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Portrait of a Young Man

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano) (Italian, Monticelli 1503–1572 Florence)

Date:
1530s
Medium:
Oil on wood
Dimensions:
37 5/8 x 29 1/2 in. (95.6 x 74.9 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
29.100.16
  • Gallery Label

    This portrait—among Bronzino's most arresting—was painted in the 1530s. The sitter is not known, but he must have belonged to Bronzino's close circle of literary friends in Florence, a number of whom sat for the artist. Bronzino himself composed verses in the style of the great Florentine poet Petrarch (1304–74), and the fanciful and witty details in this picture—the carved grotesque heads on the table and chair and the masklike face suggested in the folds of the youth's breeches—would have been appreciated by writers as comments on masks and identity. The book is doubtless a collection of poems. For a technical study of the changes Bronzino made to the painting as he worked see metmuseum.org/collections.

  • Catalogue Entry

    This arresting portrait of an unidentified young Florentine is dated by most scholars to the 1530s. During that decade Bronzino was often engaged in painting members of a close-knit circle of acquaintances with whom he shared literary interests, and this sitter—who so conspicuously holds open a book—may be from among that group. Vasari mentions the names of several of these sitters early in his biography of the artist and it has recently been suggested that this panel may portray Bonaccorso di Pietro Pinadori (born 1502), mentioned by the author alongside Ugolino Martelli and Lorenzo Lenzi, both of whose portraits have been identified (an earlier hypothesis that the picture is a self-portrait has not been taken up in the literature).

    The elegant young man wears a black satin doublet, with fashionably slashed sleeves, over a white camicia with a ruffled collar, and with a brilliant blue belt. Both his hat and the ties supporting his codpiece are decorated with gold aglets, and he wears one ring. He stands between an elaborately decorated table and chair within an architectural setting meant to suggest a Florentine palace. Both pieces of furniture include grotesque masks; that of the remarkable table is stretched as if made of fabric rather than stone. A third "mask" is suggested in an insistent pattern resembling a face within the drapery of the lower part of the costume. The meaning of these grotesque masks is debated; it may be that they are in some way analogous to poetic ideas of the time and refer to identity as a kind of mask. Bronzino was himself a poet. It is clear that they are meant to provide a contrast to the sitter's refined facial features and bearing.

    [2010]

  • Technical Notes

    The numerous and important changes made by the artist as he painted were documented in x-radiographs as early as 1930. These have been clarified, and Bronzino's artistic process further elucidated, through new x-radiography and infrared reflectography of 2009 revealing underdrawing [see Images]. Most conspicuously, the architectural setting was transformed: initially a straight molding ran at a diagonal behind the sitter (the underdrawing includes a corbel below that visible now at the left to coincide with this first idea for the setting). Two types of underdrawing have been revealed. The more unusual was done, probably with the butt end of a brush, directly into the panel's thick white imprimitura, or preparation layer. It was used vigorously to describe the draped grotesque mask at the left, outlining contours but also indicating shadows with diagonal hatching. Many of the artist's original compositional ideas are indicated in this type of drawing (these can be seen as well in the x-radiograph): they include the first position of the proper right hand and book, with the hand in stricter profile and the book shown with its spine facing the viewer and covers splayed; the placement of the proper left hand with the thumb tucked behind the waist; different contours of the sleeves, collar, and cuffs of the costume; and an elaboration in the area of the codpiece, into which an article of clothing—almost certainly gloves—was originally tucked. More traditional underdrawing in black chalk or charcoal and carbon-based ink or paint applied with a brush is found throughout the head and the hands. As seen in the x-radiograph as well, drawing of the head shows its initial shape to have been much narrower but with the features identically placed (dispelling the possibility that the final version is of a second sitter). The x-radiograph also indicates changes in the furniture at right that are not easily decipherable. Because of the extent of these changes, it has sometimes been speculated that the painting was begun at one time and then finished later—perhaps years later.

