Last Judgment is presented vertically, compressed into the flat foreground plane of the painting and divided into three layers corresponding to the realms of heaven, earth, and hell. The highly imaginative scenes of the diptych are augmented by the written word in the form of inscriptions on the frames. These inscriptions are placed next to the visual representations they most closely describe, so that the viewer can simultaneously experience text and image.

    The Crucifixion and the Last Judgment show obvious links with miniaturist style; in fact, the diptych has often been compared to the Turin-Milan Hours, the famous illuminated book to which Jan van Eyck perhaps contributed images, in particular those attributed to Hand G. The panels of the diptych have indeed been given to Hand G, as well as to Hubert and Jan van Eyck (see Hulin de Loo 1911, Panofsky 1935 and 1953, Wehle and Salinger 1947, Bruyn 1957, and Herzner 1995). Panofsky (1935) was the first to mention that the quality of execution in the two panels is not the same, and technical examination by Ainsworth and Buck in 1995 indicates that while the compositions of the two works seem to be underdrawn by the same artist (undoubtedly Jan van Eyck), portions of the Last Judgment were executed by an assistant.

    Scholars have long disagreed about the dating of the diptych, offering opinions that range from 1413 (Durrieu 1920) to about 1440 (Silver 2006 and Borchert 2008), with most others (Baldass 1952, Peters 1968, Philip 1971, Snyder 1985, Eichberger 1987, and Buck 1995) placing it in the 1430s, that is, close to the time of the renowned Ghent Altarpiece. The style of the underdrawing supports a date in the 1430s. Van Buren (personal communication in departmental files), however, notes that, except for the garb of the possible patron depicted in the Crucifixion, which represents the fashions of about 1430, the costumes shown appear to date from the 1420s. These various factors argue that a date in the early 1430s would seem most likely for these two paintings. If this date is correct, they would be among Van Eyck's earliest surviving works.

    [2011; adapted from Ainsworth 1998]

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Inscribed: (on cross, in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin) IHC·NAZAR[ENVS]·REX·IVDE[ORVM]; (twice, below Christ's hands) Venite benedi[c]ti p[at]ris mei (Come, ye blessed of my Father [Matthew 25:34].); (on Saint Michael's shield and armor) [illegible]; (twice, below Saint Michael's wings) . . . vos maledi[ct]i i[n]ignem [aeternum?] (. . . ye cursed, into everlasting fire [Matthew 25:41].); (on Death's wings) CHAOS MAGNV[M] / VMBRA MORTIS (great chaos / shadow of death); (on the original gilt frames) with verses from Isaiah (53:6-9, 12), Revelation (20:13 and 21:3-4), and Deuteronomy (32:23-24)

  • Provenance

    Prince D. P. Tatistcheff, Vienna and St. Petersburg (by 1841–45; purchased while he was Ambassador to Spain from a convent near Madrid [or near Burgos?], as by Jan van Eyck; bequeathed to Hermitage); Czar Nicholas I, the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (from 1845); The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg (1917/18–1933); [Knoedler, New York, 1933; sold to MMA]

  • Exhibition History

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Art Treasures of the Metropolitan," November 7, 1952–September 7, 1953, no. 91.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 34).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 22, 1998–February 21, 1999, no. 1.

  • References

    J. D. Passavant. Kunstblatt (January 12, 1841), p. 9, states that these panels were the wings of a triptych acquired from an auction at a monastery in Spain by Tatistcheff, from which the center, an Adoration of the Magi, had been taken; attributes them to the brothers Jan and Hubert van Eyck; believes two figures beneath the cross are portraits of the brothers and a third a portrait of Margaret van Eyck; notes traces on reverse of panels of two standing figures on pedestals, painted in grisaille.

    C. Carton. Les trois frères Van Eyck. Bruges, 1848, p. 87 [first published in Société d'émulation pour l'étude de l'histoire et des antiquités de la Flandre, Bruges, ser. 2, vol. 5, 1847; see Ref. Wehle and Salinger 1947], as works of the Van Eycks.

    J. D. Passavant. Die Christliche Kunst in Spanien. Leipzig, 1853, p. 123, as works of Jan van Eyck.

    H. G. Hotho. "Die flandrische Malerei des fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts." Die Malerschule Hubert's van Eyck nebst deutschen Vorgängern und Zeitgenossen. 2, Berlin, 1858, pp. 169–70, believes they may be by a pupil of the Van Eycks, most likely painted before Hubert's death.

    Alfred Michiels. Histoire de la peinture flamande depuis ses débuts jusqu'en 1864. 2, 2nd ed. Paris, 1866, p. 199 n. 2, p. 204 n. 1, accepts Passavant's [see Ref. 1841] hypothesis that the panels contain portraits of the Van Eyck brothers and their sister Margaret.

    "Les écoles germaniques." Ermitage Impérial: Catalogue de la galerie des tableaux. 2, 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1870, pp. 4–5, no. 444.

    G[ustav]. F[riedrich]. Waagen. Die Gemäldesammlung in der Kaiserlichen Eremitage zu St. Petersburg. 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1870, pp. 116–17, no. 444, notes that Tatistcheff purchased them in Spain as the work of Jan van Eyck, but based on parallels between the Last Judgment and a painting of this subject in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, signed and dated by Petrus Christus, attributes the wings to Christus in a considerably earlier period.

    J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle. The Early Flemish Painters. 2nd ed. London, 1872, p. 143, attribute them to Petrus Christus.

    L[ouis]. Clément de Ris. "Musée Impérial de l'Ermitage à Saint-Pétersbourg." Gazette des beaux-arts 19 (1879), pp. 574–75, questions the attribution to Petrus Christus.

    Carl Schnaase. "Geschichte der bildenden Künste im 15. Jahrhundert." Geschichte der bildenden Künste. 8, Stuttgart, 1879, p. 155 n. 1, ascribes them to an immediate pupil of Jan van Eyck.

    Carl Justi. "Altflandrische bilder in Spanien und Portugal." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 22 (1887), pp. 244–45, ascribes them to Jan van Eyck.

    Ludwig Kaemmerer. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Bielefeld, 1898, pp. 42–43, 52–56, ill., suggests they are early works of Jan, or even of his sister, Margaret; notes that the wings were transferred from panel to canvas when they were acquired by the Hermitage.

    Hugo von Tschudi. "Jan van Eycks Christus am Kreuz zwischen Maria und Johannes." Jahrbuch der Königlich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 19 (1898), pp. 202–5, compares these panels to the Crucifixion in Berlin and ascribes them to Jan van Eyck.

    Karl Voll. Die Werke des Jan van Eyck. Strasbourg, 1900, pp. 106–7, 132–33 nn. 67–68, agrees with Justi [see Ref. 1887] that these panels are not by Christus, but rejects his attribution of them to Jan van Eyck, suggesting they may be from his school

    Wilhelm Bode. "Jan van Eycks Bildnis eines Burgundischen Kammerherrn." Jahrbuch der Königlich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 22 (1901), pp. 126–29, attributes them to Jan van Eyck, and dates them 1420–25.

    Otto Seeck. "Zu dem Werke des Hubert van Eyck." Kunstchronik 12 (February 28, 1901), cols. 260–62, ascribes these panels and the Ghent Altarpiece to Hubert van Eyck and comments on similarities in the inscriptions in the two works.

    Paul Durrieu. "Les débuts des van Eyck." Gazette des beaux-arts, 3rd ser., 29 (1903), pp. 11, 18, 108.

    Jean Guiffrey. "L'exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges." L'art 3 (1903), pp. 490–92, ill. (etchings of the panels), doubts the attribution to Van Eyck.

    August Schmarsow. Die Oberrheinische Malerei und ihre Nachbarn. Leipzig, 1903, p. 23 n. 1 (from p. 22).

    Fortunat von Schubert-Soldern. Von Jan van Eyck bis Hieronymus Bosch. Strasbourg, 1903, pp. 28–30, ascribes them to Jan.

    Max Dvorák. "Das Rätsel der Kunst der Brüder van Eyck." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses 24 (1904), pp. 177–78, 183, 185, 228–34, 236, pl. 22, fig.28 (detail), dates the panels before 1425 and ascribes them to Jan van Eyck, finding the style too advanced for Hubert.

    W. H. James Weale. "Popular Opinions Concerning the Van Eycks." Burlington Magazine 4 (January 1904), pp. 35–36, lists them with works attributed wholly or in part to Hubert.

    [Hippolyte] Fierens-Gevaert. La Renaissance septentrionale et les premiers maîtres des Flandres. Brussels, 1905, p. 118

    Karl Voll. Die altniederländische Malerei von Jan van Eyck bis Memling. Leipzig, 1906, pp. 269–71, ascribes them to an immediate, probably Dutch, follower of Jan van Eyck.

    Alfred von Wurzbach. Niederländisches Künstler-Lexikon. 1, Vienna, 1906, p. 509, lists them with works by Hubert and copies after him.

    L. de Fourcaud in Histoire de l'art. 3, part 1, Paris, 1907, pp. 194–96, ascribes them to Hubert and assistants.

    Paul G. Konody. The Brothers Van Eyck. London, 1907, p. 39, ascribes the snow-capped mountains in the Crucifixion to Jan van Eyck.

    Henri Hymans. Les van Eyck. Paris, [1908?], pp. 116, 119–20, thinks they could be by Jan, but only if one supposes them earlier than any of his known works.

    Émile Mâle. L'art religieux de la fin du moyen age en France. Paris, 1908, p. 501–2, believes the figure of Death in the Last Judgment is derived from Mystery plays.

    Nicolas Wrangell. Les chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie de tableaux de l'Ermitage Impérial à St.-Pétersbourg. London, [1909], pp. XI, ill. p. 63.

    Émile Durand-Gréville. Hubert et Jean van Eyck. Brussels, 1910, pp. 95–98, ill., attributes them to Hubert van Eyck.

    Georges H. de Loo. Heures de Milan: Troisième partie des Très-Belles Heures de Notre-Dame. Brussels, 1911, pp. 33, 35, ascribes them to Hubert van Eyck based on their similarity to the pages in the Turin–Milan Hours attributed to Hand G, whom he believes is Hubert.

    F. Schmidt-Degener. "Notes on some Fifteenth-century Silver-points." Burlington Magazine 19 (1911), p. 256.

    W. H. James Weale and Maurice W. Brockwell. The Van Eycks and their Art. London, 1912, pp. 153–56, nos. 26–27.

    L[ouis]. Maeterlinck. Nabur Martins ou le Maître de Flémalle. Brussels, 1913, pp. 62, 119–20, ascribes them to a Ghent painter, contemporary with Hubert van Eyck.

    Max J. Friedländer in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 11, Leipzig, 1915, p. 131, lists them with the works of Jan.

    Friedrich Winkler. "Über verschollene Bilder der Brüder Van Eyck." Jahrbuch der Königlich Preuszischen Kunstsammlungen 37 (1916), p. 301.

    F. Winkler. "Gemäldegalerie: Über eine frühholländische Kreuztragung [response to Ref. Zimmermann 1917]." Amtliche Berichte aus den Königlichen Kunstsammlungen 39 (September 1917), cols. 25–27, rejects Zimmermann's attribution of these panels to Ouwater, ascribing them with certainty to the workshop of the Van Eycks.

    Heinrich Zimmermann. "Gemäldegalerie: Über eine frühholländische Kreuztragung." Amtliche Berichte aus den Königlichen Kunstsammlungen 38 (September 1917), cols. 22–23, suggests that the works are by Ouwater, about 1440.

    Paul Durrieu. "Les tableux des collections du duc Jean de Berry." Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes 79 (1918), pp. 280–82, dates them before 1413 and ascribes them to Hubert and Jan van Eyck; identifies these panels with the diptych in Jean du Berry's possession between 1413 and 1416 and doubts there was ever a central panel.

    Max Dvorák. "Die Anfänge der Holländischen Malerei." Jahrbuch der Königlich Preuszischen Kunstsammlungen 39 (1918), pp. 66–70, fig. 4 (The Crucifixion), ascribes them to an unknown painter who was the author of the Turin-Milan Hours and the lost original of "Christ Bearing the Cross" (Szépmuvészeti Múzeum, Budapest), tentatively suggesting that he was Aelbert van Ouwater.

    [Friedrich] Winkler. "Forschungen." Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt 55 (October–March 1919/1920), pp. 563–64, reports Durrieu's [Ref. 1920] findings regarding the Hermitage panels

    Ludwig von Baldass. "Ein Frühwerk des Geertgen tot Sint Jans und die holländische Malerei des XV. Jahrhunderts." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien 35 (1920–21), pp. 4, 6–8, fig. 3 (detail), as by Aelbert van Ouwater.

    Alexander Benua. Putevoditel po kartinnoi galereye imperatorskago Ermitazha [Guide to the Paintings Galleries of the Hermitage]. St. Petersburg, [192?], pp. 195–98, ill., attributes the panels to one of the Van Eyck brothers.

    Paul Durrieu. "Les van Eycks et le duc Jean de Berry." Gazette des beaux-arts 1 (1920), pp. 77–105, ill. (overall and details), attributes them to Hubert and Jan van Eyck working together, and, on the basis of costume, places them between 1400 and 1420; finds the inscriptions on the surviving frame uniquely characteristic of works from the van Eyck workshop, including the Ghent Altarpiece; records the inscriptions on Saint Michael's armor [which today are largely illegible], noting that the two mysterious words "adonay" and "agla" (meaning "God") inscribed there appear frequently in the core works ascribed to the brothers; doubts that the original ensemble included a central panel, although an unrelated work may have been added at the whim of a subsequent owner; believes the pictures can be identified with a diptych listed as no. 1266 in the duc de Berry's posthumous inventory of 1416: "uns grans tableaux en deux pièces de painture, l'un de la Passion Nostre Seigneur et l'autre du Jugement"; notes that this work was not mentioned in the Dukes 1413 inventory and would thus have been acquired by him between 1413 and 1416; believes the Hermitage diptych could acurately be called "large" in the context of French princely inventories of the period; notes that at the time of the inventory, the work in question was no longer part of the Duke's succession, but had been given to a chapel in Bourges.

    P. Post. "Forschungen: Noch einmal die Petersburger Tafeln der Brüder van Eyck." Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt, n.s., 32 (1920–21), pp. 34–36, rejects Durrieu's proposal [Ref. 1920] that these panels may be the diptych mentioned in the 1416 inventory of the duc de Berry, observing that in comparison with other princely possessions of the period, they would have been considered not only "not large," but "small"; accepts Passavant's account of the lost central panel, and claims that Christus's copy of the right wing in Berlin was originally part of a triptych and included grisaille saints on its reverse, as did the Hermitage panels before they were transferred to canvas


    Martin Conway. The Van Eycks and Their Followers. London, 1921, p. 60, attributes them to Hubert.

    Louis Maeterlinck. Hubert van Eyck et les peintres de son temps. Paris, 1921, pp. 93–97, fig. 63 (detail), ascribes them to a painter of Ghent, Liévin van den Clite, who is recorded as having painted a Last Judgment for the city in 1413.

    Louis Maeterlinck. "L'école flamande avant les van Eyck." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 40 (June–December 1921), pp. 191–98, figs. 1–2 (details).

    Louis Maeterlinck. "Autour de la retable de "L'agneau mystique"." Gazette des beaux-arts 63 (1921), p. 111.

    [Hippolyte] Fierens-Gevaert. La peinture à Bruges. Brussels, 1922, p. 15.

    P.P. von Weiner. Meisterwerke der Gemäldesammlung in der Eremitage zu Petrograd. Munich, 1923, pp. 11, 103, ill.

    August Schmarsow. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Leipzig, 1924, pp. 89–95, pl. 17, as by Jan van Eyck.

    Friedrich Winkler. Die altniederländische Malerei: Die Malerei in Belgien und Holland von 1400–1600. Berlin, 1924, p. 49, as by Hubert van Eyck.

    Willy Burger. Die Malerei in den Niederlanden 1400–1550. Munich, 1925, pp. 20–21, 23–24, pl. 9, attributes them to Hubert.

    Martin Conway. Art Treasures in Soviet Russia. London, 1925, p. 158, suggests that the landscape in the background of the Crucifixion represents Monte Rosa and adjacent mountains in Switzerland.

    Max Dvorák. Das Rätsel der Kunst der Brüder van Eyck. Munich, 1925, pp. 106–8, 262–63, pl. 26, finds the attribution of these panels to either Hubert or Jan a more difficult task since the appearance of the Milan Hours.

    L. Maeterlinck. Une école préeyckienne inconnue. Paris, 1925, p. 31, fig. 63 (detail).

    A. E. Popham. Drawings of the Early Flemish School. London, 1926, pp. 20–21, pl. 3.

    Bryson Burroughs. "The Discoverer of Landscape." The Arts 12 (September 1927), pp. 153–62, ill. (overall and details).

    [Hippolyte] Fierens-Gevaert. "Les créateurs de l'art flamand." Histoire de la peinture flamande des origines à la fin du XVe siècle. 1, Paris, 1927, pp. 87–89, pls. 47–51 (overall and details), places them among Jan van Eyck's earliest works.

    Guido Josef Kern. "Die verschollene 'Kreuztragung' des Hubert oder Jan van Eyck." Der Kunstwanderer (1927), pp. 309–13, 357–62, 415–20, ill. (overall and details), ascribes them to Hubert or Jan van Eyck, arguing that the lost central panel was a Way to Calvary recorded in a 15th century Netherlandish drawing (Albertina, Vienna) and in a narrower painted panel of the subject ascribed to Dieric Bouts or his school (Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum, Aachen).

    Paul Lambotte. Flemish Painting before the Eighteenth Century. London, 1927, p. 9, as perhaps by Hubert.

    Erwin Panofsky. "G. J. Kern, 'Die Verschollene Kreuztragung des Hubert oder Jan Van Eyck,' Berlin, 1927 [book version of Kern's 1927 articles]." Kritische Berichte 1 (1927–28), pp. 74–83, fig. 6, is inclined to identify them with the diptych mentioned in the inventory of the duc de Berry.

    Leo van Puyvelde. "A 'Last Judgement' in the Musée Royal, Brussels." Burlington Magazine 52 (May 1928), pp. 222, 229, refers to the author of the Last Judgment as "a master in the studio of the Duc de Berry who some people continue to identify with the young Hubert Van Eyck".