    [Charlotte Hale 2010]

  • Provenance

    Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino, Rome (by 1808–16; his sale, Stanley, London, May 14–16, 1816, no. 163, as "A Florentine Gentleman," by Sebastiano del Piombo); [Charles J. Nieuwenhuys, London, from 1816]; James Alexandre, comte de Pourtalès-Gorgier, Paris (by 1841–65; cat., 1841, no. 49, as by "Sebastiano del Piombo, or, more likely, Andrea del Sarto"; sale, Paris, March 27–April 1, 1865, no. 114, as the figure of a young man believed to be a Duke of Urbino, by Sebastiano del Piombo); baron Achille Seillière, Paris and Château de Mello (1865–d. 1873); Jeanne Marguérite Seillière, princesse de Sagan, later duchesse de Talleyrand-Périgord, Paris (from 1873); M. Bourdariat, Paris (until 1898; sold for Fr 140,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris and New York, 1898; sold for $40,000 to Havemeyer]; Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York (1898–his d. 1907); Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1907–d. 1929)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. Palais de la Présidence du Corps Législatif. "Ouvrages de peinture exposés au profit de la colonisation de l'Algérie par les Alsaciens-Lorrains," April 23, 1874, no. 19 (lent by the princesse de Sagan).

    New York. M. Knoedler & Co.. "Loan Exhibition of Masterpieces by Old and Modern Painters," April 6–24, 1915, no. 1 (as "Portrait of the Duke of Urbino," lent anonymously).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H. O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10–November 2, 1930, no. 1 [2nd ed., 1958, no. 184, ill.].

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Art Treasures of the Metropolitan," November 7, 1952–September 7, 1953, no. 108.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 20).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 214.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Florentine Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum," June 15–August 15, 1971, no catalogue.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection," March 27–June 20, 1993, no. A45.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Drawings of Bronzino," January 20–April 18, 2010, no cat. number.

    Florence. Palazzo Strozzi. "Bronzino: Artist and Poet at the Court of the Medici," September 24, 2010–January 23, 2011, no. V.4 (as "Portrait of a Young Man with a Book").

  • References

    Abate Guattani. Galleria del Senatore Luciano Bonaparte, Roma. 1808, vol. 1, p. 73, no. 40 [see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1971], calls this picture a Portrait of a Young Duke of Urbino by Sebastiano del Piombo.

    Choix de gravures à l'eau forte, d'après les peintures originales et les marbres de la galerie de Lucien Bonaparte. London, 1812, unpaginated, engraving marked stanza IV, no. 37, reproduces the engraving by Fontana as a duke of Urbino by Sebastiano del Piombo.

    W[illiam]. Buchanan. Memoirs of Painting, with a Chronological History of the Importation of Pictures by the Great Masters into England since the French Revolution. London, 1824, vol. 2, pp. 270–71, no. 25. p. 289, no. 30, calls it a portrait of a Florentine gentleman by Sebastiano del Piombo.

    Émile Galichon. "La Galerie Pourtalès." Gazette des beaux-arts 18 (January 1865), pp. 10–11, ill. opp. p. 6 (engraving by Deveaux), attributes it to Bronzino.

    Bernhard Berenson. The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance. 3rd ed. New York, 1909, p. 123, as "Youth in Black".

    William Bode. "More Spurious Pictures Abroad Than in America." New York Times (December 31, 1911), p. SM4.

    Hanns Schulze. Die Werke Angelo Bronzinos. Strasbourg, 1911, pp. 8, XXVI, pl. VIII, calls it a portrait of an unidentified young man by Bronzino in the Sagan collection, Paris, and dates it about 1535–40.

    Mario Tinti. Bronzino. Florence, 1920, pl. 28, attributes it to Bronzino.

    Hermann Voss. Die Malerei der Spätrenaissance in Rom und Florenz. Berlin, 1920, vol. 1, p. 230, attributes it to Bronzino.

    Jean Alazard. Le portrait florentin de Botticelli à Bronzino. Paris, 1924, pp. 233–34, attributes it to Bronzino, dates it slightly later than the portrait of Ugolino Martelli, which he dates about 1535 or 1536, and calls it a young nobleman.

    Arthur McComb. Agnolo Bronzino, His Life and Works. Cambridge, Mass., 1928, pp. 8, 73, pl. 9, calls it a portrait of an unidentified young man by Bronzino and dates it about 1535–40.

    Alan Burroughs. "Bronzino X-rayed." Creative Art 7 (September 1930), pp. 222–24, ill. (overall and x-ray details), discusses changes in the composition revealed by x-rays.

    Georg Gronau. Letter to Bryson Burroughs. June 5, 1930, attributes it to Bronzino and considers it the portrait of a Florentine nobleman, not the Duke of Urbino.

    H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, pp. 4–5, ill.

    Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 115, lists it as a "Youth with hand on Book" by Bronzino.

    Lionello Venturi. "Sixteenth to Eighteenth Century." Italian Paintings in America. 3, New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 462.

    Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 100.

    Alan Burroughs. Art Criticism from a Laboratory. Boston, 1938, pp. 89–92, fig. 22.

    Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 68–69, ill.

    Luisa Becherucci. Manieristi toscani. Bergamo, 1944, p. 44, fig. 123, dates it to about the time of the portrait of Ugolino Martelli in the Berlin Museum, that is, about 1537–38.

    Richard C. Jebb. "The Classical Renaissance." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 5 (November 1946), ill. p. 76.

    Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 5 (Summer 1946), ill. on cover (color detail).

    Millia Davenport. The Book of Costume. New York, 1948, vol. 2, p. 499, no. 1334, ill. (cropped).

    A. Hyatt Mayor. "Change and Permanence in Men's Clothes." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 8 (May 1950), ill. p. 264.

    Art Treasures of the Metropolitan: A Selection from the European and Asiatic Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1952, p. 228, no. 108, colorpl. 108, says that this portrait may be the Duke of Urbino, possibly Guidobaldo II.

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), ill. p. 20.

    Craig Hugh Smyth. "Bronzino Studies." PhD diss., Princeton University, 1955, pp. 117–125, 127, 128, 222, 278, figs. 40, 42 (overall and detail), suggests that it may be a self-portrait, begun perhaps in 1530 and reworked about 1531–32.

    Andrea Emiliani. Il Bronzino. Busto Arsizio, 1960, unpaginated, colorpl. 21, opp. pl. 72, does not consider it to depict Guidobaldo II, the Duke of Urbino, and dates it between 1535 and 1540.

    Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, pp. 20, 111.

    Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School. London, 1963, vol. 1, p. 43.

    Kurt W. Forster. "Probleme um Pontormos Porträtmalerei (I)." Pantheon 22 (November–December 1964), p. 380, fig. 6, dates it about 1545.

    Arthur Linksz. An Ophthalmologist Looks at Art and Artists. Malta, 1965, p. 11, fig. 7 [reprinted from "Proceedings of the American-Hungarian Medical Association," vol. 1, 1965].

    Robert Rosenblum. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. New York, 1967, p. 36, fig. 49, names Bronzino's portrait as a source of inspiration for Ingres's portraits of French aristocrats.

    Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, p. 208 [rev., enl. ed., 1989].

    Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Florentine School. New York, 1971, pp. 201–2, ill. on cover (color) and p. 202, mention an engraving of this portrait by Piero Fontana published in 1812 bearing the title A Duke of Urbino by Sebastiano del Piombo [see Ref. Choix de gravures 1812]; call it however surely by Bronzino and does not resemble authenticated portraits of the Duke of Urbino; say it was certainly painted in Florence, possibly in the late 1530s and reflects the restoration of the aristocracy in Florence after the fall of the republic.

    Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 36, 525, 607.

    Edi Baccheschi. L'opera completa del Bronzino. Milan, 1973, p. 89, no. 25, ill. p. 89 and colorpl. XII.

    Paul Barolsky. Infinite Jest: Wit and Humor in Italian Renaissance Art. Columbia, Mo., 1978, pp. 141–143, fig. 6-1, discusses the witty and ironic juxtapositioning of the serious, aloof sitter with the bizarre carved grotesque heads on the furniture; relates this irony to topics in contemporary literature.

    David Robertson. Sir Charles Eastlake and the Victorian Art World. Princeton, 1978, p. 227, fig. 108.

    Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 256–57, 266, fig. 478 (color).

    Charles McCorquodale. Bronzino. New York, 1981, pp. 23, 25–27, colorpl. 16 and frontispiece (detail), agrees with Smyth that this painting is a self-portrait and compares the pose of the sitter with Pontormo's Portrait of a Halberdier (J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles).

    Janet Cox-Rearick. "Bronzino's 'Young Woman with her Little Boy'." Studies in the History of Art 12 (1982), pp. 67, 70, 78 nn. 2, 3, 5, 6, figs. 4–7 (overall, and x-rays, overall and details), calls it the most prominent example of a portrait by Bronzino altered during the course of execution; states that it was inspired by Pontormo's Halberdier (J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles) and suggests that the source for the reworked hand was Pontormo's portrait of Niccolò Ardinghelli (also identified as Monsignor della Casa; National Gallery of Art, Washington; 1961.9.83); suggests that the painting was begun in the early 1530s, but worked over again at a later date, perhaps about 1540–45.