    Karl von Tolnai. "Zur Herkunft des Stiles der van Eyck." Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst, n.s., 9 (1932), pp. 330 n. 10, mentions the Last Judgment as by the creator of the Turin–Milan miniatures and as influenced by the Van Eycks.

    "Metropolitan Museum Acquires a Hubert van Eyck from Russia." Art Digest 8 (November 15, 1933), pp. 8–9, ill. (overall and details).

    Hermann Beenken. "The Ghent Van Eyck Re-examined." Burlington Magazine 63 (August 1933), p. 71, ascribes them to the "hypothetical Hubert van Eyck, painter of the G group of Turin–Milan Hours".

    Hermann Beenken. "Zur Enstehungsgeschichte des Genter Altars Hubert und Jan von Eyck." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, n.s., 2–3 (1933–34), pp. 196–202, ill., ascribes them to Hubert.

    Bryson Burroughs. "A Diptych by Hubert van Eyck." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 28 (November 1933), pp. 184–93, ill. (overall and details), as "bought in Spain (from a monastery near Madrid, it is said) . . .".

    C. Henschel. New York Times (November 7, 1933), p. 3 [see Ref. Williams 1980, p. 70].

    Stanley Morison. Letter to H. W. Kent. July 19, 1933, based on lettering on the frame alone thinks "it would be bold to say it is 1415, but it would not be bold to say it may be".

    Chandler Rathfon Post. "The Hispano-Flemish Style in Northwestern Spain." A History of Spanish Painting. 4, Cambridge, Mass., 1933, part 1, p. 21.

    K. Smits. De iconografie van de Nederlandsche primitieven. Amsterdam, 1933, pp. 100–101, fig. 40.

    Friedrich Winkler. Letter to Bryson Burroughs. November 24, 1933, supports an attribution to Hubert.

    "New York." Bulletin de l'art [supplement of Revue de l'art] 65 (January 1934), pp. 32, 35, ill.

    Frank Jewett Mather. Letter to Bryson Burroughs. January 14, 1934.

    Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "Notes on Hubert van Eyck." Art in America 22 (1934), pp. 49–50, 53–56, 59, ill., ascribes them to Hubert van Eyck; argues that they could not, for a number of reasons, be the diptych with the Crucifixion and Last Judgment listed in the posthumous inventory of the duc de Berry; is convinced that the MMA panels were originally conceived as a triptych.

    A. L. Mayer. "La Crocifissione di Pietroburgo di Hubert van Eyck." L'arte 37 (1934), pp. 341–47, figs. 1, 2, supports an attribution to Hubert; suggests the figure with a turban that appears alongside the bad thief is a portrait.

    A. L. Mayer. Letter to Harry B. Wehle. February 11, 1934, supports an attribution to Hubert van Eyck and identifies the man with the turban-like headdress beneath the bad thief as a self-portrait.

    Erwin Panofsky. "The Friedsam Annunciation and the Problem of the Ghent Altarpiece." Art Bulletin 17 (December 1935), pp. 434, 468, 471–72, fig. 3, ascribes them, "at least in the main," to Hand G of the Turin–Milan Hours, and illustrates them as "Jan van Eyck or Follower"; notes that some parts, especially of the Last Judgment, seem to be executed by a collaborator.

    Émile Renders. Jean van Eyck. Bruges, 1935, pp. 14, 46, 65, 69–71, 83, 87–88, 91–92, 95–96, 99–100, 103, 119–21, pls. 3–4, 7–10, 12,16 (overall and details), dates them between 1415 and 1425 and attributes them to Jan van Eyck.

    Ernst Günter Troche. Niederländische Malerei. Berlin, 1935, pp. 7, 29, pl. 5 (detail), as by "Hubert (?) van Eyck".

    H. Beenken. "Der Stand des Hubert van Eyck: Problems, Fragen um den Genter Altar." Oud-Holland 53 (1936), pp. 16, 23–24, fig. 1 (detail), ascribes them to Hubert van Eyck.

    J[acques]. Lavalleye in "De vlaamsche schilderkunst tot ongeveer 1480." Geschiedenis van de vlaamsche kunst. Antwerp, 1936, p. 173, attibutes them to Jan van Eyck, dating them before 1425.

    Hermann Beenken. "Bildnisschöpfungen Hubert van Eycks." Pantheon 19 (1937), pp. 118–20, as early works of Hubert.

    Max J. Friedländer. "Pieter Bruegel und Nachträge zu den früheren Bänden." Die altniederländische Malerei. 14, Leiden, 1937, p. 78, no. 76.

    Ottmar Kerber. Hubert van Eyck: Die Verwandlung der Mittelalterlichen in die Neuzeitliche Gestaltung. Frankfurt, 1937, p. 23, attributes them to Jan.

    Alan Burroughs. Art Criticism from a Laboratory. Boston, 1938, pp. 194, 196–98, 207, 249, 252–54, as "formerly attributed to Hubert van Eyck"; notes that they "reveal an artist already master of his craft and experienced in the world in a way which Jan van Eyck was not"; sees parallels in the works of "Hand G" of the Turin-Milan Hours and the "Three Marys at the Tomb" (Boymans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam), as well as Campin's "Nativity" (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon) and "Marriage of the Virgin" (Prado, Madrid); dates the MMA panels from about the time the Ghent altarpiece was completed.

    Charles de Tolnay. Le Maître de Flémalle et les frères van Eyck. Brussels, 1939, pp. 37, 53, 64, 79–80, figs. 123–24.

    Aurelio Minghetti. "Un nuovo documento per l'iconografia dei Van Eyck." L'arte 11 (1940), pp. 39–40, figs. 4 and 5 (Crucifixion and detail), ascribes them to Hubert and discusses the presumed self–portrait.

    Hermann Beenken. Hubert und Jan van Eyck. Munich, 1941, pp. 10–14, figs. 14–18, attributes the panels to Hubert, perhaps painted several years after the Turin-Milan Hours.

    Chandler Rathfon Post. "The Master of the Encarnación (Louis Alimbrot??)." Gazette des beaux-arts 23 (March 1943), p. 156.

    Margaret Breuning. "Metropolitan Re-Installs Its Treasures in Attractive Settings." Art Digest 18 (June 1, 1944), p. 6.

    Erwin Panofsky. Letter. September 11, 1944, comments on Tatistcheff's story of the lost central panel, observing that a thief "if not going off with the whole triptych, would certainly not go off with the central piece and leave the wings in place"; suggests that the MMA diptych may easily be a replica of the diptych listed in the inventory of the Duc de Berry.

    M[argaretta]. S[alinger]. "Notes." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 2 (June 1944), inside front cover, ill. p. 286 (overall) and on front and back covers (color details).

    Maurice W. Brockwell. "The Adoration of the Lamb: Fresh Evidence of John van Eyck's Authorship." Connoisseur 116 (December 1945), p. 123, rejects the attribution to Hubert, declaring that he was a myth, and ascribes them to Jan.

    Gerda Boëthius. Bröderna van Eyck. Stockholm, 1946, pp. 59–60, fig. 22, as by Jan van Eyck.

    Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Letter. April 12, 1946, ascribes them to Hubert.

    Ernest Lotthé. La pensée chrétienne dans la peinture flamande et hollandaise. Lille, 1947, vol. 2, pp. 218–19, 297–98, 302, 339, no. 487, 346, no. 684, pls. 165b, 215b.

    Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta Salinger. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings. New York, 1947, pp. 2–12, ill., attribute them to Hubert and find them stylistically analagous to the "Hand G" miniatures of the Turin-Milan hours; are inclined to accept that a central panel was part of the original ensemble and favor Panofsky's view (see Ref. 1927–28) that a drawing in Berlin of the Adoration of the Magi would be a likely composition for this center.

    Theodor Musper. Untersuchungen zu Rogier van der Weyden und Jan van Eyck. Stuttgart, 1948, pp. 85–90, 94–96, 102–3, 107, pl. 113, attributes them to Jan; identifies the rider with the turban headdress under the right cross as Philip the Good at about age 30, and dates the painting after May 19, 1425, the date on which Jan entered his service.

    Dirk Bax. Ontcijfering van Jeroen Bosch. The Hague, 1949, pp. 29, 247, 253 n. 19 [English ed., Hieronymus Bosch: His Picture-Writing Deciphered, Rotterdam, 1979, p. 328 n. 50, pp. 329–30, 349, 357, 401].

    Julius S. Held. "Book Reviews: Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta M. Salinger . . ., 1947." Art Bulletin 31 (June 1949), pp. 140–41, considers it unlikely that these panels were originally conceived as the wings of a triptych with an Adoration of the Magi at its center; asserts that it would be an iconographic anomaly for a Crucifixion to serve as the left wing of an Adoration, and notes, moreover, that the MMA Crucifixion is clearly pervaded by a movement from the left side and that the "finality" of the right edge acts like a barrier; comments that the woman standing at the lower right edge, probably a donor, would not have turned her back to the central panel; prefers to think of the Crucifixion as the right wing of an altarpiece and the Last Judgment as one of its outside panels.

    Stephen V. Grancsay. "The Interrelationships of Costume and Armor." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 8 (February 1950), p. 183, ill. (detail).

    Émile Renders. Jean van Eyck et le polyptyque: Deux problèmes résolus. 1950, pp. 11, 73–74, 77–79, 81–83, 85–91, 93–95, 98–102, pls. 19, 21–24, 26–29, 32–33 (overall and details), attributes them to Jan before 1425.

    Ruth Massey Tovell. Flemish Artists of the Valois Court. Toronto, 1950, pp. 84, 86–87, 137 n. 12, ascribes them to Jan, before 1425.

    Ludwig Baldass. Jan van Eyck. New York, 1952, p. 92 n. 3, pp. 95–96, 287, no. 62, pls. 163–65 (overall and detail).

    J. V. L. Brans. Isabel la Católica y el arte hispano-flamenco. Madrid, 1952, pp. 41–42, 104 n. 5, ascribes them to Hubert and calls them "wings of a triptych"; states that their acquisition from a convent in Spain "where they must have been for centuries" allows us to consider them one of the donations of Juan II, or at least to conclude they were present in Spain by the first half of the fifteenth century; publishes inventories of Queen Isabella, including docket no. 186 of May 3 and January 13, 1499, which lists a diptych in a gilded frame with the Crucifixion and Last Judgment; believes that this may correspond to the MMA works.

    Art Treasures of the Metropolitan: A Selection from the European and Asiatic Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1952, p. 225, no. 91, colorpl. 91.

    Chandler Rathfon Post. "Flemish and Hispano-Flemish Paintings of the Crucifixion." Gazette des beaux-arts 39 (April 1952), p. 239.

    Erwin Panofsky. Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character. Cambridge, Mass., 1953, vol. 1, pp. 237–40, 242, 246, 269, 309, 454 nn. 1–2 (to p. 238), nn. 1, 3 (to p. 239), p. 455 nn. 1–2 (to p. 240), p. 456 n. 8; vol. 2, pls. 166, 168 (overall and details), attributes them to "Hand G" of the Turin-Milan Hours, which he takes to be Jan, and believes that they were planned as a diptych; discusses the iconography of both panels and asserts that the figure at the lower right edge of the Crucifixion is the Erythrean Sibyl and not a donor [see Ref. Held 1949]; rejects Held's opinion of the same year that the Crucifixion was the right wing and the Last Judgment one of the outside panels of an altarpiece, observing that outside panels were usually given less sumptuous treatment while these are set in identical gilded and inscribed frames; considers improbable Musper's [see Ref. 1948] identification of a figure under the right cross as Philip the Good.

    Leo van Puyvelde. La peinture flamande au siècle des van Eyck. Paris, 1953, pp. 86–89, 190, 298, ill. (overall and detail), attributes them to Hubert, and identifies them with the Crucifixion and Last Judgment listed in the inventory of the duc de Berry.

    Federico Zeri. "Il Maestro dell'Annunciazione Gardner." Bollettino d'arte 38 (April–June 1953), p. 130.

    Maurice W. Brockwell. The Van Eyck Problem. London, 1954, pp. 53, 60, 74, ascribes them without doubt to Jan.

    Klára Garas. "Some Problems of Early Dutch and Flemish Painting." Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 1, no. 3–4 (1954), pp. 239, 243, 247–48, 251, 253, 259, fig. 4, attributes these panels and the Turin-Milan Hours to a Dutch painter active about 1440, "presumably Albert van Ouwater"

    F. C. Legrand. La peinture belgique des primitifs à nos jours. Brussels, 1954, p. 13, as generally attributed to Hubert van Eyck.

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), p. 10, ill.

    Martin Davies. "A Reminiscence of Van Eyck by Gerard David?" Bulletin des Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts nos. 1–3 (1955), pp. 173–75 n. 4, fig. 2 (detail).

    Julius S. Held. "Erwin Panofsky, 'Early Netherlandish Painting, Its Origin[s] and Character'." Art Bulletin 37 (September 1955), pp. 222–24, figs. 4a, 5a, 6a, 7b (details), compares some of the heads in the Crucifixion with those of apostles, pilgrims, and hermits in the Ghent Altarpiece, and gives reasons why the MMA panels might be assigned to Hubert; accepts Panofsky's identification of the figure at the lower right with the Erythrean Sibyl, but still considers her to be a donor, tenatatively identifying her as Margaret, sister of William of Bavaria and wife of Jean sans Peur.

    Ruth Massey Tovell. Roger van der Weyden and the Flémalle Enigma. Toronto, 1955, p. 36.

    Millard Meiss in "Jan van Eyck and the Italian Renaissance." Venezia e l'Europa: atti del XVIII congresso internazionale di storia dell'arte. Venice, 1956, pp. 66–67.

    Otto Pächt. "Panofsky's 'Early Netherlandish Painting'–II." Burlington Magazine 98 (August 1956), p. 273.

    Josua Bruyn. Van Eyck problemen. Utrecht, 1957, p. 6 n.2, p. 104, as from the hand of miniaturist G, most closely related to the work of Jan but fundamentally different in its form; tentatively supports identification of hand G with Hubert.

    Albert Châtelet. "Les enluminures eyckiennes des manuscrits de Turin et de Milan-Turin." Revue des arts (July–August 1957), pp. 160–63, p.164 n. 12, ill. (detail), attributes them to Hand H and suggests that this artist may be Jean Coene, a miniaturist working at Bruges between 1424 and 1450.

    L. M. J. Delaissé. "Chronique: Enluminure et peinture dans les Pays-Bas, à propos de E. Panofsky "Early Netherlandish Painting"." Scriptorium 11 (1957), p. 116, as an "Eyckian" work, often incorrectly attributed to "Van Eyck".

    Jacques Lassaigne. "The Century of Van Eyck." Flemish Painting. 1, New York, 1957, pp. 68–69, suggests an attribution to a master contemporary with Jan and in close touch with him.

    J. Q. van Regteren Altena. Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Exh. cat.Amsterdam, 1958, pp. 133–34.

    F. Winkler. "Die Wiener Kreutztragung." Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 9 (1958), p. 83.

    Jean Squilbeck. "Un oeuvre énigmatic, 'les Trois Marie au Tombeau' du Musée Boymans à Rotterdam." Revue belge d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'art 28 (1959), pp. 59, 68.

    Albert Châtelet. "Albert van Ouwater." Gazette des beaux-arts 55 (February 1960), p. 75.

    Erik Larsen. Les primitifs flamands au Musée Metropolitain de New York. Utrecht, 1960, pp. 28–33, 39, 107, figs. 1–2, as by Hubert; believes they are wings of a triptych and that the central panel was probably an Adoration of the Magi; dates them before 1420.

    James E. Snyder. "The Early Haarlem School of Painting, I. Ouwater and the Master of the Tiburtine Sibyl." Art Bulletin 42 (1960), p. 49 n. 51.

    R. H. Wilenski. Flemish Painters, 1430–1830. New York, 1960, vol. 1, pp. 12, 14, 19–23, 25, 33–35, 47, 67, 74, 86, 89–92, 96, 107, 114 159–60; vol. 2, pls. 1–8, 16, guesses that they were painted about 1467 by Hieronymus Bosch at about the age of eighteen.

    Millard Meiss. "'Highlands' in the Lowlands: Jan van Eyck, the Master of Flemalle and the Franco-Italian Tradition." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 57 (May–June 1961), pp. 281, 310 n. 21, p. 313 nn. 61, 65, attributes them to Jan.

    H. Th. Musper. Gotische Malerei nördlich der Alpen. Cologne, 1961, p. 224, as by Jan, before the Ghent Altarpiece.

    Germain Seligman. Merchants of Art: 1880–1960, Eighty Years of Professional Collecting. New York, 1961, p. 176.

    Federico Zeri. Due dipinti, la filologia e un nome: il Maestro delle Tavole Barberini. Turin, 1961, pp. 58–60, fig. 48, as very early works of Jan.

    Hélène Adhémar. Le Musée National du Louvre, Paris. I [Les primitifs flamands, I: Corpus de la peinture des anciens pays-bas méridionaux au quinzième siècle, vol. 5]. Brussels, 1962, p. 69, as attributed to Jan.

    David G. Carter. "The Providence Crucifixion: Its Place and Meaning for Dutch Fifteenth Century Painting." Bulletin of Rhode Island School of Design 48 (May 1962), pp. 3, 6, 10–11, 13, 17–19, 22 n. 4, p. 23 n. 63, p. 24 n. 65, figs. 2, 28 (details).

    Jan Goris [Marnix Gijsen]. Jan van Eyck in de Kempen. [Arendonk], 1964, pp. 25–27, sees a sign referring to the miller's profession in the Crucifixion as well as other works which he attributes to Jan van Eyck; believes that these marks are signs of an artist who was a member of the Van der Moelen (Miller) family.

    Albert Châtelet. "Roger van der Weyden et Jean van Eyck." Jaarboek van het Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten te Antwerpen (1966), p. 29 n. 27, pp. 30–34, fig. 12 (detail), attributes the Crucifixion to Hand H.

    Georg Troescher. Burgundische Malerei. Berlin, 1966, vol. 1, pp. 336–37; vol. 2, fig. 705a.

    Max J. Friedländer et al. "The van Eycks—Petrus Christus." Early Netherlandish Painting. 1, New York, 1967, pp. 51–53, 94, 109 n. 15, pl. 36, dates them about 1424.