    Keith Christiansen. "Caravaggio and 'L'esempio davanti del naturale'." Art Bulletin 68 (September 1986), p. 426, fig. 7 (x-ray detail), observes that Bronzino has used a "blunt instrument, probably the butt of the brush, to sketch lightly into the damp preparation passages" of this portrait.

    Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 176, 254.

    Luciano Berti. "L''Alabardiere' del Pontormo." Critica d'arte 55 (June–September 1990), p. 47, fig. 16, compares the painting to the Halberdier by Pontormo.

    Alessandro Cecchi. "Il Bronzino, Benedetto Varchi e l'accademia fiorentina: ritratti di poeti, letterati e personaggi illustri della corte medicea." Antichità viva 30, nos. 1–2 (1991), p. 19, suggests that, although unidentified up to now, this sitter was probably one of Bronzino's literary friends.

    Michel de Grèce. Portrait et séduction. [Paris], 1992, pp. 200–201, ill. in color (overall and detail).

    Ann Tzeutschler Lurie. "Heemskerck's portrait of Machtelt Suijs at The Cleveland Museum of Art." Burlington Magazine 134 (November 1992), p. 704, compares the carved grotesque masks in this portrait with those on the chair in Bronzino's portrait of Lucrezia Panciatichi (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence).

    Keith Christiansen in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 56–57, colorpl. 58.

    Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. 3rd ed. [1st ed. 1930, repr. 1961]. New York, 1993, pp. 20, 111, 301, 310 n. 38, p. 321 n. 161.

    Rebecca A. Rabinow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 91, 95.

    Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 223.

    Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 297, no. A45, ill.

    Alain Laframboise. "Les portraits emblématiques de Bronzino, aux marges des pratiques symboliques consacrées dans les arts visuels." Analecta Husserliana 44 (1995), pp. 314–15, discusses the concept of "paragone" (comparison between the arts) in relation to the juxtaposition of the painted likeness of the sitter and the carved faces on the furniture in the painting, and the concept of masking as an emblem of illusion.

    Georges Vigne. Ingres. New York, 1995, p. 183.

    Alessandro Cecchi. Bronzino. New York, 1996, p. 21.

    Janet Cox-Rearick in The Dictionary of Art. 4, New York, 1996, p. 856, cites it as a mature example of Bronzino's maniera portraits from the mid-sixteenth century.

    Elizabeth Cropper in L'officina della maniera: Varietà e fierezza nell'arte fiorentina del Cinquecento fra le due repubbliche 1494–1530. Exh. cat., Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Venice, 1996, p. 380, under no. 142, compares the architecture in this painting, especially as originally conceived and revealed in x-rays, to that in a portrait attributed to Pontormo (Barbara Piasecka Johnson collection) and believes the latter was a model for the MMA picture.

    Elizabeth Cropper. "Pontormo's 'Halberdier'." Center: Record of Activities and Research Reports no. 16 (1996), p. 78, ill. p. 76 (gallery installation with Pontormo's "Halberdier").

    Alain Laframboise. "Entre Galatée et Andromède, Méduse." Andromède ou le héros à l'épreuve de la beauté. Paris, 1996, pp. 33–34, fig. 15.

    Eliot W. Rowlands. The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: Italian Paintings, 1300–1800. Kansas City, Mo., 1996, pp. 179, 186–87.

    Elizabeth Cropper. Pontormo: Portrait of a Halberdier. Los Angeles, 1997, pp. 100, 104–6, 120, nn. 146–47, p. 121, nn. 154–55, figs. 51 (color), 53 (x-radiograph), discusses the complicated relationship between this painting and Pontormo's portrait of a halberdier, arguing that Pontormo's portrait was the model for Bronzino's.

    Hermann Voss. "From the High Renaissance to Mannerism, 1520–1570." Painting of the Late Renaissance in Rome and Florence. 1, rev. ed. San Francisco, 1997, p. 190.

    Jonathan Brown in Velázquez, Rubens y Van Dyck: Pintores cortesanos del siglo XVII. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, [1999], p. 164, under no. 17.

    Philip Conisbee in Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1999, p.124, n. 11.