    Siegfried Thalheimer. Der Genter Altar. Munich, 1967, pp. 84, 115, as not stylistically close enough to the Ghent Altarpiece to be attributed to Jan with complete conviction.

    Georg Troescher. "Die Pilgerfahrt des Robert Campin. Altniederländische und südwestdeutsche Maler in Südostfrankreich." Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 9 (1967), pp. 110, 112, 114, 133–34, fig. 6 (detail).

    Charles D. Cuttler. Northern Painting from Pucelle to Bruegel. New York, 1968, pp. 87–89, 131, ill., attributes these panels to a Bruges painter familiar with the work of Jan van Eyck, about 1430–35.

    Martin Davies. National Gallery Catalogues: Early Netherlandish School. London, 1968, pp. 45–46.

    Raymond Bouyer Giorgio T. Faggin in L'opera completa dei Van Eyck. Milan, 1968, pp. 87–88, no. 3a–b, ill. p. 88 and colorpl. 63.

    Ottmar Kerber. "Hubert van Eyck." Amico Amici: Festschrift für Werner Gross zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 25.11.1966 (1968), pp. 145–46, 151, fig. 63 (detail), as Jan's early work, not likely to be the wings of a painting based on the composition of the Adoration of the Magi drawing in Berlin.

    Heinz Peters in "Zum New Yorker 'Diptychon' der 'Hand G'." Munuscula Discipulorum: Kunsthistorische Studien Hans Kauffmann zum 70. Geburtstag 1966 (1968), pp. 235–46, pls. 205–7, attributes them to Jan and suggests that they were originally tabernacle doors which, when closed, showed two angels or prophets in grisaille.

    Shirley Neilsen Blum. Early Netherlandish Triptychs: A Study in Patronage. Berkeley, 1969, pp. 44, 139 n. 49.

    [Luisa Marcucci] and Stanley Ferber in Galleria degli Uffizi. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Art. 5, New York, 1969, p. 404, as possibly an early collaboration of Hubert and Jan, probably left incomplete at Hubert's death, and finished by his "conscientious brother".

    Cesar Peman y Pemartin. Juan van Eyck y España. Cadiz, 1969, pp. 63–64, fig. 36, erroneously as from the Mellun [sic] collection; says it is tempting to place them early in Jan's oeuvre; observes that they may be connected in some way with his voyage to Spain, adding that it is logical to assume that they were in Spain from an early time.

    Lola B. Malkis Gellman. "Petrus Christus." PhD diss., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1970, pp. 118–23, 125, 139–45, 148, 153, 174, 326 n. 102, p. 327 n. 109, pp. 394, 401, 408, fig. 21, as works of Jan van Eyck, calling the Last Judgment clearly the source for Christus's work in Berlin, and the Crucifixion the source for his Dessau Crucifixion; suggests that the MMA panels may have originally included other scenes.

    Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, pp. 225, 235 [rev., enl. ed., 1989].

    Lotte Brand Philip. The Ghent Altarpiece and the Art of Jan van Eyck. Princeton, 1971, pp. 32, 60, 78 n. 157, pp. 101, 140–64, p. 186 n. 363, pp. 225–26, figs. 140–41, 160, 167, 168, 170 (overall and details), ascribes them Jan van Eyck, perhaps after the Ghent Altarpiece; believes they were the doors of a wooden tabernacle commissioned by Philip the Good for a relic given him by Pope Eugene V in 1433.

    Charles Sterling. Letter. February 20, 1971, thinks they should be called "Attributed to Jan van Eyck," although one may still reasonably hesitate between Jan and a close, most able, follower; personally believes in Jan's authorship noting that "Hubert is to be excluded not because of his nonexistence (which is very far from being proven) but because of the incompatibility of what we know of his life and may suppose to have been his style".

    Charles Sterling. "Observations on Petrus Christus." Art Bulletin 53 (March 1971), p. 9 n. 38, pp. 11–13, 17, 18 n. 66, fig. 42 (Crucifixion), supports Held's [see Ref. 1955] identification of the painter with the painter of the Hermits and Pilgrims in the Ghent Altarpiece, concluding that "since the Diptych with its alpine vista is in all probability later than 1426, this author can only be Jan van Eyck, Hubert having died on September 18, 1426"; gives evidence which he believes indicates that the MMA panels were in Bruges between 1432 and 1437.

    Zsuzsa Urbach. "Charles D. Cuttler, Northern Painting from Pucelle to Bruegel, 1968." Acta Historiae Artium 17 (1971), pp. 132, 134.

    Martin Davies. Rogier van der Weyden: An Essay, with a Critical Catalogue of Paintings Assigned to Him and to Robert Campin. London, 1972, p. 249.

    Joel M. Upton. "Petrus Christus." PhD diss., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa., 1972, p. 18, 89, 268–70.

    Lorne Campbell. "Studies in Early Netherlandish Art." Apollo 98 (July 1973), p. 62, considers the iconographic interpretation of the reconstructed triptych tabernacle proposed by Philip [see Ref. 1971] so extravagant that it cannot be taken seriously.

    Odile Kammerer-Nouvel. "Contribution à l'étude de l'iconographie sibylline dans les régions d'Allemagne du sud, de Rhénanie et de Flandres." Master's thesis, Université de Strasbourg, 1974, pp. 82–84 [opinion cited in Ref. Châtelet 1980, p. 50], notes that the feminine silhouette seen from behind at the left in the Crucifixion must be a mate to the Erythreaen sibyl on the right [see Ref. Panofsky 1953] and would thus be a European sibyl, probably the Cumaen sibyl.

    Peter H. Schabacker. Petrus Christus. Utrecht, 1974, pp. 30, 34, 65, 100, fig. 25.

    James Snyder. "Lotte Brand Philip, 'The Ghent Altarpiece and the Art of Jan van Eyck' 1971." Renaissance Quarterly 27 (Spring 1974), p. 52.

    Luciano Bellosi. "I Limbourg precursori di Van Eyck? Nuove osservazioni sui 'Mesi' di Chantilly." Prospettiva 1 (April 1975), p. 34 n. 23.

    Margaretta Salinger in "The Price Was Not Too High." The Chase, the Capture: Collecting at the Metropolitan. New York, 1975, pp. 196–98, fig. 50.

    Diane Graybowski Scillia. "Gerard David and Manuscript Illumination in the Low Countries, 1480–1509." PhD diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1975, pp. 105–6 n. 38, pp. 164, 202 n. 25, p. 204 n. 38.

    V. Denis. La peinture flamande 15e–16e–17e siècles. Brussels, 1976, p. 38, figs. 10–11.

    Charles Sterling. "Jan van Eyck avant 1432." Revue de l'art no. 33 (1976), pp. 15, 23–25, 29–30, 33–34, 36, 40–50, 53, 56, 76, 80 nn. 118–19, 124, pp. 81 n. 126, figs. 28, 46, 55, 67–69, 71 (overall and details); corrections in Revue de l'art, 34, 1976, p. 103 nn. 109 bis, 132 bis, states that the panels could date from the end of 1426, noting that the view of the Alps in the background of the Crucifixion must be a reminiscence of Jan's trip to Italy, which he deduces took place in that year; tentatively suggests that a central panel depicting the Adoration of the Magi was added at some later date.

    Charles Sterling. "Tableaux espagnols et un chef d'oeuvre portugais méconnus du XVe siècle." Actas del XXIII Congreso Internacional de Historia del Arte, España entre el Mediterraneo y El Atlántico. 1, Granada, 1976, pp. 506, 508, 511, 512, 514, 524 n. 10, fig. 15. (detail).

    Ursula Panhans-Bühler. "Eklektizismus und Originalität im Werk des Petrus Christus." Wiener Kunstgeschichtliche Forschungen. 5, Vienna, 1978, p. 22 n. 24, ascribes the panels to the "Turiner Meister (Hubert?)".

    Albert Châtelet. Van Eyck. Bologna, 1979, pp. 34, 56, colorpl. 6, illustrates them with works of Jan van Eyck, but comments that it is not altogether certain that the panels are from the same hand, as the Last Judgment is weaker in composition and handling than the Crucifixion; believes they may originally have been a diptych.

    Elisa Bermejo. La pintura de los primitivos flamencos en España. 1, Madrid, 1980, pp. 60, 92, as coming from an unidentified convent in Burgos.

    Albert Châtelet. "Un Collaborateur de van Eyck en Italie." Relations artistiques entre les Pays-bas et l'Italie à la Renaissance: Études dédiées à Suzanne Sulzberger. Brussels, 1980, pp. 45–56, figs. 3, 6 (Crucifixion and detail), accepts the attribution to Jan; dates them between 1422 and 1424, when the artist worked for John of Bavaria, noting that in the Crucifixion a man wears the plain broad-brimmed hat of the type worn by partisans of John of Bavaria; supports Panofsky's [Ref. 1953] identification of the woman at the lower right in the Crucifixion as the Erythrean Sibyl and finds "seductive" Kammerer-Nouvel's [Ref. 1974] suggestion that the female figure at the left with her back turned to us may be a European sibyl, probably the Cumaen sibyl; believes that the horsemen seen from the rear were inspired by Altichiero's Crucifixion in the oratory of San Giorgio in Padua; considers it most likely that the two panels were originally a diptych.

    Elisabeth Dhanens. Hubert and Jan van Eyck. New York, 1980, pp. 359–61, ill. (color), discusses the diptych with works by "Anonymous Epigone and Imitators"; notes that an altarpiece formerly in the church of St. Michael in Ghent and now lost was iconographically similar to the Last Judgment.

    Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 186, 188, 194, figs. 356, 357 (color).

    Edwin James Mundy III. "Gerard David Studies." PhD diss., Princeton University, 1980, p. 163.

    Robert C. Williams. Russian Art and American Money, 1900–1940. Cambridge, Mass., 1980, pp. 31–35, 155, 170, 180, 183, ill.

    Hellmut Wohl. The Paintings of Domenico Veneziano, ca. 1410–1461: A Study in Florentine Art of the Early Renaissance. New York, 1980, p. 11.

    Albert Châtelet. Early Dutch Painting: Painting in the Northern Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century. English ed. [French ed. 1980]. New York, 1981, pp. 37–39, 168, 196–97, 201–2, 210, 242, no. 20, figs. 23, 26, 27, observes that "the Last Judgment, interesting though it is, is less novel in conception and less brilliant in execution [than the Crucifixion], suggesting the collaboration of some assistant", perhaps Master H, or more probably Hand I of the Turin–Milan Hours; finds an original diptych format more plausible.

    Daniela Hammer-Tugendhat. Hieronymus Bosch: Eine historische Interpretation seiner Gestaltungsprinzipien [Theorie und Geschichte der Literatur und der schönen Künste, vol. 58]. Munich, 1981, pp. 28–29, 42, 64, 91, 102–5, 176 n. 6, p. 177 n. 1, p. 179 n. 23 from p. 178, figs. 16, 47, 75, 88 (details and Crucifixion), as by the Master of the Turin Book of Hours.

    Ann Tzeutschler Lurie. "A Newly Discovered Eyckian 'St. John the Baptist in a Landscape'." Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 67 (April 1981), pp. 98, 101–2, 116 nn. 50–51, p. 117 n. 54.

    Hans Belting and Dagmar Eichberger. Jan van Eyck als Erzähler: Fruhe Tafelbilder im Umkreis der New Yorker Doppeltafel. Worms, 1983, 198 pp., ill. (overall and details), attribute them to Jan, and believe they were originally the wings of a sculpted altarpiece; relate them to other early Eyckian panel paintings and manuscript illuminations and compare the Last Judgment to a fourteenth-century Sienese panel from Bourges (Louvre, Paris) depicting the Fall of the Rebel Angels, and to two related compositions of the Limbourg brothers in the Très Riches Heures–a Saint John on Patmos and a Fall of the Rebel Angels; believe Jan was familiar with all three works.

    Liana Castelfranchi Vegas. Italie et Flandres dans la peinture du XVe siècle. Milan, 1984, pp. 67, 81, 152 [Italian ed., 1983].

    Charles D. Cuttler. "Exotics in 15th Century Netherlandish art: Comments on Oriental and Gypsy Costume." Liber Amicorum Herman Liebaers. Brussels, 1984, p. 421, mentions them as "sometimes attributed to the Van Eycks, but more likely the work of a Bruges painter of c. 1430–35".

    Anna Eörsi. "From the Expulsion to the Enchaining of the Devil: The Iconography of the Last Judgement Altar of Rogier van der Weyden in Beaune." Acta Historae Artium 30 (1984), pp. 147, 152 n. 55.

    Ivan Gaskell. "Book Review: The Van Eyck Problem." Apollo 120 (August 1984), p. 146.

    Jeffrey Chipps Smith. "Hans Belting and Dagmar Eichberger, 'Jan van Eyck als Erzähler: Frühe Tafelbilder im Umkreis der New Yorker Doppeltafel,' 1983." Speculum 60 (July 1985), pp. 638–40.

    James Snyder. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. New York, 1985, pp. 118, 156, fig. 115, calls the panels and the "Stigmatization of Saint Francis" in the Philadelphia Museum of Art "works by Jan van Eyck in his later years".

    Claude Schaefer. "Belting (H.) et Eichberger (D.), Jan van Eyck als Erzähler." Gazette des beaux-arts 108 (July–August 1986), p. 25.

    Charles Sterling. "L'influence de Konrad Witz en Savoie." Revue de l'art 71 (1986), p. 22.

    Dagmar Eichberger. Bildkonzeption und Weltdeutung im New Yorker Diptychon des Jan van Eyck. Wiesbaden, 1987, pp. 1–137, ill., notes that the shield held by Saint Michael in the Last Judgment precisely evokes a reliquary preserved at the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel, suggesting a connection with France; identifies the female figure seen from behind on the lower right of the Crucifixion as the Cumaen sibyl, whose prophecies referred to the Passion and also to Christ 's return to earth; suggests that the parallel figure on the left may be the Eritriaen sibyl.

    Carol J. Purtle. "Hans Belting and Dagmar Eichberger, 'Jan van Eyck als Erzähler: Frühe im Umkreis der New Yorker Doppeltafel, 1983'." Art Bulletin 69 (1987), p. 651.

    Introduction by James Snyder in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Renaissance in the North. New York, 1987, pp. 9, 18–21, ill. (color, overall and detail).

    Charles Sterling. "Charles VII vu par Jean Fouquet." L'Oeil 389 (1987), p. 37.

    Albert Châtelet. "Dagmar Eichberger, 'Bildkonzeption und Weltdeutung im New Yorker Diptychon des Jan van Eyck,' 1987." Bulletin Monumental 146 (1988), pp. 165–66.

    Adam S. Labuda. "Hans Belting, Dagmar Eichberger, 'Jan van Eyck als Erzähler, Frühe Tafelbilder im Umkreis der New Yorker Doppeltafel,' 1983." Kunstchronik 41 (March 1988), pp. 109–14.

    Hans J. van Miegroet. Gerard David. Antwerp, 1989, pp. 50, 112, 115, 141 n. 80, p. 227, colorpl. 29 (Crucifixion).

    Otto Pächt. Van Eyck: Die Begründer der altniederländischen Malerei. German ed. [English ed. 1994]. Munich, 1989, pp. 191–95, figs. 115, 119 [English ed. 1994, pp. 190–9, as by the "Master of the Hours of Turin (Hubert van Eyck?)".

    Joel M. Upton. Petrus Christus: His Place in Fifteenth-Century Flemish Painting. University Park, Pa., 1990, p. 5 n. 15, p. 11 n. 13, pp. 39–40, 44–45 n. 56, p. 46, fig. 33, suggests the "considerable possibility that this Last Judgment was not painted by Jan van Eyck but by another artist working in the Eyckian tradition"; refers to it as a diptych and dates it about 1440–50.

    Albert Châtelet. "Peinture et enluminure au XVe siècle." Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands. Doornspijk, The Netherlands, 1991, p. 375.

    Stanley David Gedzelman. "The Sky in Art." Weatherwise 44 (December 1991–January 1992), p. 11, ill., identifies all the cloud formations in the Crucifixion; asserts that "a slowly moving cold front has just passed and cleared the sky"; remarks that "astronomers will note that this location is not possible for the waning moon".

    Janey L. Levy. "The Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven: Ecclesiastical Authority and Hierarchy in the Beaune Altarpiece." Art History 14 (March 1991), pp. 22–23, 25, 47 nn. 33–35, ill. (Last Judgment), notes that the seated apostles are clearly characterized as assistant judges, and suggests that their portrayal may have been inspired by a 1404 catechetical treatise, "which, elaborating on the well-known bilblical passage, explicitly compares the Apostles at the Last Judgment to aldermen seated on thrones"; adds that the artist has followed conventions found in contemporary depictions of secular courts of justice.

    Otto Pächt. Rembrandt. Munich, 1991, p. 81, fig. 48 (Last Judgment), as by the Master of the Turin Hours (Hubert van Eyck?).

    Rudolf Preimesberger. "Zu Jan van Eycks Diptychon der Sammlung Thyssen–Bornemisza." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 54 (1991), pp. 474–75, fig. 7 (detail).

    Susan Urbach. "Research Report on Examinations of Underdrawings in Some Early Netherlandish and German Panels in the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts II." Le dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture. Colloque 8, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1991, p. 83.

    Introduction by Walter A. Liedtke in Flemish Paintings in America: A Survey of Early Netherlandish and Flemish Paintings in the Public Collections of North America. Antwerp, 1992, p. 334, no. 232, ill.

    Christiane Lukatis. "Ein verlorenes Weltgerichtsretabel aus dem künstlerischen Umfeld des Jan van Eyck? Mit einem Tafelbild des Germanischen Nationalmuseums auf Spurnsuche." Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums und Berichte aus dem Forschunginstitut für Realienkunde (1992), pp. 175–76, 179, 184, 187, 189–91 nn. 4–5, p. 193 n. 33, ill. (Last Judgment).

    Theo Jülich in Gottesfurcht und Höllenangst: Ein Lesebuch zur mittelalterlichen Kunst. Darmstadt, 1993, p. 98, fig. 48 (Last Judgment).

    Adam S. Labuda. "Jan van Eyck, Realist and Narrator: On the Structure and Artistic Sources of the New York Crucifixion." Artibus et Historiae no. 27 (1993), pp. 9, 11–22, 26–30, ill.