    Jean Habert. "Le portrait de Melchior von Brauweiler par Calcar (vers 1510–vers 1546): Les leçons d'une restauration." Revue des musées de France: Revue du Louvre no. 3 (1999), p. 78, fig. 18, notes that the pose of the figure in this picture prefigures almost exactly that of Melchior von Brauweiler in Calcar's portrait in the Louvre.

    Marcia B. Hall. After Raphael: Painting in Central Italy in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, 1999, p. 216, agrees with Smyth's dating of about 1529–30.

    Christopher Riopelle in Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1999, p. 252.

    Andrew Carrington Shelton in Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1999, pp. 298–299 n. 17, fig. 174.

    Deborah Parker. Bronzino: Renaissance Painter as Poet. Cambridge, 2000, pp. 159, 217 n. 31, fig. 28.

    Elizabeth Cropper in Virtue and Beauty: Leonardo's "Ginevra de' Benci" and Renaissance Portraits of Women. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2001, pp. 221, 228 n. 8, ill.

    Elizabeth Cropper. "Preparing to Finish: Portraits by Pontormo and Bronzino around 1530." Opere e giorni: studi su mille anni di arte europea dedicati a Max Seidel. Venice, 2001, pp. 499–501, 503–4 nn. 13, 14, 23, 25, figs. 1 (gallery installation with Pontormo's "Halberdier"), 2 (x-ray with overlay tracing of Pontormo's "Halberdier"), suggests that the sitter may be Bonaccorso Pinadori (born 1502), mentioned by Vasari as having been painted by Bronzino.

    Impressionist & Modern Art. Phillips, New York. May 7, 2001, p. 132, fig. 1.

    Maurice Brock. Bronzino. Paris, 2002, pp. 110–12, 114, 116, 124, 130, 132, 142, ill. opp. pp. 116 and 130 (color, overall and detail), suggests that the pose of the sitter is an "assemblage" of elements from Michelangelo's Giuliano de' Medici (New Sacristy chapel of San Lorenzo, Florence) and Pontormo's Halberdier.

    Philippe Costamagna. "De l'idéal de beauté aux problèmes d'attribution. Vingt ans de recerche sur le portrait florentin au XVIe siècle." Studiolo: Revue de l'Académie de France à Rome 1 (2002), p. 207.

    Maurizia Tazartes. Bronzino. Milan, 2003, p. 25–26, 106–107, ill. (color), dates it 1536–39.

    Elizabeth Cropper in Pontormo, Bronzino, and the Medici: The Transformation of the Renaissance Portrait in Florence. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2004, pp. 24–25, fig. 18.

    Carl Brandon Strehlke in Pontormo, Bronzino, and the Medici: The Transformation of the Renaissance Portrait in Florence. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2004, p. 92, n. 2, cites it as evidence for the influence of Pontormo's "Portrait of a Halberdier"; dates it to the autumn of 1530 or after 1532.

    Philippe Costamagna. "Nouvelles considérations sur un 'Portrait d'homme' de Pontormo." Paragone, 3rd ser., 56 (January 2005), p. 70, compares it with Pontormo's portrait of Giovanni Della Casa (National Gallery of Art, Washington).

    Laurent Langer. "Les tableaux italiens de James-Alexandre comte de Pourtalès-Gorgier." Le goût pour la peinture italienne autour de 1800, prédécesseurs, modèles et concurrents du cardinal Fesch. Ajaccio, 2006, pp. 269–70, calls it one of seven Italian pictures from the collection of the comte de Pourtalès-Gorgier that were formerly owned by Lucien Bonaparte.

    Carmen C. Bambach et al. in Bronzino: Artist and Poet at the Court of the Medici. Exh. cat., Palazzo Strozzi. Florence, 2010, pp. 200, 230, 246, 258, 262, no. V.4, ill. p. 263 (color), figs. 66 (color detail), 98 (IRR detail).

    Carmen C. Bambach in The Drawings of Bronzino. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2010, pp. 47, 49 n. 99, figs. 8, 9 (infrared reflectogram, overall and detail), colorpl. 14, dates it about 1534–38; discusses the results of recent infrared reflectography examination.

    Philippe Costamagna in The Drawings of Bronzino. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2010, p. 59.

    Elizabeth Pilliod in The Drawings of Bronzino. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2010, pp. 6–7.

    Renaissance. Christie's, New York. January 29, 2014, p. 191, fig. 3 (color), under no. 166.



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