    Robert Suckale in Stefan Lochner, Meister zu Köln. Exh. cat., Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. Cologne, 1993, p. 37, fig. 7 (Last Judgment), notes that the central panel of a Crucifixion triptych in the Historishces Museum, Frankfurt, is based on the MMA panel, which he tentatively ascribes to Hubert van Eyck.

    Alice K. Turner. The History of Hell. New York, 1993, p. 152, fig. 21 (Last Judgment, color).

    Christopher S. Wood. "Book Reviews: . . . Joel M. Upton, 'Petrus Christus: His Place in Fifteenth-Century Flemish Painting . . .'." Art Bulletin 75 (March 1993), p. 177.

    Maryan W. Ainsworth. Petrus Christus: Renaissance Master of Bruges. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 30–31, 64 n. 27, fig. 20, discusses the raised gesso or "pastiglia" frame.

    Hans Belting and Christiane Kruse. Die Erfindung des Gemäldes: Das erste Jahrhundert der niederländischen Malerei. Munich, 1994, pp. 140–41, 199, colorpls. 12–13 (overall and detail), as by Jan van Eyck.

    Scott L. Montgomery. "The First Naturalistic Drawings of the Moon: Jan van Eyck and the Art of Observation." Journal for the History of Astronomy 25 (November 1994), p. 317, figs. 1–2 (Crucifixion; overall and detail), notes that in the Crucifixion the moon is depicted in its gibbous phase, with all the major lunar maria visible on its surface as would be the case in the morning hours.

    Otto Pächt. Van Eyck and the Founders of Early Netherlandish Painting. London, 1994, pp. 190–92, 206, ill. fig. 115 and colorpl. 19 [German ed. 1989].

    Paul Philippot. La peinture dans les anciens pays-bas, XVe–XVIe siècles. Paris, 1994, pp. 28–29, 31, 286, ill. (color), attributes the Crucifixion to Jan van Eyck, but ascribes the Last Judgment to a student or collaborator.

    Stephanie Buck. "Petrus Christus's Berlin Wings and the Metropolitan Museum's Eyckian Diptych." Petrus Christus in Renaissance Bruges: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York, 1995, pp. 65–69, 71–72, 74, 77–78, 79–83 nn., figs. 1–4 (details), dates it in the mid-1430s.

    Volker Herzner. Jan van Eyck und der Genter Altar. Worms, 1995, pp. 135, 201, 262–65, 267–68, 270–71, colorpl. 10, accepts the connection of these panels with works ascribed to "Hand G" of the Turin-Milan Hours, whom he appears to identify with Jan van Eyck; sees the turbaned female figure at the lower right of the Crucifixion not as a sibyl [see Ref. Panofsky 1953], but as an early idea for Jan's subsequent use of oriental dress for his sibyls on the wings of the Ghent altarpiece; judging from the view in the background of the Crucifixion, believes the artist must have seen the Alps, perhaps before 1426.

    Didier Martens. "Les 'Trois Orders de la chrétienté' de Barthel Bruyn et l'iconographie de saint Renaud de Dortmund." Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte 58 (1995), pp. 186–87.

    Albert Châtelet. Robert Campin, Le Maître de Flémalle: La fascination du quotidien. Antwerp, 1996, pp. 63, 251, 253, ill. (color detail), believes that the Crucifixion, but not the Last Judgment, is by Jan van Eyck, and relates it to a lost painting of the same theme by Robert Campin, a copy of which is in the National Museum, Poznan.

    Mark L. Evans. "Otto Pächt, Van Eyck and the Founders of Early Netherlandish Painting, 1994." Burlington Magazine 138 (May 1996), p. 333.

    Catherine Reynolds. "Reality and Image: Interpreting Three Paintings of the 'Virgin and Child in an Interior' Associated with Campin [a version of this paper was delivered as a public lecture at the National Gallery, not at the symposium]." Robert Campin: New Directions in Scholarship. [Turnhout, Belgium], 1996, p. 185.

    Cyriel Stroo and Pascale Syfer-d'Olne. "The Master of Flémalle and Rogier van der Weyden Groups." The Flemish Primitives I: Catalogue of Early Netherlandish Painting in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium. 1, Brussels, 1996, p. 75 n. 27.

    Kenneth Bé. "Geological Aspects of Jan van Eyck's 'Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata'." Jan van Eyck: Two Paintings of "Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata". Philadelphia, 1997, p. 94, notes the depiction of fossils within the landscape [see lower edge of the Crucifixion].

    Marigene H. Butler. "An Investigation of the Philadelphia 'Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmanta'." Jan van Eyck: Two Paintings of "Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata". Philadelphia, 1997, pp. 29, 44 n. 1, notes that the underdrawing of the Crucifixion in delicate, parallel hatching strokes defines form and indicates a few changes in design, and that the underdrawing in the upper portions of the Last Judgment appears to be by a different hand.

    Jos Koldeweij in La pittura nei Paesi Bassi. Milan, 1997, vol. 1, p. 81.

    Otto Pächt. Early Netherlandish Painting from Rogier van der Weyden to Gerard David. London, 1997, pp. 40, 44, 88, 129–30, 153–54, fig. 30 (Last Judgment).

    Carlenrica Spantigati. "The Turin Van Eyck 'Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata'." Jan van Eyck: Two Paintings of "Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata". Philadelphia, 1997, p. 19, fig. 21 (Crucifixion).

    Maryan W. Ainsworth. "A Meeting of Sacred and Secular Worlds." From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1998, pp. vii, 2, 14–16, 24–25, 70, 74, 79–80, 86–89, 209, no. 1, ill. (color, overall and details), ascribes them to "Jan van Eyck and Assistant" about 1430, giving to the assistant the upper half of the Last Judgment except for the figure of Christ; notes that the exterior edges preserve traces of an old clasp for closing a diptych.

    Maryan W. Ainsworth. Gerard David: Purity of Vision in an Age of Transition. New York, 1998, pp. 28, 95.

    John Oliver Hand. "New York. From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Burlington Magazine 140 (December 1998), p. 854.

    Karen Wilkin. "A Northern Renaissance at the Metropolitan." New Criterion (November 1998), p. 50.

    Mark Zucker. "The Skull in Van Eyck's 'Crucifixion': A Belated Tribute to Howard Davis." Source: Notes in the History of Art 17 (Spring 1998), pp. 1–6, ill. (left wing and detail of left wing).

    Bernard Aikema in Renaissance Venice and the North: Crosscurrents in the Time of Bellini, Dürer and Titian. Exh. cat., Palazzo Grassi. Milan, 1999, p. 202, ill. (Crucifixion).

    Scott L. Montgomery. The Moon & the Western Imagination. Tucson, 1999, pp. 87–93, 234 n. 10, figs. 6.1–6.2 (left wing; overall and detail), discusses the representation of the moon in the Crucifixion's landscape; states that it is a gibbous moon, and that the major lunar maria are all shown as they would appear in the late afternoon [but see Ref. Montgomery 1994 and Leonardi 2008], perhaps corresponding to the "ninth hour" (about 3 p.m.) in the biblical account; observes, however, that the moon in its waning gibbous phase could not occupy this position in the sky.

    Las tablas flamencas en la ruta Jacobea. Exh. cat., Claustro de la Iglesia de Palacio, Logroño. San Sebastián, Spain, 1999, p. 201, states that these panels came from a convent in Burgos.

    Michael Rohlmann. "Flanders and Italy, Flanders and Florence. Early Netherlandish Painting in Italy and its Particular Influence on Florentine Art: An Overview." Italy and the Low Countries—Artistic Relations: The Fifteenth Century. Florence, 1999, pp. 39, 57 n. 3.

    Irmgard Siede. "'Pferde von hinten' in der New Yorker Doppeltafel: Eine unberücksichtigte Pathosformel und die Rolle Italiens bei ihrer Verbreitung." Pantheon 57 (1999), pp. 22–32, figs. 1, 6a–b.

    Cyriel Stroo et al. "The Dirk Bouts, Petrus Christus, Hans Memling and Hugo van der Goes Groups." The Flemish Primitives II: Catalogue of Early Netherlandish Painting in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium. 2, Brussels, 1999, p. 122 n. 39.

    Albert Châtelet. "Jan van Eyck entre l'Italie et la France." Journal des Savants (January–June 2000), pp. 79, 81–89, 95–98, figs. 6, 8, attributes the Crucifixion panel to Jan van Eyck and the Last Judgment tentatively to Hubert.

    Jan Piet Filedt Kok in Netherlandish Art in the Rijkmuseum, 1400–1600. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2000, p. 35.

    Reinhard Liess. Zum Logos der Kunst Rogier van der Weydens: Die 'Beweinungen Christi' in den Königlichen Museen in Brüssel und in der Nationalgalerie in London. Münster, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 54, 194, 309, 324; vol. 2, pp. 581, 606.

    Catherine Reynolds. "'The King of Painters'." Investigating Jan van Eyck. Turnhout, Belgium, 2000, pp. 10–11, fig. 10.

    Margaret Scott. "Dress in Van Eyck's Paintings." Investigating Jan van Eyck. Turnhout, Belgium, 2000, pp. 140–41.

    Mauro Natale and Frédéric Elsig. El renacimiento mediterráneo: Viajes de artistas e itinerarios de obras entre Italia, Francia y España en el siglo XV. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. 2001, pp. 397–98, 400, figs. 60a–b, date them about 1426, and state that they were in the Mediterranean region, perhaps Naples, in the mid-fifteenth century.

    Peter Parshall. "Commentary: Conformity or Contrast?" Early Netherlandish Painting at the Crossroads: A Critical Look at Current Methodologies. New York, 2001, p. 22, ill. p. 20 (detail of the Crucifixion, in color).

    Carl Brandon Strehlke. "Madrid and Valencia, the Mediterranean Renaissance." Burlington Magazine 143 (May 2001), p. 320.

    Till-Holger Borchert. The Age of Van Eyck: The Mediterranean World and Early Netherlandish Painting 1430–1530. Exh. cat., Groeningemuseum, Bruges. Ghent, 2002, as by Jan van Eyck and workshop.

    Dirk De Vos. The Flemish Primitives: The Masterpieces. Antwerp, 2002, p. 54, ill. 15.

    Georg Zeman with the collaboration of Fritz Koreny in Early Netherlandish Drawings from Jan van Eyck to Hieronymus Bosch. Exh. cat., Rubenshuis. Antwerp, 2002, pp. 56–57, 60 nn. 17–19, fig. 10b (detail of Crucifixion), supports a later dating, comparing them with Jan's Dresden triptych (Staatliche Kunstsammlungen), dated 1437, and his Antwerp Madonna at the Fountain (Koninklijk Museum), dated 1439.

    Mar Borobia in Gerard David y el paisaje flamenco. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, 2003, pp. 82–83, 90, fig. 39 (detail).

    Frédéric Elsig. "I rapporti pittorici tra Genova e la Francia nel XV secolo." Genova e la Francia: opere, artisti, committenti, collezionisti. (Cinisello Balsamo) Milan, 2003, p. 87, fig. 9.

    Dan Ewing. "Book Reviews: The Moon and the Western Imagination, Scott L. Montgomery . . . 2001 [first published 1999]." Sixteenth Century Journal 34 (Fall 2003), p. 907.

    Boudewijn Bakker Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. Landschap en Wereldbeeld: Van Van Eyck tot Rembrandt. Bossum, The Netherlands, 2004, pp. 103, 404 n. 177, figs. 22–23 (overall and detail).

    Till-Holger Borchert. "Collecting Early Netherlandish Paintings in Europe and the United States." Early Netherlandish Paintings: Rediscovery, Reception and Research. English ed. Amsterdam, 2005, p. 216 [Dutch ed., "'Om iets te weten van de oude meesters'. De Vlaamse Primitieven—herontdekking, waardering en onderzoek," Nijmegen, 1995].

    Thomas Ketelsen in Thomas Ketelsen and Uta Neidhardt. Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck: Die frühen niederländischen Zeichnungen und Gemälde in Dresden. Exh. cat., Residenzschloss Dresden. Munich, 2005, p. 88.

    Bernhard Ridderbos in "Objects and Questions." Early Netherlandish Paintings: Rediscovery, Reception and Research. English ed. Amsterdam, 2005, pp. 78–79, 82–83, fig. 35 (color) [Dutch ed., "'Om iets te weten van de oude meesters'. De Vlaamse Primitieven—herontdekking, waardering en onderzoek," Nijmegen, 1995].

    Till-Holger Borchert in Antonello da Messina: l'opera completa. Exh. cat., Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2006, pp. 32, 41 n. 29, fig. 5 (color, Crucifixion), as by Jan van Eyck.

    Till-Holger Borchert. "Innovation, Reconstruction, and Deconstruction: Early Netherlandish Diptychs in the Mirror of Their Reception." Essays in Context: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych. Cambridge, Mass., 2006, pp. 175, 192 nn. 18, 21, fig. 1.

    Laura D. Gelfand. "The Devotional Portrait Diptych and the Manuscript Tradition." Essays in Context: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych. Cambridge, Mass., 2006, p. 48.

    Mauro Lucco in Antonello da Messina: l'opera completa. Exh. cat., Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2006, pp. 142, 216, attributes them to the workshop of the Van Eyck brothers and dates it about 1426.

    Catheline Périer-d'Ieteren. Dieric Bouts: The Complete Works. Brussels, 2006, p. 287.

    Larry Silver. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 2006, p. 345, colorpl. 269 (detail of Last Judgment), dates them about 1440.

    Pascale Syfer-d'Olne et al. "Masters with Provisional Names." The Flemish Privitives IV: Catalogue of Early Netherlandish Painting in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium. 4, Brussels, 2006, p. 96 n. 49.

    Renzo Leonardi. "Jan van Eyck, les Alpes et la lune." Revue de l'art no. 155 (2007), pp. 51–57, ill. (details), believes that it was near Gex that Jan first saw the mountain range depicted in the background of the Crucifixion panel; compares a photograph taken from Gex towards the end of summer to a detail of the mountain range in the painting and concludes that Jan was there at the same time of year; adds that this would probably be the season in which Jan traveled south, no doubt to Italy; also comments on the representation of the moon, noting that it is painted as it appears in the morning, just after sunrise, two or three days after the full moon, chosen by Jan, he concludes, as this was the precise phase of the moon at the time of the Crucifixion, just before Easter.

    Helmut Nickel. "The Sun, the Moon, and an Eclipse: Observations on 'The Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saint John,' by Hendrick Ter Brugghen." Metropolitan Museum Journal 42 (2007), p. 123, fig. 2.

    Michael Rohlmann. "The Annunciation by Joos Ammann in Genoa: Context, Function and Metapictorial Quality." Cultural Exchange Between the Low Countries and Italy (1400–1600). Turnhout, Belgium, 2007, p. 25.

    Till-Holger Borchert. Jan van Eyck. Cologne, 2008, pp. 86, 89, ill. p. 87 (color), dates it about 1440 and calls it "a late composition upon which the workshop probably collaborated and which may in turn have taken up earlier versions of the subject by the master".

    Colin Eisler. "Lettre de Colin Eisler à propos de l'article de Renzo Leonardi, 'Jan van Eyck, les Alpes et la lune' . . ." Revue de l'art no. 161 (2008), p. 75.

    Dan Ewing. "Addendum à Jan van Eyck, les Alpes et la lune." Revue de l'art no. 160 (2008), pp. 82–83, juxtaposes the contributions of Montgomery [Ref. 1994] and Leonardi [Ref. 2007] in their discussions of Van Eyck's observation of the moon in the Crucifixion.

    Renzo Leonardi. "Réponse de Renzo Leonardi aux réflexions de Colin Eisler sur l'article 'Jan van Eyck, les Alpes et la lune'." Revue de l'art no. 161 (2008), pp. 75–76.

    Renzo Leonardi. "Commentaire à l' 'Addendum à Jan van Eyck, les Alpes et la lune'." Revue de l'art no. 161 (2008), pp. 77–79 nn. 6–8, comments on Montgomery's [see Refs. 1994 and 1999] contradictory assessment of the time of day indicated in the Crucifixion based on the appearance of the moon; points out that in European latitudes the gibbous moon with its right side in shadow—as is the case here—must indicate a morning hour.

    Mauro Lucco in Giovanni Bellini. Exh. cat., Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome. Cinisello Balsamo, Milan, 2008, p. 182.

    Emanuele Lugli. "Connoisseurship as a System: Reflections on Federico Zeri's 'Due dipinti, la filologia e un nome'." Word & Image 24 (April–June 2008), pp. 166, 174 n. 36, fig. 6 (Crucifixion).

    Dominique Thiébaut in Mantegna, 1431–1506. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 2008, pp. 172–73.

    Till-Holger Borchert in Van Eyck to Dürer: Early Netherlandish Painting & Central Europe, 1430–1530. Exh. cat., Groeningemuseum, Bruges. Tielt, Belgium, 2010, pp. 130, 158, 458.

    Stephan Kemperdick in Van Eyck to Dürer: Early Netherlandish Painting & Central Europe, 1430–1530. Exh. cat., Groeningemuseum, Bruges. Tielt, Belgium, 2010, p. 289.

    Renzo Leonardi. "Commentaire à l' 'Addendum à Jan van Eyck, les Alpes et la lune'." Revue de l'art no. 168 (2010), pp. 77–79 nn. 6–8, reprints Ref. Leonardi 2008 with correction of textual errors.

    Jacques Paviot. "La 'Crucifixion' et le 'Jugement dernier' attribués à Jan van Eyck (Diptyque de New York)." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 73, no. 2 (2010), pp. 145–68, figs. 1–3.

    Zsuzsa (Susan) Urbach in Van Eyck to Dürer: Early Netherlandish Painting & Central Europe, 1430–1530. Exh. cat., Groeningemuseum, Bruges. Tielt, Belgium, 2010, p. 197.

    Luc Dequeker. Het Mysterie van het "Lam Gods": Filips de Goede en de Rechtvaardige Rechters van Van Eyck. Louvain, 2011, p. 93.

  • Notes

    Inscribed in Russian on back of canvas: Transferred from wood 1867. A. Sidoroff; 3559.

    A free copy by Petrus Christus of the Last Judgment panel is in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It is dated 1452.

  • See also